California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
O'Shaughnessy Dam (California)
OShaughnessy Dam is a 430-foot high concrete arch-gravity dam in Tuolumne County, California, in the United States. It impounds the Tuolumne River, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir at the end of Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park. The dam and reservoir are the source for the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, the dam is named for engineer Michael OShaughnessy, who oversaw its construction. An act of Congress was required to circumvent federal protection of the Tuolumne River, Construction of the dam started in 1919 and was finished in 1923, with the first water delivered in 1934 after numerous delays. From 1935–38 the dam was raised to increase its capacity for water supply, the dam and appurtenant hydroelectric systems are collectively known as the Hetch Hetchy Project. Deriving from a wild and pristine area of the Sierra Nevada. Hetch Hetchy represented the first great environmental controversy in the US, preservationist groups such as the Sierra Club lobby for the restoration of the valley, while others argue that leaving the dam in place would be the better economic and environmental decision.
In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, the city looked east to the Sierra Nevada, where snowmelt fed the headwaters for many of Californias largest rivers. In 1900, a United States Geological Survey report described the Tuolumne River as the best source of water for San Francisco. Although Phelan managed to secure rights for the Tuolumne River in 1901. But when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fire razed the city, at the time, Hetch Hetchy was an isolated, seldom visited subalpine valley, visited intermittently by gold seekers and sheepherders. Even though the valley was not well known to the public, organizations such as the Sierra Club treasured it for its spectacular beauty. Led by naturalist and mountaineer John Muir, the Sierra Club adamantly opposed the city of San Francisco as it sought permission from the government to build a dam in the valley. In 1908 Secretary of the Interior James R. S, though highly controversial, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of 43 for and 25 against.
The consensus was that since Hetch Hetchy lay on public land, the Sierra Club and other groups were outraged by the federal governments permission for development at Hetch Hetchy. However, on December 24,1914, with construction on the dam barely underway, Muir died, Muir had said – As well dam for water tanks the peoples cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has been consecrated by the heart of man. S. Army Corps of Engineers reported in 1913 as a better and cheaper source than Hetch Hetchy, by this point, San Francisco had become obsessed with developing Hetch Hetchy, and dismissed or discarded other rivers and valleys that would have served them better. As if it was created for their purpose, work on the Hetch Hetchy project began in early 1914 shortly after the passage of the Raker Act
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his years in Augusta and Columbia. In 1910, he was the New Jersey Democratic Partys gubernatorial candidate and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, while in office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress that was now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, through passage of the Adamson Act that imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms, Wilsons second term was dominated by American entry into World War I.
In April 1917, when Germany had resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sent the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without a formal alliance. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, loaning billions of dollars to Britain and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. On the home front, he raised taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the publics purchase of Liberty Bonds. In his 1915 State of the Union Address, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917, the crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who implemented racial segregation at the Treasury, Navy and he gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty.
The treaty was met with concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power, forming a strategy for re-election, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. Wilson was a devoted Presbyterian and Georgist, and he infused his views of morality into his domestic and he appointed several well known radically progressive single taxers to prominent positions in his administration. His ideology of internationalism is now referred to as Wilsonian, an activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy and he was the third of four children of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow. Wilsons paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone and his mother was born in Carlisle, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow from Paisley and Marion Williamson from Glasgow
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
John E. Raker
John Edward Raker was a Democratic Party Congressional representative for California. He was usually known as John E. Raker and he was born near Knoxville, Knox County, Illinois, on February 22,1863 and moved with his parents to Lassen County, California, in 1873. After attending public school and the State normal school at San Jose from 1882–1884 and he was admitted to the bar in 1885 and began practising law in Susanville. On December 6,1886 he moved to Alturas and he was District Attorney of Modoc County from 1895–1899, Judge of the Superior Court of Modoc County from January 5,1903, to December 19,1910, when he resigned. He married Iva G. Spencer on November 21,1889, in 1898 he stood as a candidate for the California state senate, and was a superior court judge in California, from 1905 until 1910. Raker was chairman of the Democratic State central committee from 1908-1910 and he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Denver in 1908. Elected as a Democrat to the sixty-second United States Congress in 1911 and he represented the 1st District from 1911–13, and the 2nd District from 1913-26.
In 1911, he tried unsuccessfully to introduce legislation for the creation of the Redwood National and State Parks. In stark contrast, in the session he was the main sponsor of what came to be known the Raker Act, passed in 1913. The Act authorized the damming of the Tuolumne River and the flooding of the Hetch Hetchy Valley, in the sixty-fifth Congress, he held the office of Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Justice, and the Committee on Woman Suffrage. He was a member of the Freemasons and the Odd Fellows and he is buried at Susanville Cemetery, California. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, political Graveyard entry John E. Raker at Find a Grave
Donald P. Hodel
He was known during his tenure as Secretary of the Interior for his controversial Hodel Policy, which stated that disused dirt roads and footpaths could be considered right-of-ways under RS2477. He was born in Portland, the son of Philip E. Hodel and he married in 1957 the former Barbara Beecher Stockman, who was born in Pittsburgh and attended Wellesley College in Massachusetts. She married Donald P. Hodel during her senior year and they moved to Oregon after graduation and Hodel earned his J. D. at the University of Virginia. While living in Oregon and Barbara Hodel had two sons and David, mrs. Hodel was to become a full-time mother. Following the suicide of their oldest son, the Hodels became evangelical Christians and they became active in church and other Christian ministries and began speaking at evangelical meetings and prayer breakfasts. From 1972 to 1977 Hodel was the administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration, Hodel served as United States Secretary of Energy from 1982 to 1985, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1985 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan.
He had been Undersecretary of the Interior under James Watt, critics disrupted his efforts to impose a new management policy on a large amount of federal land and blocked his efforts to create vast new wilderness areas. In spite of the criticisms, the Reagan Administration Secretaries added over two acres to the national wilderness system. The Hodel policy was continued under Manuel Lujan Jr. in the Bush Administration and it was finally rescinded in 1997 by Secretary Bruce Babbitt. We did not and do not have to choose them, as some have contended. Dianne Feinstein, former mayor of San Francisco, which owns the dam, in March 1984, the Navajo Nation requested for the Secretary of the Interior, William Clark, to make a reasonable adjustment of the coal lease royalty rate paid by Peabody Coal, now Peabody Energy. In July 1985, newly appointed Hodel secretly met ex parte with Peabody’s representative, Hodel moved to Colorado where he engaged in the energy consulting business, and served on various charitable and corporate boards of directors.
He is the author of Crisis in the Oil Patch, from June 1997 to February 1999, Hodel served as President of the Christian Coalition, a nonprofit conservative political group founded by religious broadcaster Pat Robertson. From May 2003 to March 2005, Hodel served as President and CEO of Focus on the Family and he had stated that his job was to manage the transition from the founder, Dr. James Dobson, to his ultimate successor. Hodel had, several years prior to being named President, served on its board, Hodel was Chairman of the company FreeEats. com/ccAdvertising, which has disseminated push polls for the Economic Freedom Fund. As Secretary of the Interior, in 1985, Hodel ordered the acquisition of a ranch in southern Arizona which would become the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge. Encompassing approximately 118,000 acres of grassland in the Altar Valley. A Seattle-based developer of wind and gas-fired power plants, in 1989, Hodel was the founder and managing director of Summit Power Group’s predecessor company
James Rudolph Garfield
James Rudolph Garfield was an American politician and son of President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. He was Secretary of the Interior during Theodore Roosevelts administration, Garfield was born in Hiram, the third of seven children born to James Abram and Lucretia Rudolph Garfield. For a year prior to his fathers presidency, he studied at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire. On July 2,1881, at the age of 15, he witnessed the shooting of his father by disgruntled office-seeker Charles J. Guiteau at the Baltimore and Potomac railroad station in Washington. The President and his son were waiting for an en route to Williams College in Williamstown, where young James had been recently accepted. Following his fathers death on September 19,1881, he studied at Williams College, graduating in 1885, before moving on to Columbia Law School where he studied law and earned his J. D. in 1888. That same year, he was admitted to the Ohio bar and established the Cleveland, Ohio-based law firm of Garfield and Garfield, from 1890 until her death in 1930, he was married to Helen Newell.
From 1896 to 1899, he served in the Ohio State Senate and he was an influential advisor to President Theodore Roosevelt, serving as a Member of the United States Civil Service Commission from 1902 to 1903. From 1903 to 1907, he served as Commissioner of Corporations at the Department of Commerce and Labor, where he conducted investigations of the meat-packing, petroleum and railroad industries. From 1907 to 1909, he served in Roosevelts Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior and he left this post on March 4,1909, and returned to his law practice in Cleveland. During the 1912 presidential election, he was a key supporter of Roosevelts bid for a third term, in 1914, he made an unsuccessful bid for Governor of Ohio on the Progressive Party ticket. Roosevelt selected Garfield as one of eighteen officers to raise an infantry division, Roosevelts World War I volunteers. The U. S. Garfield died in Cleveland, Ohio on March 24,1950 and he had survived his father by almost 69 years. He was interred in Mentor Municipal Cemetery in Mentor, Ohio beside his wife Helen, encyclopedia.
com article James Rudolph Garfield at Find a Grave Garfield, James Rudolph
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company is an investor-owned electric utility with publicly traded stock that is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco. PG&E provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, PG&E is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission. It is the subsidiary of the holding company PG&E Corporation which has a market capitalization of $29.37 billion. It was founded by George H. Roe during the period after Californias Gold Rush, PG&E is one of three regulated, investor-owned utilities s in California—the other two being Southern California Edison and Sempra Energys San Diego Gas & Electric. In the 1850s, manufactured gas was introduced in the United States as a means of lighting, gasworks were built in the larger eastern American cities, but there was no gas industry in the West, however. In San Francisco, street lighting was available only on Merchant Street, Joseph G. Eastland, an engineer and clerk at the foundry, joined them in gathering as much information on gas making as they could find.
The council specified that gas should be supplied to households at such rates as will make it to their interest to use it in preference to any other material. The Donahue brothers and Eastland incorporated the San Francisco Gas Company on August 31,1852, the company became the first gas utility in the West. Its official seal bore the inscription Fiat Lux—let there be light—the same slogan adopted by the University of California, there were 11 original stockholders, and the three Donahue brothers subscribed for 610 of the 1,500 shares. The original location for the gas works was bounded by First, Fremont and Natoma streets south of Market, work on the plant started in November,1852, and it was ready for operation only a few months later. On the night of February 11,1854, the streets of San Francisco were for the first time lighted by gas, to celebrate the event, the company held a gala banquet at the Oriental Hotel. Gas lighting quickly gained public favor, in the first year of operation, there were 237 customers.
That number more than doubled the year, to 563. By the end of 1855, the company had more than 6 ½ miles of pipe and 154 street lamps were in operation. The growing popularity of gas light led to the establishment of competing gas companies, including Aubin Patent Gas Company and these smaller companies were quickly acquired by the San Francisco Gas Company. However, one rival provided serious competition, the City Gas Company was founded in April 1870 by the Bank of California to compete with the gas monopoly held by the Donahue brothers operation. City Gas began operation in 1872 and initiated a war with the San Francisco Gas Company. In 1873, the companies negotiated their consolidation as a compromise, on April 1,1873, the San Francisco Gas Light Company was formed, representing a merger of the San Francisco Gas Company, the City Gas Company, and the Metropolitan Gas Company
Hetch Hetchy is the name of a valley, a reservoir and a water system in California in the United States. The glacial Hetch Hetchy Valley lies in the part of Yosemite National Park and is drained by the Tuolumne River. For thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans in the 1850s, in 1923, the OShaughnessy Dam was completed on the Tuolumne River, flooding the entire valley under the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The valley floor consisted of roughly 1,200 acres of meadows fringed by pine forest, through which meandered the Tuolumne River, Kolana Rock, at 5,772 ft, is a massive rock spire on the south side of the Hetch Hetchy Valley. Hetch Hetchy Dome, at 6,197 ft, lies north of it. The locations of two formations roughly correspond with those of Cathedral Rocks and El Capitan seen from Tunnel View in Yosemite Valley. A broad, low rocky outcrop situated between Kolana Rock and Hetch Hetchy Dome divided the former meadow in two distinct sections. The valley is fed by the Tuolumne River, Falls Creek, Tiltill Creek, Rancheria Creek, the entire valley is now flooded under an average 300 ft of water behind the dam, although it occasionally reemerges in droughts, as it did in 1955,1977 and 1991.
Upstream from the lies the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. The Hetch Hetchy Road drops into the valley at the dam, but all points east of there are roadless, the OShaughnessy Dam is near Yosemites western boundary, but the long, fingerlike reservoir stretches eastward for about 8 miles. Wapama Falls, at 1,700 ft, and Tueeulala Falls, Rancheria Falls is located farther southeast, on Rancheria Creek. Formerly, a small but noisy waterfall and natural pool existed on the Tuolumne River marked the entrance to Hetch Hetchy Valley. The waterfall on the Tuolumne is now submerged under Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the Hetch Hetchy Valley began as a V-shaped river canyon cut out by the ancestral Tuolumne River. When the glacier retreated for the time, sediment-laden meltwater deposited thick layers of silt. Compared with Yosemite Valley, the walls of Hetch Hetchy are smoother and rounder because it was glaciated to a greater extent. This is because the Tuolumne catchment basin above Hetch Hetchy is almost three times as large as the catchment area of the Merced River above Yosemite, allowing a greater volume of ice to form, Hetch Hetchy is home to a diverse array of plants and animals.
Gray pine, incense-cedar, and California black oak grow in abundance, many examples of red-barked manzanita can be seen along the Hetch Hetchy Road. Spring and early summer bring wildflowers including lupine, monkey flower, seventeen species of bats inhabit the Hetch Hetchy area, including the largest North American bat, the western mastiff
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province. The vast majority of the lies in the state of California. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles across east-to-west, the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, and two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks, the character of the range is shaped by its geology and ecology. More than one hundred years ago during the Nevadan orogeny. The range started to uplift four M. A. ago, the uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra. The Sierra Nevada has a significant history, the California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855.
Due to inaccessibility, the range was not fully explored until 1912, the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a very small but historically important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevadas elevation increases gradually from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to an height of about 10,500 feet at its crest only 50–75 miles to the east. The east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment, unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift. The Sierra Nevada stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass in the north to Tehachapi Pass in the south and it is bounded on the west by Californias Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province. The geographical boundary between the Sierra and the Cascades is virtually indistinguishable, with the Fredonyer Pass designation being traditional, physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.
The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, the northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, and the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River. The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower, its rivers flow out into the endorheic Great Basin of eastern California and western Nevada. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California, the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases gradually from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet. The crest near Lake Tahoe is roughly 9,000 feet high, farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures