Renault 8 and 10
The Renault 8 and Renault 10 are two rear-engined, rear-wheel drive small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault in the 1960s and early 1970s. The 8 was launched in 1962, the 10, a more upmarket version of the 8, was launched in 1965; the Renault 8 ceased production and sales in France in 1973. By the Renault 10 had been replaced, two years earlier, by the front wheel drive Renault 12, they were produced in Bulgaria until 1970, an adapted version of the Renault 8 continued to be produced in Spain until 1976. In Romania, a version of the 8 was produced under license between 1968 and 1972 as the Dacia 1100. In total 37,546 Dacia 1100s were built; the R8 was released in June 1962 and was based on the Renault Dauphine with which it shared its basic architecture and its 2,270 mm wheelbase. The style following that of the first prototype produced, at unusually short notice, by Philippe Charbonneaux, was fashionably boxy; the R8's engine followed the pioneering example of the introduced Renault 4 by incorporating a sealed for life cooling system.
A distinctive innovation on the French produced cars was the fitting of four-wheel disc brakes, a first for a saloon car of this size. However, when in 1965 Renault's Spanish affiliate introduced their own version of the Renault 8 for the Spanish market, it came with drum brakes; the 8 was powered by an all new 956 cc Cléon-Fonte engine developing 44 PS. For 1963, Renault offered an automatic transmission of unique design and produced by Jaeger, it was first shown at the September 1962 Paris Motor Show. Although it was described as a form of automatic transmission at the time, in retrospect it was more realistically a form of automatic clutch, inspired by the German Saxomat device which appeared as an option on several mainstream German cars in the 1950s and 60s; the clutch in the system was replaced by a powder ferromagnetic coupler, developed from a Smiths design. The transmission itself was a three-speed mechanical unit similar to that of the Dauphine, but from the beginning with synchromesh on all gears in this version.
The system used a dash-mounted push button control panel where the driver could select forward or reverse and a governor that sensed vehicle speed and throttle position. A "relay case" containing electromagnetic switches received signals from the governor and push buttons and controlled a coupler, a decelerator to close the throttle during gear changes, a solenoid to select operation of the reverse-first or second-third shift rail, using a reversible electric motor to engage the gears; the system was thus electromechanical, without hydraulics, pneumatics or electronics. Benefits included comparable fuel economy to the manual transmission version, easy adaptability to the car. Drawbacks included a somewhat jerky operation during gear changes; the transmission was used in the Dauphine and the Caravelle. A more powerful model, the 8 Major, was released in 1964, featuring an 1108 cc engine developing 50 PS. A still more powerful version, the 8 model R1134 Gordini, was released that year, with a tuned engine of the same capacity but developing 90 PS.
The extra power was obtained by a cross-flow head and twin dual-choke 40mm side-draft Solex carburetors. A four-speed close ratio manual transmission, dual rear shock absorbers and uprated springs were fitted; the R1134 Gordini was available only in blue, with two stick-on white stripes. It was distinguishable from the 8 Major by the bigger 200mm headlamp units. In 1965, the Renault 10 Major, a more luxurious version of the 8 with different front and rear styling, was released, replacing the 8 Major. In 1967, the R8 Gordini received a facelift including two additional headlights, its engine upgraded to a 1255cc unit rated at 100 PS; the R1134 Gordini cross-flow head design was retained, twin dual-choke 40mm Weber side-draft carburetors. Both the 8 and the 10 were revised for 1969; some of the 10's features being incorporated in the 8, resulting in a new 8 Major which replaced the basic model. The changes saw the addition of the 8S, a sportier model with a 1108cc engine rated at 60 PS. 8S model had the same twin headlights as the R1135 Gordini - the middle ones were for high beam only.
The car was delivered with black "RENAULT 8S" tapes, intended for the rear wings but their fixing was left to the customer. The Romanian sport version was named Dacia 1100 S; the car has won the Tour de Corse, Rally Poland, Rallye Açores, Rali Vinho da Madeira, Boucles de Spa and Rajdowe Samochodowe Mistrzostwa Polski. In September 1965 the Renault 10 Major was launched; this was a lengthened version of the Renault 8 with an increased front overhang and a much enlarged front luggage compartment, its capacity increased from 240 to 315 litres. The dimensions of the central passenger cabin were however; the 1,108 cc engine, which for some markets had appeared in top of the range versions of the Renault 8, came from the Renault Caravelle. In the French market the Renault 10 found itself struggling to compete with the successful Peugeot 204 introduced in the same year. In the United States the Renault 10 was offered
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Ponta Delgada is the largest municipality and economic capital of the Autonomous Region of the Azores in Portugal. It is located on the largest and most populous in the archipelago; the population in 2011 was 68,809, in an area of 232.99 square kilometres. There are 17,629 residents in the three central civil parishes that comprise the historical city: São Pedro, São Sebastião, São José. Ponta Delgada became the region's administrative capital under the revised constitution of 1976; the origin of the placename Punta Delgada, was elaborated by the famous Portuguese chronicler, Father Gaspar Frutuoso, wrote: In around 1450, Pêro de Teive, established a small fishing village that grew into the urban agglomeration in Santa Clara. Populated since 1444, the island of São Miguel was a vast territory, with small settlements scattered about, except for Vila Franca do Campo in the central-southern coast, the smaller community of Ponta Delgada. Villa Franca had for many years been the center of the island economically and and seat of the local government, but many nobles and landed gentry despised its subordinate status to the government in that town.
The nobles in Ponta Delgada sent a secret contingent, headed by Fernão Jorge Velho, to meet with King Manuel in Lisbon to petition that the community be emancipated. In Abrantes, King Manuel conferred a foral on 29 May 1507, elevating the settlement to the status of village. In 1522 an earthquake and landslide devastated the provincial capital, destroying many of the buildings and killing several people. Ponta Delgada became the only centre with an infrastructure to support the Azorean bureaucracy and supplant its important economic links, its role changed, it was elevated to status of city, during the reign of King D. João III by decree, dated 2 April 1546; the naval Battle of Ponta Delgada took place on 26 July 1582, off the coast, as part of the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. An Anglo-French corsair expedition sailed against Spain to preserve Portuguese control of the Azores, which had aligned itself with the pretender António, Prior of Crato, thereby preventing Spanish control. During the 19th century the municipality experienced its greatest boost of economic activity, with the funneling of citrus exports to United Kingdom and the growth of foreign-owned businesses in the historic center, many of them Jewish merchants after 1818.
As with other centres across the archipelago, the town of Ponta Delgada experienced many of the trends common for the period, including the "greening" of the communities, the construction of many of the ornate homes/estates, the clearing of animals from urban spaces, the opening of newer, roadways, the moving of cemeteries to the periphery, relocation of markets for fish and fruits. Due to these changes, growth of the mercantile class, Ponta Delgada became the third largest town in Portugal, in economic riches and the number of residents; the poet Bulhão Pato, writing of Ponta Delgada, was surprised by the extraordinary riches of the plantation owners, the "gentlemen farmers" that lived within the urbanized core: exporters of oranges and corn, investors and shippers, all contributing to a privileged class of economic and social thinkers and philanthropists. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ponta Delgada's position was high, although the changing importance of rural economies chipped-away at its growth.
But, it remained the central place in the hierarchy of the Azorean archipelago. It was at the forefront of political change following the Carnation Revolution. In one such event, property-owners and right-leaning farmers challenged the Civil Governor António Borges Coutinho, responsible, under the direction of the MFA government to implement land reforms; the Micalense Farmers' Protest, forced his resignation, inspired a series of terrorist acts that plunged the Azores into political turmoil. After a clandestine round-up of arrests and detentions by the Military Governor, the Autonomous District of Ponta Delgada was extinguished, along with the other districts on 22 August 1975, with the establishment of the Junta Regional dos Açores, the provisional government that assumed the competencies of the administration during the region's transition to constitutional autonomy; the municipality of Ponta Delgada is one of the larger administrative divisions in the archipelago, extending from the center of the island to the western coast.
Ponta Delgada is bordered on the northeast by the municipality of Ribeira Grande, southeast by new municipality of Lagoa. Geomorphologically, Ponta Delgada covers a volcanic area composed of two structures: the Picos Region and Sete Cidades Massif; the Picos Region extends from the shadow of the ancient volcano of the Água de Pau Massif until the area around the Sete Cidades caldera. It is a volcanic axial zone oriented in a northwest-southeast direc
Renault 5 Turbo
The Renault 5 Turbo or R5 Turbo is a high-performance hatchback automobile launched by the French manufacturer Renault at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1980. The car was designed for rallying, but was sold in a street version. A total of 4987 R5 Turbos were manufactured during a six-year production run. In response to Lancia's rallying success with the mid-engined Stratos, Renault's Jean Terramorsi, vice-president of production, asked Bertone's Marc Deschamps to design a new sports version of the Renault 5 Alpine supermini; the distinctive new rear bodywork was styled by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. Although the standard Renault 5 has a front-mounted engine, the 5 Turbo featured a mid-mounted 1,397 cc Cléon-Fonte with fuel fed by Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and a Garrett AiResearch T3 turbocharger OHV 2 valves per cylinder Inline-four engine placed behind the driver in mid-body in a modified Renault 5 chassis. In standard form, the engine developed 160 PS @ 6000 maximum torque of 221 N ⋅ m @ 3250 rpm.
Though it used a modified body from a standard Renault 5, was badged a Renault 5, the mechanicals were radically different, the most obvious difference being rear-wheel drive and rear-mid-engined instead of the normal version's front-wheel drive and front-mounted engine. At the time of its launch it was the most powerful production French car; the first 400 production 5 Turbos were made to comply with Group 4 homologation to allow the car to compete in international rallies, were manufactured at the Alpine factory in Dieppe. Many parts transferred to the Alpine A310, such as the suspension or alloy wheel set. Once the homologation models were produced, a second version named Turbo 2 was introduced using more stock Renault 5 parts replacing many of the light alloy components in the original 5 Turbo version, dropping the stunning and specific Bertone seats and Dashboard for the interior of the R5 Alpine. Many parts became dark grey rather than the iconic red or blue; the Turbo 2 was less expensive, but had nearly the same levels of performance, top speed of 200 km/h and 0–100 km/h in 6.9 seconds.
To differentiate it from the Turbo 2, the original 5 Turbo is referred as "Turbo 1". The concept of a mid-engined small Renault returned with the 1998 announcement of the Renault Clio V6. In 2004, Sports Car International named the R5 Turbo number nine on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s; the R5 Turbo was conceived with dual intent, promoting the sales of the common R5 and being homologated in the FIA group 3 and 4 categories of the rally championship. All the motorsport derivatives were based on the Turbo 1. At first the competition cars existed in 3 versions: the version “usine” run by the Renault Sport division, the lesser spec “competition client” that were sold to private teams, as a kit, that could be used to convert a street legal version towards the competition client version. Over the years, the performance and cost increased, lesser cars were run. So the kit was dropped, the client version caught up with the factory specs, the 20 client couldn’t be sold anymore, they were built for homologation as group B, scavenged for spare parts.
The factory pushed the engine output up to 180 PS for the Critérium des Cévennes, 210 PS for the Tour de Corse, by 1984 as much as 350 PS in the R5 Maxi Turbo. Driven by Jean Ragnotti in 1981, the 5 Turbo won the Monte Carlo Rally on its first outing in the World Rally Championship; the 2WD R5 Turbo soon faced the competition of new Group B four-wheel drive cars that proved faster on dirt. We can cite several victories throughout the early 80's in the national championships in France, Switzerland and Spain, many victories in international rallies throughout Europe, with wins in iconic rallies such as Monte-Carlo. After the factory ceased support, it lived a second life being developed by many teams and enthusiasts to compete in regional championships and local races in which it was ubiquitous and reached many success for 20 years. At the time of retirement, the newly created historical coategories allowed these cars to return to international events and competitions, living a third life. For these reasons it has a huge fan base.
The R5 Turbo has been featured in film and media: In the 1983 James Bond film Never Say Never Again, a Renault 5 Turbo 2 driven by a female villain chases James Bond on a motorbike. It can be seen in the 1997 film Dobermann. In the first episode of the Dragon Ball anime series by Akira Toriyama, an adolescent Bulma meets the young Goku, who mistakes the car for an evil monster. In the trailer for the film Trail of the Pink Panther, the car is driven by the character played by Joanna Lumley; the R5 Turbo is a playable car in the following videogames of the Forza series: Forza Motorsport 2 Forza Motorsport 3 Forza Motorsport 4 Forza Motorsport 5 Forza Horizon 2 Forza Motorsport 6 Forza Horizon 3 Forza Motorsport 7 Forza Horizon 4 Pascal, Dominique. Renault 5 Turbo L'école du Groupe B. ISBN 978-2-7268-8462-1. Renault 5 Turbo 2 //, retrieved on 1 August 2008
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
The Azores the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km west of continental Portugal, about 1,643 km west of Lisbon, in continental Portugal, about 1,507 km northwest of Morocco, about 1,925 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, its main industries are agriculture, dairy farming, livestock and tourism, becoming the major service activity in the region. In addition, the government of the Azores employs a large percentage of the population directly or indirectly in the service and tertiary sectors; the main capital of the Azores is Ponta Delgada. There are an islet cluster, in three main groups; these are Corvo, to the west. They lie in a northwest-southeast direction. All the islands have volcanic origins, although some, such as Santa Maria, have had no recorded activity since the islands were settled. Mount Pico, on the island of Pico, is the highest point in Portugal, at 2,351 m.
If measured from their base at the bottom of the ocean to their peaks, which thrust high above the surface of the Atlantic, the Azores are some of the tallest mountains on the planet. The climate of the Azores is mild for such a northerly location, being influenced by its distance from the continents and by the passing Gulf Stream. Due to the marine influence, temperatures remain mild year-round. Daytime temperatures fluctuate between 16 °C and 25 °C depending on season. Temperatures above 30 °C or below 3 °C are unknown in the major population centres, it is generally wet and cloudy. The culture, dialect and traditions of the Azorean islands vary because these once-uninhabited and remote islands were settled sporadically over a span of two centuries. A small number of alleged hypogea, earthen structures carved into rocks that were used for burials, have been identified on the islands of Corvo, Santa Maria and Terceira by Portuguese archaeologist Nuno Ribeiro, who speculated that they might date back 2000 years, implying a human presence on the island before the Portuguese.
These kinds of structures have been used in the Azores to store cereals and suggestions by Ribeiro that they might be burial sites are unconfirmed. Detailed examination and dating to authenticate the validity of these speculations is lacking, it is unclear whether these structures are natural or man-made and whether they predate the 15th-century Portuguese colonization of the Azores. Therefore, clear confirmation of a pre-Portuguese human presence in the archipelago has not yet been published; the islands were known in the fourteenth century, parts of them appear in the Catalan Atlas. In 1427, a captain sailing for Prince Henry the Navigator Gonçalo Velho, may have rediscovered the Azores, but this is not certain. In Thomas Ashe's 1813 work, A History of the Azores, the author identified a Fleming, Joshua Vander Berg of Bruges, who made landfall in the archipelago during a storm on his way to Lisbon, he stated that the Portuguese claimed it for Portugal. Other stories note the discovery of the first islands by sailors in the service of Henry the Navigator, although there are few documents to support the claims.
Although it is said that the archipelago received its name from the goshawk, a common bird at the time of discovery, it is unlikely that the bird nested or hunted in the islands. There were no large animals on Santa Maria, so after its discovery and before settlement began, sheep were let loose on the island to supply future settlers with food. Settlement did not take place however. There was not much interest among the Portuguese people to live in an isolated archipelago so far from civilization. Gonçalo Velho Cabral patiently gathered resources and settlers for the next three years and sailed to establish colonies first on Santa Maria and on São Miguel. Settlers cleared bush and rocks to plant crops—grain, grape vines, sugar cane, other plants suitable for local use and of commercial value, they brought domesticated animals, such as chickens, cattle, sheep and pigs and built houses and established villages. The archipelago was settled from mainland Portugal. Portuguese settlers came from the provinces of Algarve, Minho and Ribatejo as well as Madeira.
São Miguel was first settled in 1449, the settlers – from the Estremadura, Alto Alentejo and Algarve areas of mainland Portugal, under the command of Gonçalo Velho Cabral – landed at the site of modern-day Povoação. Many early settlers were Portuguese Sephardic Jews who fled the pressures of inquisition in mainland Portugal. In 1522, Vila Franca do Campo the capital of the island, was devastated by an earthquake and landslide that killed about 5,000 people, the capital was moved to Ponta Delgada; the town of Vila Franca do Campo was rebuilt on the original site and today is a thriving fishing and yachting port. Ponta Delgada received its city status in 1546. From the first settlement, the pioneers applied themselves to agriculture and by the 15th century Graciosa exported wheat, barley and brandy; the goods were sent to Terceira because of the proximity of the island. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Gra
Ford Sierra RS Cosworth
The Ford Sierra RS Cosworth is a high-performance version of the Ford Sierra, built by Ford Europe from 1986 to 1992. It was the result of a Ford Motorsport project with the purpose of producing an outright winner for Group A racing in Europe; the project was defined by Stuart Turner in the spring of 1983. He had been appointed head of Ford Motorsport in Europe, he realised right away that Ford was no longer competitive in this area. Turner got in touch with Walter Hayes, at the time the vice-president of public relations at Ford, to get support for the project. Hayes had earlier been the driving force behind the development of the Ford GT40 that won Le Mans in 1966, the Cosworth DFV engine that brought Ford 154 victories and 12 world championships in Formula One during the 1960s and 1970s. Hayes found the project appealing and promised his full support. Turner invited Ken Kohrs, vice-president of development, to visit Ford's longtime partner, the automotive company Cosworth, where they were presented a project developed on Cosworth's own initiative, the YAA engine.
This was a twin cam, 16-valve engine based on Ford's own T88 engine block, better known as the Pinto. This prototype proved an ideal basis for the engine Turner needed to power his Group A winner. Therefore, an official request for a turbocharged version capable of 180 HP on the street and 300 HP in race trim, was placed. Cosworth answered positively, but they put up two conditions: the engine would produce not less than 150 kW in the street version, Ford had to accept no fewer than 15,000 engines. Turner's project would only need about 5,000 engines, but Ford accepted the conditions; the extra 10,000 engines would become one of the reasons Ford chose to develop a four-door, second generation, Sierra RS Cosworth. To find a suitable gearbox proved more challenging; the Borg-Warner T5 used in the Ford Mustang, was chosen, but the higher revving nature of the Sierra caused some problems. Borg-Warner had to set up a dedicated production line for the gearboxes to be used in the Sierra RS Cosworth. Many of the suspension differences between the standard Sierra and the Cosworth attributed their development to what was learned from racing the turbocharged Jack Roush IMSA Merkur XR4Ti in America and Andy Rouse's successful campaign of the 1985 British Saloon Car Championship.
Much of Ford's external documentation for customer race preparation indicated "developed for the XR4Ti" when describing parts that were Sierra Cosworth specific. Roush's suspension and aerodynamics engineering for the IMSA cars was excellent feedback for Ford; some production parts from the XR4Ti made their way into the Cosworth such as the speedometer with integral boost gauge and the motorsport 909 chassis stiffening plates. In April 1983, Turner's team decided on the Sierra as a basis for their project; the Sierra filled the requirements for decent aerodynamic drag. A racing version could help to improve the poor, somewhat undeserved, reputation that the Sierra had earned since its introduction in 1982. Lothar Pinske, responsible for the car's bodywork, demanded carte blanche when it came to appearance in order to make the car stable at high speed. Experience had shown that the Sierra hatchback body generated significant aerodynamic lift at moderate speed. After extensive wind tunnel testing and test runs at the Nardò circuit in Italy, a prototype was presented to the project management.
This was based on an XR4i body with provisional body modifications in fibreglass and aluminium. The car's appearance raised little enthusiasm; the large rear wing caused particular reluctance. Pinske insisted, that the modifications were necessary to make the project successful; the rear wing was essential to retain ground contact at 300 km/h, the opening between the headlights was needed to feed air to the intercooler and the wheel arch extensions had to be there to house wheels 10” wide on the racing version. The Ford designers agreed to try to make a production version based on the prototype. In 1984, Walter Hayes paid visits to many European Ford dealers in order to survey the sales potential for the Sierra RS Cosworth. A requirement for participation in Group A was that 5,000 cars were sold; the feedback was not encouraging. The dealers estimated. Hayes did not give up, continued his passionate internal marketing of the project; as prototypes started to emerge, dealers were invited to test-drive sessions, this increased the enthusiasm for the new car.
In addition, Ford took some radical measures to reduce the price on the car. As an example, the car was only offered in one interior colour. There were just two equipment options: with or without central locking and electric window lifts; the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth was first presented to the public at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1985, with plans to release it for sale in September and closing production of the 5,000 cars in the summer of 1986. In practice, it was launched in July 1986, 5545 were manufactured in total of which 500 were sent to Tickford for conversion to the Sierra three-door RS500 Cosworth; the vehicles were manufactured in right hand drive only, were made in Ford's Genk factory in Belgium. The following number of vehicles were registered in the UK: As published in the 1986 RS catalog: Max speed: 149 mph 0-60 mph: 6.5 sec Fuel consumption at 56 mph: 38.2 mpg Fuel consumption at 75 mph: 30.1 mpg Drag coefficient: 0.345 Rear spoiler: 20kgf at 150mph Front brakes: Disc 28.3 cm diameter Rear brakes: Disc 27.3 cm diameter Differential: Viscous coupled limited slip Tyre size: 20