The Volkswagen Motorsport is a works rally team of the German car manufacturer Volkswagen, whom competed in the World Rally Championship and Dakar Rally. The team started competing in WRC in 1978 and used different specs of Volkswagen Golfs before leaving the sport in 1990. Volkswagen competed at the Dakar Rally from 2003 to 2011; the team made its WRC comeback in 2011 Rally Finland with a pair of Škoda Fabia S2000s, competed with the Volkswagen Polo R WRC from the start of the 2013 World Rally Championship season to the end of the 2016 World Rally Championship season. At the end of the 2016 season, Volkswagen Motorsport decided to withdraw from the FIA World Rally Championship. In 2003, Volkswagen entered the Tarek 2WD buggy at the Dakar Rally, with Stéphane Henrard placing 6th outright; the Race Touareg 1 was introduced in 2004. In 2005, Jutta Kleinschmidt finished in 3rd overall. With the Race Touareg 2, Giniel de Villiers finished in 2nd place overall in 2006. In 2007, Mark Miller finished 4th overall.
Volkswagen won the 2009, 2010 and 2011 Dakar Rally, the latter with the Race Touareg 3, with drivers De Villiers, Carlos Sainz and Nasser Al-Attiyah. In 2011 Volkswagen competed with seven different drivers in four rallies. German Christian Riedemann was the only driver competing in two rallies. In November 2011, the team revealed they have made a multi-year contract with the French rally star Sébastien Ogier and his co-driver Julien Ingrassia. For 2012 season, Volkswagen Motorsport continued developing their Polo R World Rally Car and they completed a full WRC-campaign with a pair of Škoda Fabias. Sébastien Ogier drove it in every round of the campaign, while the second car was shared between Andreas Mikkelsen and Kevin Abbring; the team had a third car in their home rally Germany driven by Sepp Wiegand. The season included some highlights, including Sébastien Ogier's unexpected special stage win in Sardinia. Ogier's fifth place in Sardinia remains the best overall finish for a S2000 car in World Rally Championship.
In October, Volkswagen Motorsport announced that they have signed Jari-Matti Latvala with his co-driver Miikka Anttila to join Ogier and Ingrassia to drive Volkswagen Polo R WRC for 2013 season. Volkswagen Motorsport entered as a fully-fledged manufacturer team in 2013. Sébastien Ogier and Jari-Matti Latvala started the season, whilst Andreas Mikkelsen joined the championship at the fourth round in Portugal. Mikkelsen and his new co-driver Mikko Markkula were registered under a second manufacturer team, known as “Volkswagen Motorsport II” so as to give them as much time as possible testing the Polo R WRC; the 2013 season started with Rallye Monte-Carlo. Volkswagen entered the rally with Latvala/Anttila and Ogier/Ingrassia. Ogier started their campaign with a dream start by winning the first stage of the season, the first of Volkswagen Polo R WRC. Ogier won one more stage and finished the rally in second place, nearly two minutes behind the winner Sébastien Loeb. Jari-Matti Latvala's rally ended in last evening of the rally when he hit the wall in slippery conditions.
The team took its first WRC victory in their second rally with the World Rally Car, when Sébastien Ogier dominated the Rally Sweden being fastest in half of the stages of the rally. Jari-Matti Latvala finished fourth, scored his first stage win with the team. Ogier continued his dominance at the next event in Rally Mexico, giving the team its second victory in a row. Ogier lead the rally from the second stage till the finish. Latvala hit a rock in SS2 and after restarting in Day 2 he finished outside of the points; that meant Volkswagen was still 6 points behind Citroën in Manufacturers' standings before moving on to Rally de Portugal. 2016 would turn out to be another successful year for the team. Just days after the 2016 Wales Rally GB, Volkswagen announced that they would be pulling out of the WRC at the end of the 2016 season; this came as a surprise to many fans and journalists, as the team and their drivers had been conducting major development and testing work on the new 2017 Polo, based on the new generation WRC cars.
Although no direct reason was given for the teams’ withdrawal, it was speculated to be a result of Volkswagen’s recent emissions scandal. Volkswagen Motorsport is scheduled to make a return to the World Rally Championship with an R5 version of the Volkswagen Polo GTI; the car will make its debut at the 2018 Rally Catalunya, with entries for both Petter Solberg and Eric Camilli. *Including points scored with different manufacturers. Citroën World Rally Team M-Sport World Rally Team Volkswagen Motorsport official website
European Rally Championship
The European Rally Championship is an automobile rally competition held annually on the European continent and organized by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The championship has been organized since 1953 and have disputed in different European countries, alternating between rallies on asphalt and gravel, it was the first supranational rally championship, organized in the world and therefore the oldest one. In 2012 it had 60 editions and in 2013 its was renewed with the merger with the Intercontinental Rally Challenge; the European Rally Championship was first contested in 1953 and in the following year was one of the most prestigious rallying series. However, with the introduction of the World Rally Championship for manufacturers in 1973, in particular with the drivers' World Championship being contested from 1979 on, the importance of the ERC began to decline. Over many years, a typical ERC season featured around 40 rallies, from 1974 on, the rallies were assigned different coefficients that were multiplied with the championship points.
This made it tedious to follow the championship and keep an overview. Changing the coefficients to 2, 5, 10 and 20 did not improve the situation. Thus, the ERC was more a series for event organizers than an interesting championship for drivers. A first improvement was implemented for the 2004 season, where the number of events counting for the European Rally Championship were reduced to those with coefficient 20, while the other rallies became part of regional "European Rally Cups". A ERC season now featured around 10 to 12 events and thus had a clearer structure. Between 2007 and 2011, the driver had to register for the European championships and thus only registered drivers could score ERC points, keeping the local drivers from taking up all ERC points despite not participating in the championship; the registered drivers were obligated to contest a minimal number of events. Since 2013, French-based broadcaster Eurosport is the promoter of ERC, the Intercontinental Rally Challenge organized and promoted by Eurosport, was discontinued.
The 2011 ERC season featured 11 rallies. Luca Rossetti won the championship; the 2011 ERC season featured 11 rallies. It ended on 29 October with the Rallye International du Valais. Italian driver Luca Rossetti claimed his third European championship title after winning 5 of the events. In total, 28 registered drivers from 7 different countries competed in the championship; the 2012 season started in January with the "Jänner Rallye" in Austria. As an important change, drivers no longer had to register for the championship. Finnish driver Juho Hänninen won the championship; the 2013 season is the first after the merger between IRC and the old ERC, the first after Eurosport became the championship's promoter. The season started with the Jänner Rallye in Austria on 3 January 2013, ended with the Rallye du Valais on 9 November. Czech driver Jan Kopecký won the championship; the 2014 season started with the Jänner Rallye in Austria on 3 January 2014, ended with the Tour de Corse on 8 November. Finnish driver Esapekka Lappi won the championship and the new Asphalt Masters trophy, while polish drivers Robert Kubica and Kajetan Kajetanowicz won the Ice Masters and Gravel Masters, respectively.
French driver Stéphane Lefebvre won the ERC Junior championship. The season started with the Jänner Rallye in Austria on 4 January 2015, ended with the Rallye International du Valais on 7 November. For this year the drivers had to register for the championship, the categories have been renamed into ERC 1, ERC 2 and ERC 3. Polish driver Kajetan Kajetanowicz won the championship. List of European Rally Championship drivers European Rally Trophy Official website
The Porsche 924 is a sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 was intended to replace the Porsche 914 as the company's entry-level model. Although the water-cooled, front-engined 928 gran turismo was designed first, the 924 was the first road-going Porsche to have a front engine rear wheel drive configuration, it was the first Porsche to be offered with a automatic transmission. The 924 made its public debut in November 1975, it was criticised by enthusiasts for its mediocre performance, but was a sales success with just over 150,000 produced during a 1977-1988 production run, an important profits generator for the company. The related 944 introduced in the U. S. market in 1983 was meant to replace the 924, but 924 production continued through 1985, followed by a 944-engined 924S through 1988. The 924 was a joint project of Volkswagen and Porsche created by the Vertriebsgesellschaft, the joint sales and marketing company funded by Porsche and VW to market and sell sports cars.
For Volkswagen, it was intended to be that company's flagship coupé sports car and was dubbed "Project 425" during its development. For Porsche, it was to be its entry-level sports car replacing the 914. At the time, Volkswagen lacked a significant internal research and design division for developing sports cars. In keeping with this history, Porsche was contracted to develop a new sporting vehicle with the caveat that this vehicle must work with an existing VW/Audi inline-four engine. Porsche chose a rear-wheel drive layout and a rear-mounted transaxle for the design to help provide 48/52 front/rear weight distribution; the 1973 oil crisis, a series of automobile-related regulatory changes enacted during the 1970s and a change of directors at Volkswagen made the case for a Volkswagen sports car less striking and the 425 project was put on hold. After serious deliberation at VW, the project was scrapped after a decision was made to move forward with the cheaper, more practical, Golf-based Scirocco model instead.
Porsche, which needed a model to replace the 914, made a deal with Volkswagen leadership to buy the design back. The 914 was discontinued before the 924 entered production, which resulted in the reintroduction of the Porsche 912 to the North American market as the 912E for one year to fill the gap; the deal specified that the car would be built at the ex-NSU factory in Neckarsulm located north of the Porsche headquarters in Stuttgart, Volkswagen becoming the subcontractor. Hence, Volkswagen employees would do the actual production line work and that Porsche would own the design, it made its debut at a November 1975 press launch at the harbour at La Grande Motte, Camargue in the south of France rather than a motor show. The relative cheapness of building the car made it both profitable and easy for Porsche to finance. While criticised for its performance, it became one of Porsche's best-selling models; the original design used an Audi-sourced four-speed manual transmission from a front wheel drive car but now placed and used as a rear transaxle.
It was mated to VW's EA831 2.0 L I4 engine, variants of which were used in the Audi 100 and the Volkswagen LT van. The Audi engine, equipped with a Weber/Holley carburetor, was used in the 1977-1979 AMC Gremlin and Spirit; the 924 engine used producing 95 horsepower in North American trim. This was brought up to 110 horsepower in mid-1977 with the introduction of a catalytic converter, which reduced the need for power-robbing smog equipment; the four-speed manual was the only transmission available for the initial 1976 model this was replaced by a five-speed dog-leg unit. An Audi three-speed automatic was offered starting with the 1977.5 model. In 1980, the five-speed transmission was changed to a conventional H-pattern, with reverse now on the right beneath fifth gear. In 1980, the model received some minor changes including a three-way catalyst and higher compression, which brought power up to 115 hp. Nonetheless, the strong Deutschemark and US inflation hampered sales, as a well equipped 924 now could cost twice as much as the more powerful Nissan 280ZX.
European models, which did not require any emissions equipment, made 125 hp. They differed visually from the US spec model by not having the US cars' low-speed impact bumpers and the round reflectors plus side-marker lamps on each end of the body; the 924 was sold in Japan at Mizwa Motors dealerships that specialize in North American and European vehicles, with left hand drive for its entire generation. Sales were helped by the fact that it was in compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations with regards to its engine displacement and exterior dimensions. A five-speed transmission, available in aspirated cars starting in 1979 and standard on all turbos, was a dog-leg shift pattern Porsche unit, with first gear below reverse on the left side; this was robust, but expensive due to some 915 internal parts, was replaced for 1980 with a normal H-pattern Audi five-speed on all non-turbo cars. This lighter duty design was not used on the more powerful 924 Turbo; the brakes were drums at the rear.
The car was criticized in Car and Driver magazine for this
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A hairpin turn, named for its resemblance to a hairpin/bobby pin, is a bend in a road with a acute inner angle, making it necessary for an oncoming vehicle to turn about 180° to continue on the road. Such turns in ramps and trails may be called switchbacks in American English, by analogy with switchback railways. In British English "switchback" is more to refer to a undulating road—a use extended from the rollercoaster and the other type of switchback railway. Hairpin turns are built when a route climbs up or down a steep slope, so that it can travel across the slope with only moderate steepness, are arrayed in a zigzag pattern. Highways with repeating hairpin turns allow easier, safer ascents and descents of mountainous terrain than a direct, steep climb and descent, at the price of greater distances of travel and lower speed limits, due to the sharpness of the turn. Highways of this style are generally less costly to build and maintain than highways with tunnels. On occasion, the road may loop using a tunnel or bridge to cross itself at a different elevation.
When this routing geometry is used for a rail line, it is called spiral loop. In trail building, an alternative to switchbacks is the stairway; some roads with switchbacks include: Alpe d'Huez in the French Alps, famous for its 21 hairpin bends Stelvio Pass with its 48 hairpin bends on the northern ramp is one of the most famous Alpine Mountain passes Transfăgărăşan in the Romanian Carpathians, famous for its hairpin bends In rallying, the cars slide sideways around hairpins in spectacular style, such as at the Col de Turini of the Monte Carlo Rally Hillclimbing is a special kind of automobile racing held of mountain roads with hairpins, which keeps average speeds lower than on tracks In bicycle racing, climbs up mountains roads with many U-turns are considered the most difficult, feature in Tour de France, Giro d'Italia, Tour de Suisse and Vuelta a España The roads above Monaco, on the foothills of the Alps. The Geiranger road from Geirangerfjord to the mountain pass won the gold medal on the world exhibition, Paris 1900, the original design included a 270° spiral.
Norwegian National Road 7 through Måbødalen has a spiral within tunnels. The road from Frangokastello to Kallikratis in Crete has 27 tight bends. Due to mountainous profile of the country are many public streets in Greece having tight bends, the asphalt is little slippery, making the traction loosen; the situation worsens with the first rains after the long dry summer asphalt slips more than usual The Veleta access road in Granada, Spain is the highest paved road in Europe City streets: Winters Street Vermont Street Lombard Street Snake Alley Mountain Road Shippen Street US Highways: US 6 through Loveland Pass over the Continental Divide in Colorado US 44/NY 55 on the east face of the Shawangunk Ridge in Gardiner. US 93 used to be on both the Nevada and Arizona sides of Hoover Dam, though these sections were bypassed by a new highway alignment and bridge south of the dam that opened in 2010 US 250 between the West Virginia border and West Augusta, Virginia US 129 around the Tennessee/North Carolina border, 318 curves in 11 miles US 191 in Arizona between Morenci and Alpine), has a few switchbacks and about 460 curves.
US 441 through Great Smoky Mountains National Park on the Tennessee/North Carolina border. US 212 contains 19 switchbacks in the Beartooth Mountains; this section is known as Beartooth Highway. US 40 over Berthoud Pass in Colorado. US 550 in Colorado between Silverton and Ouray, nicknamed the "Million Dollar Highway" US 34 in Colorado in Rocky Mountain National Park has 10 switchbacks on Trail Ridge Road State Highways: AZ 89A as it enters Oak Creek Canyon in Arizona. AR 7 in various places in Arkansas CA 1 south of Bodega Bay, California. CA 130 Originally built as a wagon trail to aid in the construction of Lick Observatory, "Mt. Hamilton Road" travels east out of San Jose, CA and rises over the foothills, only to ascend again up the summit of Mt. Hamilton, it has a total of 365 curves and switchbacks: "...one for every day of the year" CA 152 east of Watsonville, California is known as Hwy 152 or Hecker Pass.
Saarland is a state of Germany. Saarland is located in western Germany covering an area of 2,570 km2 and a population of 995,600, the smallest German state in both area and population apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg. Saarbrücken is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Neunkirchen and Saarlouis. Saarland is surrounded by France to the west and south and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate to the north and east. Saarland was established in 1920 after World War I as the Territory of the Saar Basin, formed from land of Prussia and Bavaria occupied and governed by France and the United Kingdom under a League of Nations mandate; the industrialized region was economically valuable due to the wealth of its coal deposits and location on the border between France and Germany. Saarland was returned to Nazi Germany in the 1935 Saar status referendum, becoming de jure part of Bavaria and de facto part of Gau Westmark. Following World War II, the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany organized the territory as the Saar Protectorate from 1947, becoming a protectorate of France, between 1950 and 1956 was a member of the Council of Europe.
Saarland rejected the 1955 Saar Statute referendum, joined the Federal Republic of Germany as a state on 1 January 1957. Saarland used its own currency, the Saar franc, postage stamps issued specially for the territory until 1959; the region of the Saarland was settled by the Celtic tribes of Mediomatrici. The most impressive relic of their time is the remains of a fortress of refuge at Otzenhausen in the north of the Saarland. In the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire made the region part of its province of Belgica; the Celtic population mixed with the Roman immigrants. The region gained wealth, which can still be seen in the remains of Roman villages. Roman rule ended in the 5th century. For the next 1,300 years the region shared the history of the Kingdom of the Franks, the Carolingian Empire and of the Holy Roman Empire; the region of the Saarland was divided into several small territories, some of which were ruled by sovereigns of adjoining regions. Most important of the local rulers were the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken.
Within the Holy Roman Empire these territories gained a wide range of independence, however, by the French kings, who sought, from the 17th century onwards, to incorporate all the territories on the western side of the river Rhine and invaded the area in 1635, in 1676, in 1679 and in 1734, extending their realm to the Saar River and establishing the city and stronghold of Saarlouis in 1680. It was not the king of France but the armies of the French Revolution who terminated the independence of the states in the region of the Saarland. After 1792 they made it part of the French Republic. While a strip in the west belonged to the Département Moselle, the centre in 1798 became part of the Département de Sarre, the east became part of the Département du Mont-Tonnerre. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the region was divided again. Most of it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Another part in the east, corresponding to the present Saarpfalz district, was allocated to the Kingdom of Bavaria.
A small part in the northeast was ruled by the Duke of Oldenburg. On 31 July 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III ordered an invasion across the River Saar to seize Saarbrücken; the first shots of the Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 were fired on the heights of Spichern, south of Saarbrücken. The Saar region became part of the German Empire which came into existence on 18 January 1871, during the course of this war. In 1920 the Saargebiet was occupied by Britain and France under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles; the occupied area included portions of the Prussian Rhine Province and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate. In practice the region was administered by France. In 1920 this was formalized by a 15-year League of Nations mandate. In 1933, a considerable number of communists and other political opponents of National Socialism fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany that remained outside national administration following the First World War; as a result, anti-Nazi groups agitated for the Saarland to remain under French administration.
However, with most of the population being ethnically German, such views were considered suspect or treasonous, therefore found little support. When the original 15-year term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.8% of those voting favoured rejoining Germany. Following the referendum Josef Bürckel was appointed on 1 March 1935 as the German Reich's commissioner for reintegration; when the reincorporation was considered accomplished, his title was changed to Reichskommissar für das Saarland. In September 1939, in response to the German Invasion of Poland, French forces invaded the Saarland in a half-hearted offensive, occupying some villages and meeting little resistance, before withdrawing. A further change was made after 8 April 1940 to Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz, he died on 28 September 1944 and was succeeded by Willi Stöhr, who remained in office until the region fell to advancing American forces in March 1945. After World War II, the Saarland came under French occupation and administration again, as the Saar Protectorate.
Under the Monnet Plan France attempted to gain economic control of the German industrial areas with large c
Trier known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum. Trier may be the oldest city in Germany, it is the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine; the Archbishop-Elector had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz and Koblenz.
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, Koblenz. The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD, which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, the Academy of European Law are all based in Trier, it is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia; the first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier; the city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and as much as 100,000; the Porta Nigra dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418 in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles; the city was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.
The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages; the bishops of the city grew powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held the largest witch trial in European history, it was one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, was as such the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime.
This counts only those executed within the city itself, the real number of executions, counting those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century; the city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German