First Barbary War
The First Barbary War known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars, in which the United States and Sweden fought against the four North African states known collectively as the "Barbary States". Three of these were nominal provinces of the Ottoman Empire, but in practice autonomous: Tripoli and Tunis; the fourth was the independent Sultanate of Morocco. The cause of the U. S. participation was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U. S. pay tribute to the Barbary rulers. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute. Sweden had been at war with the Tripolitans since 1800. Barbary corsairs and crews from the North African Ottoman provinces of Algiers, Tunis and the independent Sultanate of Morocco under the Alaouite dynasty were the scourge of the Mediterranean. Capturing merchant ships and enslaving or ransoming their crews provided the Muslim rulers of these nations with wealth and naval power.
The Roman Catholic Trinitarian Order, or order of "Mathurins", had operated from France for centuries with the special mission of collecting and disbursing funds for the relief and ransom of prisoners of Mediterranean pirates. According to Robert Davis, between 1 and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves between the 16th and 19th centuries. Barbary corsairs led attacks upon American merchant shipping in an attempt to extort ransom for the lives of captured sailors, tribute from the United States to avoid further attacks, as they did with the various European states. Before the Treaty of Paris, which formalized the United States' independence from Great Britain, U. S. shipping was protected by France during the revolutionary years under the Treaty of Alliance. Although the treaty does not mention the Barbary States in name, it refers to common enemies between both the U. S. and France. As such, piracy against U. S. shipping only began to occur after the end of the American Revolution, when the U.
S. government lost its protection under the Treaty of Alliance. This lapse of protection by a European power led to the first American merchant ship being seized after the Treaty of Paris. On 11 October 1784, Moroccan pirates seized the brigantine Betsey; the Spanish government negotiated the freedom of the captured crew. The advice was to offer tribute to prevent further attacks against merchant ships; the U. S. Minister to France, Thomas Jefferson, decided to send envoys to Morocco and Algeria to try to purchase treaties and the freedom of the captured sailors held by Algeria. Morocco was the first Barbary Coast State to sign a treaty with the U. S. on 23 June 1786. This treaty formally ended all Moroccan piracy against American shipping interests. Article six of the treaty states that if any Americans captured by Moroccans or other Barbary Coast States docked at a Moroccan city, they would be set free and come under the protection of the Moroccan State. American diplomatic action with Algeria, the other major Barbary Coast State, was much less productive than with Morocco.
Algeria began piracy against the U. S. on 25 July 1785 with the capture of the schooner Maria, Dauphin a week later. All four Barbary Coast states demanded $660,000 each. However, the envoys were given only an allocated budget of $40,000 to achieve peace. Diplomatic talks to reach a reasonable sum for tribute or for the ransom of the captured sailors struggled to make any headway; the crews of Maria and Dauphin remained enslaved for over a decade, soon were joined by crews of other ships captured by the Barbary States. In 1795, Algeria came to an agreement that resulted in the release of 115 American sailors they held, at a cost of over $1 million; this amount totaled about one-sixth of the entire U. S. budget, was demanded as tribute by the Barbary States to prevent further piracy. The continuing demand for tribute led to the formation of the United States Department of the Navy, founded in 1798 to prevent further attacks upon American shipping and to end the demands for large tributes from the Barbary States.
Various letters and testimonies by captured sailors describe their captivity as a form of slavery though Barbary Coast imprisonment was different from that practiced by the U. S. and European powers of the time. Barbary Coast prisoners were able to obtain wealth and property, along with achieving status beyond that of a slave. One such example was James Leander Cathcart, who rose to the highest position a Christian slave could achieve in Algeria, becoming an adviser to the bey. So, most captives were pressed into hard labor in the service of the Barbary pirates, struggled under poor conditions that exposed them to vermin and disease; as word of their treatment reached the U. S. through freed captives' narratives and letters, Americans pushed for direct government action to stop the piracy against U. S. ships. In March 1786, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripoli's envoy, ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman; when they enquired "concerning the ground of the pretensions to make war upon nations who had done them no injury", the ambassador replied: It was written in their Koran, (that all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave.
He said that the man, the first to board a vessel had one slave over and above his share, that when they sprang to the deck of a
Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. Trinity Hall was known for teaching Law. Notable alumni include theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Nobel Prize winner David Thouless, Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, Canadian Governor General David Johnston, philosopher Marshall McLuhan, Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham; the devastation caused by the Black Death plague of the 1340s included the loss of nearly half of the English population. The site that Bateman chose was the original site of Gonville Hall, founded three years earlier, but was financially struggling. Bateman's clerical aim for the Hall is reflected in the foundation of 1350, when he stated that the college's aim was "the promotion of divine worship and of canon and civil science and direction of the commonwealth and of our church and diocese of Norwich." This led the college to be strong in legal studies, a tradition that has continued over the centuries.
At first all colleges in Cambridge were known as'Halls' or'Houses' and later changed their names from'Hall' to'College'. However, when Henry VIII founded Trinity College, Cambridge next door, it became clear that Trinity Hall would continue being known as a Hall; the new foundation's name may have been a punishment for the college's master, Stephen Gardiner, who had opposed the king's remarriage and had endured much of the college's land being removed. It is incorrect to call it Trinity Hall College, although Trinity Hall college is speaking, accurate. A similar situation had existed once before when Henry VI founded King's College despite the existence of King's Hall. King's Hall was incorporated in the foundation of Trinity College in 1546. Trinity Hall, in addition to having a chapel had joint usage of the Church of St John Zacharias with Clare Hall, until the church was demolished to enable the construction of King's in the 15th century. After this, the college was granted usage of the nearby Church of St Edward and Martyr on Peas Hill, a connection which remains to this day.
The college site on the River Cam was obtained from Bateman's purchase of a house from John de Crauden, Prior of Ely, to house the monks during their study, with Front Court being built within the college's first few decades. The chapel was licensed in 1352 and was built by August 1366, when Pope Urban V granted the Master and Fellows permission to celebrate Mass in the college. In 1729-1730, Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, the college master, redecorated the chapel in what, despite subsequent enlargements, remains an intimate style, forming the smallest of the University's chapels. Lloyd removed some of the more prominent graves to the ante-chapel, while digging a vault for his own burial, decorated the interior walls with wainscoting and the ceiling with stucco representations of past masters' crests; the chapel was extended to the east by a few feet in 1864, during which the medieval piscina was rediscovered and rendered accessible by a small door in the wainscoting. The current chapel painting is Maso da San Friano's Salutation, depicting Mary's visit to Elizabeth, from the opening of the Gospel of Luke, which replaced an earlier painting by Giacomo Stella in 1957.
Like the chapel, the college's dining hall was rebuilt by Sir Nathaniel Lloyd along similar lines, with the panelling replaced throughout and the medieval beams replaced by fine baroque carvings. Although the hall was enlarged in the 19th century, it is still one of the smallest and most intimate dining halls in the University; the college library was built in the late 16th century, with the permission of Elizabeth I and during the mastership of Thomas Preston, is now principally used for the storage of the college's manuscripts and rare books. The new Jerwood Library overlooking the river was opened by Lord Howe in 1999, stores the college's modern book collection; the college owns properties in the centre of Cambridge, on Bateman Street and Thompson's Lane, on its Wychfield site next to Fitzwilliam College, where most of the college's sporting activity takes place. Trinity Hall has active Junior and Senior Combination Rooms for undergraduate and senior members of the college community respectively.
The Middle Combination Room is located in Front Court, while the Junior Combination Room is adjacent to the college bar in North Court. Both the MCR and JCR have active committees and organize popular socials for their members across the term. Trinity Hall's oldest and largest society, the Boat Club was founded in 1827, has had a long and distinguished history; the college won all but one of the events in the 1887 Henley Royal Regatta, making it the most successful Cambridge college in Henley's history. The current boathouse, built in 1905 in memory of Henry Latham, is on the River Cam, a short walk from the college; the current Master is the Revd. Jeremy Morris, he took up the role on 1 October 2014. The current Dean is the Revd. Dr. Stephen Plant; the ro
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Arthur Middleton Manigault was a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Manigault was born in Charleston, South Carolina in 1824, his parents were Charlotte Manigault. His grandfather, Peter Manigault, was the richest person in British North America in 1770. Joseph Manigault's great-great-grandfather was Pierre Manigault, a French Huguenot, born in La Rochelle and settled in Charleston, his mother was both the daughter of Charles Drayton, a South Carolina Lt. Governor, the granddaughter of Henry Middleton, the second President of the First Continental Congress, her uncle, Arthur Middleton, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Manigault attended the College of Charleston, although he abandoned his studies to pursue an interest in business. During the Mexican-American War, he served in the United States Army as a first lieutenant with the Palmetto Regiment. From 1847 to 1856, he was a businessman in Charleston. On April 15, 1850 he married the granddaughter of Daniel Elliott Huger.
They had five children together. In 1856, he moved there. A few days before the outbreak of the Civil War, Manigault participated in the Battle of Fort Sumter, he was colonel of the 10th South Carolina Infantry, helped construct the batteries for the defense of Winyah Bay in Georgetown County. In March 1862, he was ordered to ship the guns to Charleston. In April 1862, he was commanded to take his troops and report to General P. G. T. Beauregard with the Army of Mississippi. In northern Mississippi, Manigault saw action during the Siege of Corinth. Afterwards he served with the reorganized Army of Tennessee and saw action at the Battles of Stone's River and Chickamauga, he was present during the Battle of Missionary Ridge. During the late spring and summer of 1864, he participated in the Atlanta Campaign. On April 26, 1863, he was promoted to brigadier general. During the war, he was wounded twice: first in Georgia at the Battle of Resaca in May 1864, at the Second Battle of Franklin during November 1864.
His second injury prevented his return to active service. After the war, Manigault returned to manage his rice plantation in South Carolina. From 1880 to 1886, he served as the Inspector General of South Carolina, he died in Georgetown County, South Carolina in 1886 and is buried in the Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston. List of American Civil War generals Stones River Confederate order of battle Chickamauga Confederate order of battle Franklin II Confederate order of battle List of Huguenots Eicher, David J; the Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 978-0-684-84944-7. Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Owen and James Owen. Generals at Rest: The Grave Sites of the 425 Official Confederate Generals. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Publishing Co. 1997. ISBN 1-57249-045-4. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
United States War Department. The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901. OCLC 427057. ISBN 978-0-918678-07-2. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. Online biography of Hill Wakelyn Jon L. Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8371-6124-X. "Arthur Middleton Manigault". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-03-01
Arthur Middleton, of Charleston, South Carolina, was a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence. His parents were both of English descent, he was educated in Britain, at Harrow School, Westminster School, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He studied law at the Middle Temple and traveled extensively in Europe where his taste in literature and art was developed and refined. In 1764, Arthur and his bride Mary Izard settled at Middleton Place. Keenly interested in Carolina, Middleton was a more radical thinker than his father, Henry Middleton, he was a leader of the American Party in Carolina and one of the boldest members of the Council of Safety and its Secret Committee. In 1776, Arthur was elected to succeed his father in the Continental Congress and subsequently was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. In 1776, he and William Henry Drayton designed the Great Seal of South Carolina. Despite the time he spent in England, his attitude toward Loyalists was said to be ruthless.
During the American Revolutionary War, Middleton served in the defense of Charleston. After the city's fall to the British in 1780, he was sent as a prisoner of war to St. Augustine, until exchanged in July the following year. Middleton died on January 1, 1787 at the age of 44 and was buried in the family tomb in the Gardens at Middleton Place; the death notice from Jan.. 4, 1787, described him as a "tender husband and parent, humane master, steady unshaken patriot, the gentleman, the scholar." The plantation passed to Henry, his eldest son Governor of South Carolina, U. S. Representative and Minister to Russia. Arthur Middleton was an ancestor of actor Charles B. Middleton, who played Ming the Merciless in the Flash Gordon movies of the 1930s. Arthur Middleton's son-in-law was Congressman Daniel Elliott Huger, the grandfather-in-law of Confederate General Arthur Middleton Manigault, a descendant of Henry Middleton. Arthur Middleton's sister, Susannah Middleton, was the great-great-grandmother of Baldur von Schirach, onetime leader of the Hitler Youth and Governor of the Reichsgau Vienna, convicted of "crimes against humanity" at the Nuremberg Trials, through Baldur Von Schirach's mother Emma Middleton Lynah Tillou.
The United States Navy ship, USS Arthur Middleton, was named for him. United States Congress. "Arthur Middleton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Middleton Place Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
The President pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, mandates that the Senate must choose a President pro tempore to act in the Vice President's absence. Unlike the Vice President, the President pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the President pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the Vice President's absence, the President pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore presides. S. Senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure. Since 1890, the most senior U. S. Senator in the majority party has been chosen to be President pro tempore and holds the office continuously until the election of another.
This tradition has been observed without interruption since 1949. Since the enactment of the current Presidential Succession Act in 1947, the president pro tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the vice president and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and ahead of the Secretary of State; the current President pro tempore of the Senate is Iowa Republican Charles Grassley. Elected on January 3, 2019, he is the 91st person to serve in this office. Although the position is in some ways analogous to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the powers of the president pro tempore are far more limited. In the Senate, most power rests with party leaders and individual senators, but as the chamber's presiding officer, the president pro tempore is authorized to perform certain duties in the absence of the vice president, including ruling on points of order. Additionally, under the 25th Amendment to the Constitution, the president pro tempore and the speaker are the two authorities to whom declarations must be transmitted that the president is unable to perform the duties of the office, or is able to resume doing so.
The president pro tempore is third in the line of presidential succession, following the vice president and the speaker, is one of the few members of Congress entitled to a full-time security detail. Additional duties include appointment of various congressional officers, certain commissions, advisory boards, committees and joint supervision of the congressional page school; the president pro tempore is the designated legal recipient of various reports to the Senate, including War Powers Act reports under which he or she, jointly with the speaker, may have the president call Congress back into session. The officeholder is an ex officio member of various commissions. With the secretary and sergeant at arms, the president pro tempore maintains order in Senate portions of the Capitol and Senate buildings; the office of president pro tempore was established by the Constitution of the United States in 1789. The first president pro tempore, John Langdon, was elected on April 6 the same year. Between 1792 and 1886, the president pro tempore was second in the line of presidential succession following the vice president and preceding the speaker.
Through 1891, the president pro tempore was appointed on an intermittent basis only, when the vice president was not present to preside over the Senate, or at the adjournment of a session of Congress. Langdon served four separate terms from 1789 to 1793. During the 4th Congress; when called upon to serve, they would preside, sign legislation, perform routine administrative tasks. Whenever the vice presidency was vacant, as it was on 10 occasions between 1812 and 1889, the office garnered heightened importance, for although he did not assume the vice presidency, the president pro tempore was next in line for the presidency. Before the ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, a vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled only by a regular election; when President Andrew Johnson, who had no vice president, was impeached and tried in 1868, Senate President pro tempore Benjamin Franklin Wade was next in line to the presidency. Wade's radicalism is thought by many historians to be a major reason why the Senate, which did not want to see Wade in the White House, acquitted Johnson.
The President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House were removed from the presidential line of succession in 1886. Both were restored to it in 1947, though this time with the president pro tempore following the speaker. William P. Frye served as President pro tempore from 1896 a tenure longer than anyone else, he resigned from the position due to ill health a couple of months before his death. Electing his successor proved difficult, as Senate Republicans in the majority, were split be
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of