United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Stark County, Ohio
Stark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 375,586, its county seat is Canton. The county was organized the next year, it is named for an officer in the American Revolutionary War. Stark County is included in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area. Stark County was named in honor of American Revolutionary War General John Stark. John Stark was a general who served in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, he became known as the "Hero of Bennington" for his exemplary service at the Battle of Bennington in 1777. During the early 20th century, Stark County was an important location in the early development of professional football; the rivalry between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogs helped bring the Ohio League to prominence in the mid-1900s and again in the late 1910s. The Bulldogs ended up a charter member of the National Football League, where it played for several years.
Two large football stadiums, Fawcett Stadium in Canton and Paul Brown Tiger Stadium in Massillon, are still in use, with Fawcett Stadium hosting the NFL's annual Pro Football Hall of Fame Game each year. In the 20th century, Stark County's voting record swung from one party to another tracking the winner of the U. S. Presidential election. Within the swing state of Ohio, Stark County is regarded as a quintessential bellwether, thus presidential candidates have made multiple visits to the region. Major media outlets pay close attention to the election results in the county; the New York Times in particular has covered the county's citizens and their voting concerns in a series of features each election cycle for over a decade. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 581 square miles, of which 575 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. First Ladies National Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 378,098 people, 148,316 households, 102,782 families residing in the county.
The population density was 656 people per square mile. There were 157,024 housing units at an average density of 272 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.28% White, 7.20% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 148,316 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,824, the median income for a family was $47,747. Males had a median income of $37,065 versus $23,875 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,417. About 6.80% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 375,586 people, 151,089 households, 100,417 families residing in the county; the population density was 652.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 165,215 housing units at an average density of 287.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.7% white, 7.6% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.6% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 10.1% were English, 10.1% were Italian, 7.7% were American.
Of the 151,089 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,941 and the median income for a family was $55,976. Males had a median income of $44,238 versus $31,896 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,015. About 9.5% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Stark county used to be Republican, but since 1992 it has become a swing county that tilts Democratic. In 2016, Donald Trump won the county by the largest margin of any presidential candidate since Ronald Reagan in 1984. Commissioners: Janet Weir Creighton, Bill Smith, Richard Regula Auditor: Alan Harold Clerk of Courts: Louis P. Giavasis Judges of the Court of Common Pleas: Hon. Kristin Farmer, Hon. John G. Haas, Hon. Taryn L. Heath, Hon. Francis G. Forchione, Hon Chryssa Hartnett Coroner: P.
S. Murthy M. D. Engineer: Keith Bennett Family Court: Hon. Rosemarie Hall, Hon Jim D. James, Hon
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
110th United States Congress
The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, between January 3, 2007, January 3, 2009, during the last two years of the second term of President George W. Bush, it was composed of the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U. S. Census; the Democratic Party controlled a majority in both chambers for the first time since the end of the 103rd Congress in 1995. Although the Democrats held fewer than 50 Senate seats, they had an operational majority because the two independent senators caucused with the Democrats for organizational purposes. No Democratic-held seats had fallen to the Republican Party in the 2006 elections. Democrat Nancy Pelosi became the first woman Speaker of the House; the House received the first Muslim and Buddhist members of Congress. Members debated initiatives such as the Democrats' 100-Hour Plan and the Iraq War troop surge of 2007. Following President Bush's 2007 State of the Union Address, Congress debated his proposal to create a troop surge to increase security in Iraq.
The House of Representatives passed a non-binding measure opposing the surge and a $124 billion emergency spending measure to fund the war, which included language that dictated troop levels and withdrawal schedules. President Bush, vetoed the bill as promised, making this his second veto while in office. Both houses of Congress subsequently passed a bill funding the war without timelines, but with benchmarks for the Iraqi government and money for other spending projects like disaster relief. January 23, 2007: President Bush delivered the 2007 State of the Union Address August 2, 2007: The Republican minority disputed the results of a vote to recommit; this led to an investigation by the House Select Committee on Voting Irregularities. December 18, 2007: The Senate set a record for the most cloture votes. January 2008: Start of the Great Recession January 28, 2008: President Bush delivered the 2008 State of the Union Address September 15, 2008: The precipitation of global financial crisis intensifies a recession that began in January.
November 4, 2008: General elections - Democrats increased their congressional majorities and Senator Barack Obama was elected President. These are partial lists of prominent enacted legislation and pending bills. See also: 2008 Congressional Record, Vol. 154, Page D845, Resume of Congressional Activity February 2, 2007 — House Page Board Revision Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–2, 121 Stat. 4 May 25, 2007 — U. S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007, Pub. L. 110–28, 121 Stat. 112, including Title VIII: Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007, 121 Stat. 188 June 14, 2007 — Preserving United States Attorney Independence Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–34, 121 Stat. 224 July 26, 2007 — Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–49, 121 Stat. 246 August 3, 2007 — Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–53, 121 Stat. 266 August 5, 2007 — Protect America Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–55, 121 Stat. 552 September 14, 2007 — Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, Pub.
L. 110–81, 121 Stat. 735 November 8, 2007 — Water Resources Development Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–114, 121 Stat. 1041 December 19, 2007 — Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–140, 121 Stat. 1492 February 13, 2008 — Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–185, 122 Stat. 613 May 21, 2008 — Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, Pub. L. 110–233, 122 Stat. 881 May 22, 2008 — Food and Energy Security Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110–234, 122 Stat. 923 June 30, 2008 — Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–252, 122 Stat. 2323, including Title V: Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 July 10, 2008 — FISA Amendments Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–261, 122 Stat. 2436 July 29, 2008 — Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–286, 122 Stat. 2632 July 30, 2008 — Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–289, 122 Stat. 2654 October 3, 2008 — Public Law 110-343, 122 Stat. 3765, including: Div. A: Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, H. R. 1424. B: Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008.
C: Tax Extenders and Alternative Minimum Tax Relief Act of 2008 October 15, 2008 — Pub. L. 110–430: Setting the beginning of the first session of the 111th Congress and the date for counting Electoral College votes, 122 Stat. 4846 December 19, 2008 — Pub. L. 110–455: A Saxbe fix, reducing the compensation and other emoluments attached to the office of Secretary of State to that, in effect on January 1, 2007: allowing Hillary Clinton to serve as Secretary of State despite the Ineligibility Clause of the United States Constitution. More information: Public Laws for the 110th Congress and Complete index of Public and Private Laws for 110th Congress at GPO in America's Climate Security Act of 2007 Auto Industry Financing and Restructuring Act Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act District of Columbia House Voting Rights Act of 2007 Employee Free Choice Act Employment Non-Discrimination Act Executive Branch Reform Act of 2007 Family and Consumer Choice Act of 2007 Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act of 2007 Habeas Corpus Restoration Act of 2007 Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 Medicare Prescription Drug Price Negotiation Act of 2007 Personal Use of Marijuana by Responsible Adults Act of 2008 Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act of 2007 State Children's Health Insurance Program C
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. Indexes are issued every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code authorizes publication of the Congressional Record; the Congressional Record consists of four sections: the House section, the Senate section, the Extensions of Remarks, since the 1940s, the Daily Digest. At the back of each daily issue is the Daily Digest, which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities and serves as a table of contents for each issue; the House and Senate sections contain proceedings for the separate chambers of Congress. A section of the Congressional Record titled Extensions of Remarks contains speeches and other extraneous words that were not uttered during open proceedings of the full Senate or of the full House of Representatives.
Witnesses in committee hearings are asked to submit their complete testimony "for the record" and only deliver a summary of it in person. The full statement will appear in a printed volume of the hearing identified as "Statements for the Record". In years past, this particular section of the Congressional Record was called the "Appendix". While members of either body may insert material into Extensions of Remarks, Senators do so; the overwhelming majority of what is found there is entered at the request of Members of the House of Representatives. From a legal standpoint, most materials in the Congressional Record are classified as secondary authority, as part of a statute's legislative history. By custom and rules of each house, members frequently "revise and extend" their remarks made on the floor before the debates are published in the Congressional Record. Therefore, for many years, speeches that were not delivered in Congress appeared in the Congressional Record, including in the sections purporting to be verbatim reports of debates.
In recent years, these revised remarks have been preceded by a "bullet" symbol or, more and printed in a typeface discernibly different from that used to report words spoken by members. The Congressional Record is publicly available for records before 1875 via the Library of Congress' American Memory Century of Lawmaking website, since 1989 via Congress.gov. Thanks to a partnership between GPO and the Library of Congress, digital versions of the bound editions are available on govinfo.gov for 1873 to 2001 and 2005 to 2015. Govinfo.gov provides access to digital versions of the daily edition from 1994 to the present. The Constitution, in Article I, Section 5, requires Congress to keep a journal of its proceedings, although the House and Senate Journals are separate publications from the Congressional Record, include only a bare record of actions and votes, rather than verbatim texts of the debates; the Congressional Record was first published in 1873. Prior to this, roll calls and other records were recorded in The Annals of Congress, the Register of Debates in Congress, or the Congressional Globe.
A digital collection of these historical volumes is now available online via the Library of Congress. Hansard, British parliamentary record Congressional Record Bound Edition via GPO's govinfo from 1873-2001, 2005-2015. Congressional Record Daily Edition via GPO's govinfo from 1994 to present. Congressional Record Index via GPO's govinfo from 1983. Search Congressional Record from 1995 to present Overview of the Congressional Record and Its Predecessor Publications: A Research Guide Sessions of Congress and Corresponding Debate Record Volume Numbers Find Congressional Record in a Depository Library Sources for the Congressional Record: Free and Commercial for people with access to libraries U. S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, containing the Annals of Congress, Register of Debates, Congressional Globe, Congressional Record, hosted by the Library of Congress
Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, United States. Canton is located 60 miles south of Cleveland and 20 miles south of Akron in Northeast Ohio; the city lies on the edge of Ohio's extensive Amish country in Holmes and Wayne counties to the city's west and southwest. Canton is the largest municipality in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Stark and Carroll counties; as of the 2010 Census, the population was 73,007, making Canton eighth among Ohio cities in population. Founded in 1805 alongside the Middle and West Branches of Nimishillen Creek, Canton became a heavy manufacturing center because of its numerous railroad lines. However, its status in that regard began to decline during the late 20th century, as shifts in the manufacturing industry led to the relocation or downsizing of many factories and workers. After this decline, the city's industry diversified into the service economy, including retailing, education and healthcare.
Canton is chiefly notable for being the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the birthplace of the National Football League. 25th U. S. President William McKinley conducted the famed front porch campaign, which won him the presidency of the United States in the 1896 election, from his home in Canton; the McKinley National Memorial and the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum commemorate his life and presidency. Canton was chosen as the site of the First Ladies National Historic Site in honor of his wife, Ida Saxton McKinley. Canton is experiencing an urban renaissance, anchored by its growing and thriving arts district centrally located in the downtown area. Several historic buildings have been rehabilitated and converted into upscale lofts, attracting thousands of new downtown residents into the city. Furthering this downtown development, in June 2016, Canton became one of the first cities in Ohio to allow the open consumption of alcoholic beverages in a "designated outdoor refreshment area" pursuant to a state law enacted in 2015.
Canton was founded in 1805, incorporated as a village in 1822, re-incorporated as a city in 1838. The plat of Canton was recorded at New Lisbon, Ohio, on November 15, 1805 by Bezaleel Wells, a surveyor and devout Episcopalian from Maryland born January 28, 1763. Canton was named as a memorial to Captain John O'Donnell, an Irish merchant marine with the British East India Trading Company whom Wells admired. O'Donnell named his estate in Maryland after the Chinese city Canton as he had been the first person to transport goods from there to Baltimore; the name selected by Wells may have been influenced by the Huguenot use of the word "canton," which meant a division of a district containing several communes. Through Wells' efforts and promotion, Canton was designated the county seat of Stark County upon its division from Columbiana County on January 1, 1809. Canton was the adopted home of President William McKinley. Born in Niles, McKinley first practiced law in Canton around 1867, was prosecuting attorney of Stark County from 1869 to 1871.
The city was his home during his successful campaign for Ohio governor, the site of his front-porch presidential campaign of 1896 and the campaign of 1900. Canton is now the site of the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum and the McKinley National Memorial, dedicated in 1907. On June 16, 1918, Eugene V. Debs delivered the keynote speech at the annual Ohio Socialist Convention held in Canton's Nimisilla Park. At the time, Debs had been a four-time candidate for President and was considered the country’s leading socialist and labor organizer. During his speech he decried America’s involvement in the First World War, saying, “They have always taught you that it is your patriotic duty to go to war and slaughter yourselves at their command. You have never had a voice in the war; the working class who make the sacrifices, who shed the blood, have never yet had a voice in declaring war.”Among Debs' audience at Nimisilla Park were agents of the U. S. Department of Justice; the year before Debs' speech, a month following the American entry into the First World War, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Espionage Act of 1917 into law.
This Act made it a federal crime to interfere with, among other things, the Selective Service Act or military draft. On June 30, 1918, Debs was arrested and charged with, among other things, “unlawfully and feloniously cause and attempt to cause and incite and attempt to incite, disloyalty and refusal of duty, in the military and naval forces of the United States.” Debs' trial began on September 10, 1918 in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. On September 12, 1918, a jury found Debs guilty, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. On March 10, 1919, the U. S. Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of Debs' conviction in United States. Debs began serving his prison sentence on April 13, 1919, he and remained incarcerated until September 25, 1921 when he was released after President Warren Harding commuted his sentence to time served. The U. S. Supreme Court's decision affirming Debs' conviction was criticized by legal scholars at the time and is regarded as a low-point in First Amendment jurisprudence.
While Debs’ speech in Canton and subsequent conviction aided Debs in delivering the Socialist Party’s antiwar platform, his age and the deleterious effects of prison exhausted his ability as an orator. Debs died of heart failure on October 20, 1926. In June 2017 Canton applied for and received a historic marker from the Ohio History Connection the Ohio Historical Society, to commemorate Debs' spe
Cuyahoga Valley National Park
Cuyahoga Valley National Park is an American national park that preserves and reclaims the rural landscape along the Cuyahoga River between Akron and Cleveland in Northeast Ohio. Cuyahoga Valley is unusual among American national parks being adjacent to two large urban areas and including a dense road network, small towns, private attractions; the 32,572-acre park is administered by the National Park Service, but within its boundaries are areas independently managed as city parks or private businesses. Cuyahoga Valley was designated as a National Recreation Area in 1974 redesignated as a national park 26 years in 2000, remains the only national park that originated as a national recreation area. Cuyahoga Valley is the only national park in the state of Ohio, one of nine Midwestern national parks, one of three in the Great Lakes Basin, with Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior and Indiana Dunes National Park bordering Lake Michigan; the valley began providing recreation for urban dwellers in the 1870s when people came from nearby cities for carriage rides or leisure boat trips along the canal.
In 1880, the Valley Railway became another way to escape urban industrial life. Actual park development began in the 1910s and 1920s with the establishment of Cleveland and Akron metropolitan park districts. In 1929, the estate of Cleveland businessman Hayward Kendall donated 430 acres around the Ritchie Ledges and a trust fund to the state of Ohio. Kendall's will stipulated that the "property should be perpetually used for park purposes"; the area was called Virginia Kendall Park, in honor of his mother. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps built much of the park's infrastructure including the Happy Days Lodge and the shelters at Octagon, the Ledges, Kendall Lake; the Happy Days Lodge, near Peninsula, was constructed from 1938–39 as a camp for urban children. The lodge is presently used only as a special events site. Although the regional parks safeguarded certain places, by the 1960s local citizens feared that urban sprawl would overwhelm the Cuyahoga Valley's natural beauty. An additional concern was the environmental degradation of the Cuyahoga River via factory waste and sewage, along with fires that burned on the river in 1952 and 1969.
Citizens joined forces with state and national government staff to find a long-term solution. On December 27, 1974, President Gerald Ford signed the bill establishing the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area; the National Park Service acquired the 47-acre Krejci Dump in 1985 to include as part of the recreation area. They requested a thorough analysis of the site's contents from the Environmental Protection Agency. After the survey identified toxic materials, the area was closed in 1986 and designated a superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act of 1980. Litigation was filed against responsible parties: Ford, GM, Chrysler, 3M, Waste Management, Kewanee Industries, Federal Metals. Only 3M would not agreed to a settlement, the company lost at trial. Removal of toxic materials began in 1987 with 371,000 short tons of contaminated soils and debris removed by 2012, restoration completed by 2015; the area was redesignated a national park by Congress on October 11, 2000, with the passage of the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, House Bill 4578, 106th Congress.
The park is administered by the National Park Service. The David Berger National Memorial in Beachwood, a Cleveland suburb, is managed through Cuyahoga Valley National Park; the Richfield Coliseum, a multipurpose arena in the Cuyahoga River area, was demolished in 1999 and the vacant site became part of Cuyahoga Valley National Park upon its designation in 2000. The area has since become a grassy meadow, a popular birdwatching site. Animals found in the park include raccoons, coyotes, red foxes, peregrine falcons, river otters, bald eagles, three species of moles, white-tailed deer, Canada geese, gray foxes, great blue herons, seven species of bats. Cuyahoga Valley features natural, man-made, private attractions, unusual for an American national park; the park includes compatible-use sites not owned by the federal government, such as regional parks of the Cleveland Metroparks and Summit Metro Parks systems. The natural areas include forests, rolling hills, narrow ravines, wetlands and waterfalls.
About 100 waterfalls are located in the Cuyahoga Valley, with the most popular being the 65-foot tall Brandywine Falls—the tallest waterfall in the park and the tallest in Northeast Ohio. The Ledges are a rock outcropping. Talus caves are located among the boulders in the forest around the Ledges; the park has many trails, most notably the 20-mile Towpath Trail, which follows a former stretch of the 308-mile Ohio and Erie Canal and is popular for hiking and running. Skiing and sled-riding are available during the winter at Kendall Hills. Visitors can play golf, or take scenic excursions and railroad tours on the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad during special events; the park features preserved and restored displays of 19th and early 20th century sustainable farming and rural living, most notably the Hale Farm and Village, while catering to contemporary cultural interests with art exhibits, outdoor concerts, theater performances in venues such as Blossom Music Center and Kent State University's Porthouse Theatre.
In the mid-1980s, the park hosted the National Folk Festival. The multi-purpose Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail was deve