Rama I

Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, born Thongduang and known as Rama I, was the founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam. His full title in Thai is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, he ascended the throne in 1782, after defeating a rebellion which had deposed King Taksin of Thonburi. He was celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin as the new capital of the reunited kingdom. Rama I was born from great grandson of Kosa Pan, his father served in the royal court in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, had served King Taksin in wars against the Burmese Konbaung dynasty and helped him in the reunification of Siam. During this time he emerged as Siam's most powerful military leader. Thongduang was the first Somdet Chao Phraya, the highest rank the nobility could attain, equaled to that of royalty. In 1782, he crowned himself as the monarch; the most famous event in his reign was the Burmese–Siamese War of 1785, the last major Burmese assault on Siam.

Like other high-ranking figures of old Siam, Rama I's name changed several times during his lifetime, depending on his respective position, posthumously the way he was referred to change. His name at birth was Thongduang, family names had not yet been introduced in Siam at that time; when Thongduang served as deputy governor of Ratchaburi Province during the rule of King Ekkathat of Ayutthaya, he bore the title of Luang Yokkrabat. After the demise of Ayutthaya, the new king Taksin to whom he served as an important military commander, awarded him successively the titles of Phra Ratcharin Chao Krom Phra Tamruat, Phraya Aphaironnarit, Phraya Yommarat, Phraya Chakri and Chaophraya Chakri. Taksin created him the title of Somdet Chaophraya Maha Kasatsuek, a noble title as high as no Siamese official had born before him, making him quasi-royalty; when he ascended to the throne in 1782, he took the name Ramathibodi, just like the founder of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. His full title was much longer, intended to demonstrate his universal claim to power like of earlier Siamese kings.

After his death, the people referred to him as Phaendin Ton, to his son as Phaendin Klang. Continuing this system his grandson Rama III would have been "the last reign". To avoid this inauspicious title, he ended this practice by donating two Buddha statues that were placed to the sides of the Emerald Buddha at Wat Phra Kaeo and dedicated one each to his father and grandfather, he demanded to refer to his two predecessors using the names of these Buddha statues. The one dedicated to the first Chakri king was named Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok; this is. His descendant Vajiravudh who had studied in England, realised that most Siamese kings' names were difficult to reproduce and remember for Westerners, he therefore disposed to use for all kings of the Chakri dynasty the name Rama together with the respective ordinal number. So this king is Rama I in Western literature. In 1982, 200 years after his accession, the Thai cabinet decided to award him the epithet Maharat. Thongduang was born in 1737 in the reign of King Boromakot of Ayutthaya.

His father was Thongdi, a Mon noble serving the royal court, Phra Akson Sunthonsat. Phra Akson Sunthonsat was a descendant of Kosa Pan, the leader of King Narai's embassy to the French court, his mother, was part-Chinese. Thongduang had six other siblings. Thongduang at a young age entered the Royal Palace as one of the royal pages of King Uthumphon, where he met his childhood friend Taksin. In 1757, aged 21, he became a monk temporarily, in accordance with Siamese custom. In 1760, he married daughter of a town patron in Samut Sakorn, he was appointed the Luang Yokkrabat of Ratchaburi Province by King Ekkathat in 1758. On the eve of the fall of Ayutthaya, Phraya Wachiraprakan had foreseen that the fall of the city was certain. Wachiraprakan decided to break the siege of the city of Ayutthaya by the Burmese army and establish a new base outside. Phraya Ratchaburi joined this venture. In 1767, Ayutthaya under King Ekkathat fell to Burmese invaders, the city was destroyed. Local warlords rose up to establish their supremacy in the absence of a central authority.

Despite the fall of Ayutthaya and his men in the same year managed to capture Chantaburi and Trat. During this time Phraya Ratchaburi became one of Taksin's six ministers and together with Phraya Pichai they were regarded by Taksin as his two most valuable generals. Swiftly Taksin made a strategic plan and under it recaptured Ayutthaya in one year. In 1768 Taksin crowned himself and founded the Kingdom of Thonburi on the west bank of the mouth of the Chao Phraya river, using Thonburi as a new capital. Under the new Thonburi regime, Thongduang was appointed head of the royal police department, bearing the title Phra Ratcharin. After subjugating the warlord of Phimai with his brother Bunma, he was raised to

Karl Albrecht

For others with the same or similar name, see Carl Albrecht. Karl Hans Albrecht was a German entrepreneur who founded the discount supermarket chain Aldi with his brother Theo, he was for many years the richest person in Germany. In February 2014, he was ranked the 21st-richest person in the world by Hurun Report. Karl and Theo Albrecht were born and raised in a Catholic family in modest circumstances in Essen, Germany, their father, Karl Sr, was employed as a miner and as a baker's assistant. Their mother Anna, née Siepmann, had a small grocery store in the workers' quarter of Schonnebeck, a suburb of Essen. Theo completed an apprenticeship in his mother's store. Karl was wounded on the Eastern Front. After the war, the brothers jointly took over their mother's business and founded Albrecht KG, they separated that company in 1961 into Aldi Nord, covering the part of Germany north of the Ruhr under Theo Albrecht, Aldi Süd under Karl. The first Aldi was opened in 1962. In 1994, Karl Albrecht removed himself from the daily operations of Aldi Süd and took the position of chairman of the board until 2002.

At the beginning of 2002, he relinquished this position, thereby ceding control of the firm. As of 2010s, the business is no longer run by any of Karl Albrecht's family members. Karl Albrecht was a reclusive man who had not taken part in public life for several years prior to his death; as a result, little is known about him. Forbes magazine reported, he lived in Essen, as did his brother Theo until the latter's death. Golf was one of his hobbies, Albrecht played the sport on his own golf course, the Öschberghof, which he built in 1976, he raised orchids. In 2014, Albrecht was listed as one of the richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$23.14 billion. Forbes magazine listed him as one of the richest men in the world, with an estimated net worth in 2011 of US$25.4 billion, which ranked him 10th in its 2012 list of billionaires – making him the oldest billionaire in the Top 20 list. Upon his death, Albrecht was named the richest person in Germany, the fourth-richest in Europe.

Forbes topic page on Karl Albrecht Obituary in The Independent by Marcus Williamson

Hudson Plains Ecozone (CEC)

This article is about an ecozone. For the landform covering the same general region, see Hudson Bay Lowland; the Hudson Plains Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, is a sparsely populated Canadian subarctic ecozone extending from the western coast of Quebec to the coast of Manitoba, encompassing all coastal areas of James Bay and those of southern Hudson Bay, stretching to about 50°N latitude. It includes the largest continuous wetland in the world, it covers nearly a quarter of Ontario's landmass, 3.6% of Canada's total area, totalling 369,000 square kilometres of land and 11,800 square kilometres of water. Its historical prominence is due to the harshness endured by pioneer explorers who established fortifications for Hudson's Bay Company, as a result of regional wars between France and Britain. Today, it is noted for the well-known Polar Bear Provincial Park, to a lesser extent Wapusk National Park, as well as its vast wetlands which are used by migratory birds.

The Palaeozoic and Proterozoic sedimentary deposits overlaying the bedrock have formed into a wide and level plain characterised by raised beaches and river deltas, with an elevation exceeding 120 m. The flat land slopes toward the two bays, which act as a drainage basin for the region. However, the poor drainage system has spurred the natural development of numerous wetlands, it is encircled by the Canadian Shield, with which it overlaps in a few areas to the west. To its north is the cold Arctic Archipelago Marine ecozone, to the south is the milder Boreal Shield. Hence, this ecozone is transitional, evident as it transforms from barren tundra in the north to open taiga forests in the south; these forests resemble those of the boreal zone, with sparser vegetation. Thousands of depressions carved by retreating glaciers have become wetlands; the Hudson Plains is noted for coastal marshes and extensive tidal flats, with tidal marshes along the coast of Hudson Bay. Belts of raised beaches are evident.

The ecozone has a subarctic climate, influenced by the adjacent marine area of Hudson Bay, which features cold and moisture-laden low-pressure systems. Frigid polar high-pressure air masses reach the area. Cold, mean January temperatures are near −19 °C, mean July temperatures range between 12 °C and 16 °C; the region experiences moderate precipitation, between 400 mm to 700 mm annually. Summers are cool and short, with prolonged daylight, while winters are cold. Referred to as an "insect-infested landscape of bog and fog", it teems with large insect populations that are a food source for migratory waterbirds; the Hudson Plains have become "notorious for their populations of biting insects". Vegetation is somewhat limited, with the northern areas abutting the Arctic Archipelago Marine being nearly treeless, whereas the southern extent, adjacent to the Boreal Shield, have open forest. Alder, black spruce and tamarack are the most common plant species in the treed bogs and fens of the Hudson Plains, whereas sphagnum and shrubs such as crowberry and blueberry dominate the open bogs to the north, with white spruce appearing further south.

Poorly drained areas produce dense sedge and lichen cover. The Hudson Plains represent the southern extent of the polar bears yearly migratory route, which reaches the northwestern coast of Ontario. In autumn, polar bears migrate to the ice back forming along the coast of Hudson Bay; the bears follow the Hudson Bay Coast toward Churchill, Manitoba. Mammals such as moose, woodland caribou and black bears are comfortable in this environment, but smaller mammals are more common, including muskrats, Arctic foxes and fishers; the adjacent marine ecozone of the Arctic Archipelago Marine supports mammal populations of walrus and bearded and ringed seals. Millions of migratory shorebirds stage and nest in multiple areas of the Hudson Plains in three areas within Southern James Bay: Akimiski Island, the migratory bird sanctuaries at Hannah Bay and the mouth of the Moose River. Representative species include the snow goose, Canada goose, king eider, loon and peregrine falcon