Rambo (franchise)

Rambo is an American media franchise centered on a series of action films. There have been five films released so far in the series: First Blood, Rambo: First Blood Part II, Rambo III, Rambo and Rambo: Last Blood; the films follow John Rambo, a US Army veteran played by Sylvester Stallone, traumatized by his experience in the Vietnam War, uses the skills he gained there to fight corrupt police officers, enemy troops and drug cartels. The franchise has its roots in the 1972 novel First Blood by David Morrell. Stallone co-wrote the screenplays of all five films, directed Rambo; the film series has grossed $819 million in total, with the most successful film, Rambo: First Blood Part II, grossing $300 million. In addition to films, the franchise spawned an animated television series and a series of comic books, video games and a Bollywood remake. Upon returning to the United States, Vietnam veteran John Rambo has difficulty adjusting to civilian life and wanders the country as a drifter for a decade.

In December 1981, Rambo travels to a small town in Washington, in search of a fellow U. S. Army Green Beret buddy, he learns. He attempts to find a diner in town, maybe a temporary job; the overconfident town sheriff Will Teasle does not welcome Rambo, judging the military hero negatively because of his long hair and scruffy look. Rambo disobeys the sheriff's order to stay away from town, as he has done nothing wrong and believes such banishment to be a violation of his freedom of movement, most of all he is hungry. Rambo returns to town soon afterwards and is promptly charged with vagrancy and subject to harassment from the deputies; the harassment triggers flashbacks of Rambo's memories of his torture at the hands of the North Vietnamese when he was a prisoner of war. Rambo fights his way out of the sheriff's department with his bare hands and makes his way into the wilderness. A manhunt ensues, with his deputies all badly wounded. Rambo chooses not to kill any of them, but unintentionally kills a police officer in self-defense by throwing a rock at a helicopter, causing the pilot to lose control and an officer to fall out.

The State Police and National Guard are called in. Colonel Samuel Trautman, Rambo's former commanding officer, arrives, he suggests giving Rambo a chance to escape. Teasle allows Trautman to contact Rambo through a stolen police radio, but Rambo refuses to surrender, stating that "They drew first blood not me" and hangs up; the authorities reject Trautman's recommendation for a wait-and-see attitude and continue the manhunt, Rambo's subsequent rampage culminates in him returning to town with guns and bombs from a commandeered Army truck. This results in more of the town's main street. Rambo stands poised to eliminate the sheriff, but Trautman confronts Rambo face-to-face, convinces his former soldier to surrender to the authorities. Between the first and second films, Rambo is convicted and remanded to a civilian maximum-security prison where hard labor is the norm. Despite being a convict, the rigid routine and discipline of prison life provides Rambo with some measure of much-needed stability, as it reminds him of his past in the military and its own rigid hierarchy.

The film opens with Colonel Samuel Trautman offering Rambo his freedom if Rambo will return to Vietnam to search for American prisoners of war remaining in Vietnamese captivity. Marshall Murdock, the official in charge of the mission, is portrayed as a corrupt political figure who doesn't want to expose the truth. Rambo is not to engage the enemy and instead is ordered to take photographs of a North Vietnamese camp, the same camp he himself had been held prisoner in, to prove to the American public there are no more POWs in Vietnam, although Murdock knows that there are. Rambo is flown into the country with the purpose of parachuting into the jungle, but a malfunction during his exit from the plane causes him to have to cut away much of his equipment, he meets his in-country contact, anti-communist Vietnamese rebel Co Bao, serving as an intelligence agent. Rambo discovers that there are POWs being held in the camp where he was dropped and that POWs were rotated between camps. Rambo breaks one POW out of the camp and attempts to escape, only to be abandoned at the moment of a pick up by helicopter on a hilltop on the orders of Murdock, after which both he and the POW are recaptured by the Vietnamese soldiers.

Rambo is immobilized in a pit of sewage and leeches tortured by Soviet soldiers, who are allied with the Vietnamese and training Vietnamese soldiers. Co enters the base under the guise of a prostitute for hire. After Rambo expresses his deepest gratitude for his rescue, the two share a kiss, after Co implores him to take her back to America with him; as they prepare to move on, Co is shot by surprise gunfire. Enraged, Rambo acts on his own initiative and starts a one-man war, hunting the Vietnamese and Soviet soldiers searching for him in the jungle and stealing a Soviet-captured helicopter, he flies the helicopter back to the camp, destroying it and killing the remaining Vietnamese and Soviet soldiers in the camp. He is pursued by a Soviet Mi-24 Hind helicopter. After destroying the Hind with an RPG, he returns to the US base in Thailand with all the POWs. Rambo is enraged at how the United States government has ignored the existence

JAMA (journal)

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research and editorials covering all aspects of biomedicine; the journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011; the journal was established in 1883 by the American Medical Association and was superseded the Transactions of the American Medical Association. Councilor's Bulletin was renamed the Bulletin of the American Medical Association, absorbed by the Journal of the American Medical Association. In 1960, the journal obtained its current title, JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association; the journal is referred to as JAMA. Continuing Education Opportunities for Physicians was a semiannual journal section providing lists for regional or national levels of continuing medical education.

Between 1937 and 1955, the list was produced either quarterly or semiannually. Between 1955 and 1981, the list was available annually, as the number of CME offerings increased from 1,000 to 8,500. In 2016, CME transitioned into a digital offering from the JAMA Network called JN Learning CME & MOC from JAMA Network. JN Learning provides CME and MOC credit from article and audio materials published within all 12 JAMA Network journals, including JAMA. On 11 July 2016, JAMA published an article by Barack Obama entitled, United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps, the first academic paper published by a sitting U. S. president. The article was not subject to blind peer-review, it argued for specific policies that future presidents could pursue in order to improve national health care reform implementation. After the controversial 1999 firing of an editor-in-chief, George D. Lundberg, a process was put in place to ensure editorial freedom. A seven-member journal oversight committee was created to evaluate the editor-in-chief and to help ensure editorial independence.

Since its inception, the committee has met at least once a year. Presently, JAMA policy states that article content should be attributed to authors, not to the publisher. From 1964 to 2013, the JAMA journal used images of artwork on its cover and it published essays commenting on the artwork. According to former editor George Lundberg, this practice was designed to link the humanities and medicine. In 2013, a format redesign moved the art feature to an inside page, replacing an image of the artwork on the cover with a table of contents; the purpose of the redesign was to standardize the appearance of all journals in the JAMA Network. The following persons have been editor-in-chief of JAMA: The JAMA journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 51.273, ranking it 3rd out of 160 journals in the category "Medicine, General & Internal". List of American Medical Association journals Official website American Medical Association Archives Free copies of volumes 1-80, from the Internet Archive and HathiTrust

United States Newspaper Program

The United States Newspaper Program is a national effort among the individual states and the US federal government to locate and preserve on microfilm, newspapers published in the United States up to the present time. Funding is provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities, technical assistance is provided by the Library of Congress; the program has since been enhanced by the National Digital Newspaper Program. The program began in 1982 and was estimated to be completed in 2007; as of 2004, $51.1 million in federal and $19.3 million in state funding had been raised. The initiators of the project asserted that the intellectual content of newspapers serves an important role for researchers as it is for all intents and purposes the first draft of history. Newspapers provide unique access to "diverse geographic viewpoints at the community level." Problematically, since the middle of the 19th century this "first draft" has been recorded on poor quality newsprint, decaying rapidly. Through microfilming the intellectual content, the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress hoped to preserve it and improve accessibility.

The U. S. Newspaper Program has supported projects in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; each project is conducted by a single organization or agency within a state or territory the state's largest newspaper repository. Holdings from a large variety of repositories are catalogued; this includes public libraries, county courthouses, newspaper offices, historical museums and university libraries and historical societies. In addition to these state projects, the United States Newspaper Program funded cataloging of newspapers at eight national repositories one of which received funding for preservation. Records are entered into a national database maintained at the Online Computer Library Center "and accessible through more than 53,500 dedicated computer terminals worldwide. Microfilm copies of newspapers are available to researchers anywhere in the country through the inter-library loan program." It is imperative that the program create microfilmed surrogates that "maintain the integrity and authenticity of the representation of the original document."

Anything less could result in the destruction of history. As such, in order to participate in the U. S. Newspaper Program, institutions must agree to adhere to an array of stringent standards; the standards for both microfilming and preservation were set by the Library of Congress. The most outspoken critic of the United States Newspaper Program is the author Nicholson Baker. Baker argues that the microfilming done for this project is ineffectual because it cannot capture all information and mistakes were made in filming that obfuscate what content there is. In his opinion this problem is compounded by the fact that newspapers were thrown away or sold after they had been filmed. Baker makes his case in the book Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper and a The New Yorker article entitled Deadline: the author's desperate bid to save America's past. Baker felt so about this he ended up buying as many newspapers as he could and starting the American Newspaper Repository