Jerrald King Jerry Goldsmith was an American composer and conductor most known for his work in film and television scoring. A. Confidential, The Mummy, three Rambo films and five Star Trek films, Goldsmith was nominated for six Grammy Awards, five Primetime Emmy Awards, nine Golden Globe Awards, four British Academy Film Awards, and eighteen Academy Awards. Goldsmith, was born 10 February 1929 in Los Angeles and his parents were Tessa, a school teacher, and Morris Goldsmith, a structural engineer. He started playing piano at age six, but only got serious by the time he was eleven, at age sixteen, Goldsmith saw the 1945 film Spellbound in theaters and was inspired by veteran composer Miklós Rózsas soundtrack to pursue a career in music. There he was able to coach singers, work as an assistant choral director, play piano accompaniment, in 1950, Goldsmith found work at CBS as a clerk typist in the networks music department under director Lud Gluskin. There he began writing scores for radio shows as CBS Radio Workshop, Frontier Gentleman.
In an interview with Andy Velez from BarnesandNoble. com, Goldsmith stated, CBS had a workshop, and once a week the employees, whatever their talents, whether they were ushers or typists, would produce a radio show. But you had to be an employee and they needed someone to do music, and I knew someone there who said Id be great for this. Id just gotten married and needed a job, so they faked a typing test for me, I could do these shows. About six months later, the music department heard what I did, liked it and he progressed into scoring such live CBS television shows as Climax. and Playhouse 90. He scored multiple episodes of the television series The Twilight Zone and The Man from U. N. C. L. E. His feature film occurred when he composed the music to the 1957 western Black Patch. He continued with scores to films as the 1957 western Face of a Fugitive. Jerry Goldsmith began the decade composing for television shows as Dr. Kildare. However, he began receiving widespread name recognition after his intimate score to the 1962 classic western Lonely Are the Brave.
That same year, Goldsmith composed the mostly atonal and dissonant score to the 1962 pseudo-biopic Freud that focused on a period of the life of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Goldsmiths score went on to him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score. Following his success with Lonely Are the Brave and Freud, Goldsmith went on to even more critical recognition with the theme music to The Man from U. N. C. L. E
Central Intelligence Agency
As one of the principal members of the U. S. Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President. Though it is not the only U. S. government agency specializing in HUMINT and it exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA has increasingly expanded its roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations, when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events, with Pakistan described as an intractable target.
Counterintelligence, with China, Iran, the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIA, each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Directorate has four regional groups, six groups for transnational issues. There is a dedicated to Iraq, regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia and Europe, and the Asian Pacific, Latin American. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting intelligence. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U. S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy, in spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
This Directorate is known to be organized by regions and issues. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the U-2s original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Tears of the Sun
Tears of the Sun is a 2003 American action war drama film depicting a U. S. Navy SEAL team rescue mission amidst the civil war in Nigeria. Waters commands the team sent to rescue U. S. citizen Dr. Lena Fiore Kendricks from the war en route to her jungle hospital. The film was directed by Antoine Fuqua, Willis produced Tears of the Sun through Cheyenne Enterprises, his production company, and took the title from an early sub–title for Live Free or Die Hard, the fourth film in the Die Hard series. He filmed the sequel on the condition that he could use its sub-title for his SEALs war film, the cast of Tears of the Sun features refugees portrayed by actual African refugees living in the United States. Turmoil erupts in Nigeria following a coup detat, which sees the brutal murder of the president. As foreign nationals are evacuated from the country, Lieutenant A. K and their secondary mission is to extract the mission priest and two nuns, should they choose to come. Waters calls Captain Rhodes for options, after their short and ambiguous conversation and she begins assembling the able-bodied for the 12 kilometres hike, the priest and the nuns stay behind to take care of the some injured.
Irritated and behind the schedule, the team and the leave their hospital mission after daybreak. At nightfall they take a short break, guerrilla rebels rapidly approach their position, and Waters stealthily kills a straggling rebel. Dr. Kendricks warns Waters that the rebels are going to the mission, but he is determined to carry out his orders, back at the mission, the staff and refugees are confronted by rebel forces. Despite the priests pleas for mercy, the rebel forces execute him, when the team arrive at the extraction point, Waters initial plan becomes clear, the SEALs suddenly turn away the refugees from the waiting helicopter. Waters forces Dr. Kendricks into the helicopter, leaving the refugees stranded in the jungle, en route to the aircraft carrier, they fly over the original mission compound, seeing it destroyed and all its occupants murdered, as Dr. Kendricks had predicted. Remorseful, Waters orders the pilot to return to the refugees and he loads as many refugees as he can into the helicopter instead and decides to escort the remaining refugees to the Cameroon border.
During the hike to the border, using satellite scans, they discover the rebels are somehow tracking them, as they escape and evade the rebels, the team enters a village whose inhabitants are being raped and massacred by rebel soldiers. Aware of having the opportunity to stop it, Waters orders the team to take down the rebels, the team is visibly shaken by the atrocities they see the rebels have committed against the villagers. Again en route, Slo determines that a refugee is transmitting a signal allowing the rebels to locate them, the search for the transmitter reveals the presence of Arthur Azuka, surviving son of late President Samuel Azuka, which they realize is the reason the rebels are hunting them. Samuel Azuka was not only the president of the country, as the only surviving member of this royal bloodline, Arthur is the only person left with a legitimate claim to the leadership of Nigeria. A newer refugee picked up during the trek is discovered with the transmitter on his person and he attempts to run but is shot
Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the term for one engaged in Jihad. Jihads literal meaning is to struggle, in its roots, Mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad. Jihad was the used for the project of Islamic conquest in the early history of Islam. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act which is comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE. These acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of income with the poor. Some Islamic sects believe that armed-conflicts cannot be branded as Jihad unless it has ordered by Messiah. Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived, during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks. As time went by the sect grew ever larger until it was raiding and controlling larger areas in Afghanistan, some volunteers committed themselves to hand-to-hand combat and probable death. In Spanish, these rebels were known as juramentados, or oath-takers.
At the DRAs request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979, as warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan. Some groups of these veterans became significant players in conflicts in and these foreign fighters became known as Afghan Arabs and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Mujahideen forces caused serious casualties to the Soviet forces, and made the war very costly for the Soviet Union, in 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan. Many districts and cities fell to the mujahideen, in 1992 the DRAs last president. However, the mujahideen did not establish a government. After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan, veteran mujahideen confronted this radical splinter group in 1996.
The group took part in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran–Iraq War, another mujahideen was the Mujahedin-e Islam, an Islamic party led by Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani. It formed part of the National Front during the time of Mohammed Mosaddeqs oil nationalization, during the late 1950s and early 1960s, the mujahideen lost most of its momentum and support, resulting in most of them surrendering to government forces
Alon Moni Abutbul is an Israeli actor. Abutbul was born in Kiryat Ata, Israel to a Jewish family from Egypt and he attended the Thelma Yellin High School of Arts in Givatayim. 1980s After graduating from the Thelma Yellin High School in 1983 Abutbul played in the Israeli film Hapnimiyah, in 1986 Abutbul played in the film Malkat Hakitah. Abutbuls first role in a big film was in 1986 when he was cast in the Israeli film Shtei Etzbaot MiTzidon. For his performance in this film Abutbul was awarded the Best Actor award at the Jerusalem Film Festival and that year he played in the American-Israeli co-production Every Time We Say Goodbye in which he played alongside Gila Almagor. In 1987 Abutbul played in the Israeli Photo Roman, a year later, Abutbul played in the Israeli film Makom LYad Hayam alongside Anat Tzachor and in the American film Rambo III alongside Sylvester Stallone. For his performance in the film Abutbul wasn awarded the Best Actor award in the Jerusalem Film Festival, 1990s In 1991, Abutbul played in the American film Killing Streets.
A year later, in 1992, Abutbul starred in the Israeli film Roked Al Hahof, in 1993 Abutbul played in the Israeli film Ha-Yerusha alongside Avi Toledano. In 1993 Abutbul played in the direct to video American action film Deadly Heroes directed by Menahem Golan in which he played alongside Uri Gavriel, in 1995, Abutbul produced Gur Bentwichs film Ha-Kochav Hakachol in which he played the leading role. In 1995 Abutbul played in the Israeli film Leylasede alongside Gila Almagor and Anat Waxman, in 1998 Abutbul played in the Israeli TV film Mazal dagim and the Israeli film Gentila. In 1999 he participated in the Israeli film Love at Second Sight, 2000s In 2000, Abutbul won the Film actor of the decade award at the Haifa International Film Festival. In 2001, Abutbul played in the film The Order alongside Jean-Claude Van Damme and that same year he participated in the Isralei films Mars Turkey and A Five Minutes Walk. In 2003, Abutbul played in the Israeli film Ninas Tragedies alongside Ayelet Zurer, for his role in this film Abutbul won an Ophir Award for the Best Supporting Actor.
In 2005, Abutbul played alongside Moni Moshonov and Yuval Segal in the Israeli film Dance, in 2006 Abutbul played in the award-winning Israeli film Beaufort directed by Joseph Cedar. In 2008, Abutbul played in the Israeli film Shiva, and in the American film Body of Lies directed by Ridley Scott in which he played alongside Leonardo DiCaprio, in 2009 Abutbul starred in Yigal Bursteins film Hand of God alongside Moshe Ivgy and Dorit Bar-Or. In July 2008 Abutbul and Moshe Ivgy were awarded the Best Actor Award at the Jerusalem Film Festival for their roles in this film, 2010s In 2012, Abutbul appeared in The Dark Knight Rises, as an original character, Dr. Leonid Pavel. The film was released in theaters in North America on 20 July 2012, in 2016, Abutbul co-starred in the film London Has Fallen, as the arms dealer turned terrorist mastermind Aamir Barkawi, alongside Gerard Butler, Aaron Eckhart and Morgan Freeman. Throughout the years, Abutbul played many shows, mostly in the Habima Theatre
Michael Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone is an American actor and screenwriter. He wrote or co-wrote most of the 14 films in all three franchises, and directed many of the films, Stallones film Rocky was inducted into the National Film Registry as well as having its film props placed in the Smithsonian Museum. Stallones use of the front entrance to the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the Rocky series led the area to be nicknamed the Rocky Steps, Philadelphia has a statue of his Rocky character placed permanently near the museum. It was announced on December 7,2010 that Stallone was voted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in the non-participant category, in 1977, Stallone was nominated for two Academy Awards for Rocky, Best Original Screenplay and Best Actor. He became the man in history to receive these two nominations for the same film, after Charles Chaplin and Orson Welles. He received critical raves, as well as his first Golden Globe Award win and third Academy Award nomination, Stallones father was born in Gioia del Colle, Apulia and immigrated to the United States in the 1930s.
Stallones mother is of half French and half Russian Jewish descent and his younger brother is actor and musician Frank Stallone. As a result, the left side of his face is paralyzed – including parts of his lip, tongue. Around the age of 4, Stallone was flat-footed and put in a tap dancing school by his mother and his father moved the family to Washington, D. C. in the early 1950s, where he opened a beauty school. His mother opened a gymnasium called Barbellas in 1954. Stallones parents divorced when Sylvester was nine, and he lived with his mother. When Stallone was 16, he scored poorly in school and his mother got him a job at her beauty salon. He attended Notre Dame Academy and Lincoln High School in Philadelphia, and Charlotte Hall Military Academy, prior to attending Miami Dade College, Stallone had his first starring role in the soft core pornography feature film The Party at Kitty and Studs. He was paid US$200 for two days work, Stallone explained that he had done the film out of desperation after being evicted from his apartment and finding himself homeless for several days.
He has said that he slept three weeks in the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City prior to seeing a casting notice for the film. In the actors words, it was either do that movie or rob someone, the film was released several years as Italian Stallion, in order to cash in on Stallones newfound fame. While he was in Switzerland, Stallone got his start in films, playing an extra eating in a restaurant near to stars Robert Redford and Camilla Sparv, in the sports drama, Downhill Racer. In 1970, Stallone appeared in the film No Place to Hide, which was re-cut and retitled Rebel, in the Lemmon film, Jack Lemmons character chases and mugs Stallone, thinking that Stallones character is a pickpocket
Rambo (2008 film)
Rambo is a 2008 American independent action film directed, co-written by and starring Sylvester Stallone reprising his iconic role as Vietnam veteran John Rambo. It is the fourth and final installment in the Rambo franchise, set twenty years after the events of the previous film, Rambo III. This film is dedicated to the memory of Richard Crenna, who played the character Colonel Sam Trautman in the three films, and who died of heart failure in 2003. The film was released on January 25,2008, the film grossed $113,244,290 during its run at the international box office and $41,500,683 in DVD sales. The film had its television premiere on Spike TV on July 11,2010. However, it was the cut that was broadcast, not the theatrical version. The extended cut was released on Blu-ray two weeks later, despite not being as successful as the previous films, Stallone had confirmed that a sequel titled Rambo, Last Blood was still in the works but was converted into a reboot for the series. This film was cancelled in March 2016.
Amid the political protests of the Saffron Revolution in Burma, ruthless SPDC officer Major Pa Tee Tint leads an army to pillage small villages in a campaign of fear. His soldiers sadistically slaughter innocents, abduct teenage boys to be drafted into his army, twenty years after the events in Afghanistan, John Rambo now lives in Thailand, making a meager living as a snake catcher and by providing boat rides. During the trip, the boat is stopped by pirates demanding Sarah Miller, Rambo is forced to kill them to protect her. Michael is greatly disturbed by Rambos actions and upon arriving at their destination sends him back, the village the missionaries are giving care to is attacked by Tints soldiers. The missionaries are abducted and the villagers are all savagely massacred, the pastor of the missionaries church comes to Thailand and asks Rambo to guide a team of five mercenaries on a rescue mission. Rambo takes the team to the drop-off point and offers to help but the team leader Lewis. Myint, a Karen rebel familiar with the area, leads the mercenaries to the village of the massacre, as they survey the damage, a squad of Tints soldiers arrive in a cargo truck with a small group of hostages, intent on torturing them.
Outnumbered, the mercenaries take cover and watch helplessly as the prey on their hostages. Having secretly followed the mercenaries, Rambo emerges in time to kill all the soldiers with his bow and arrows. Rambo joins the team and they make their way to Tints soldiers camp
Rambo: First Blood Part II
Rambo, First Blood Part II is a 1985 American action film directed by George P. Cosmatos and starring Sylvester Stallone, who reprises his role as Vietnam veteran John Rambo. It is the sequel to the 1982 film First Blood, despite negative reviews, First Blood Part II was a major worldwide box office success, with an estimated 42 million tickets sold in the US. It has become the most recognized and memorable installment in the series, having inspired countless rip-offs, video games, the film was on the ballot for the American Film Institutes 100 Years. 100 Cheers, a list of Americas most inspiring movies, entertainment Weekly ranked the movie number 23 on its list of The Best Rock-em, Sock-em Movies of the Past 25 Years. A year into his sentence, former commando John Rambo is visited by his old commander, with the war in Vietnam over, the public has become increasingly concerned over news that a small group of US POWs have been left in enemy custody. To placate their demands for action, the US government has authorized a solo mission to confirm the reports.
As one of three men suited for such work, Rambo agrees to undertake the operation in exchange for a pardon. He is taken to meet Marshall Murdock, a government official overseeing the operation. During his insertion, Rambos parachute becomes tangled and breaks, causing him to lose most of his equipment, leaving him only his knife. He meets his contact, a young intelligence agent named Co-Bao. Reaching the camp, Rambo spots one of the prisoners tied to a cross shaped post, left to suffer from exposure, during escape, they are discovered by Vietnamese troops and attacked. When a gunboat manages to catch up, the pirates betray them out of fear, Rambo gets the POW and Co-Bao to safety, destroys the boat with an RPG-7, and kills the pirates. When Rambo calls for extraction, the helicopter is ordered to abort by Murdock, Co-Bao escapes, but Rambo and the POW are recaptured and returned to the camp. There, Rambo learns that Soviet troops are arming and training the Vietnamese and he is turned over to the local liaison, Lieutenant Colonel Podovsky and his right-hand man, Sergeant Yushin, for interrogation.
Upon learning of Rambos mission from intercepted missives, Podovsky demands that Rambo broadcast a message disavowing the POWs, meanwhile, Co infiltrates the camp disguised as a prostitute and comes to the hut in which Rambo is held captive. Rambo at first refuses to cooperate, but relents when the lives are threatened. Instead of reading the comments, Rambo directly threatens Murdock. He subdues the Russians with Cos help and escapes into the jungle and they kiss, and Rambo agrees to take Co back to the United States
Richard Donald Crenna was an American motion picture and radio actor and occasional television director. Richard Crenna starred in motion pictures as The Sand Pebbles, Wait Until Dark, Un Flic, Body Heat. Part Deux, the remake of Sabrina and The Flamingo Kid, Crenna played Walter Denton in the CBS radio network and CBS-TV network series Our Miss Brooks, and Luke McCoy in ABCs TV comedy series, The Real McCoys, which moved to CBS-TV in September 1962. Crenna was born in Los Angeles, the child of Edith J. who was a hotel manager in LA, and Domenick Anthony Crenna. His parents were both of Italian descent, Crenna attended Virgil Junior High School, followed by Belmont High School in Los Angeles. Following high school, Richard Crenna served in the U. S. Army during World War II, serving in the infantry as a radioman, Crenna served in the Pacific Theater decoding Japanese intercepts. After World War II, Richard Crenna attended the University of Southern California where he majored in English, Richard Crenna got his acting start on radio.
In 1937, he had gained his first role that of the kid who did everything wrong on Boy Scout Jamboree, in the following year, he started playing Walter Bronco Thompson on The Great Gildersleeve, and played it until the shows end in 1957. From 1948 to 1952 Richard Crenna played Walter Denton on Our Miss Brooks and remained with the cast when they moved it to a television show. He guest starred on the I Love Lucy episode The Young Fans with Janet Waldo and on NBCs 1955–56 anthology series, Frontier, in 1956, on the television series Father Knows Best, Crenna appeared in the episode The Promising Young Man as a protege named Woody. In 1957 played a robber on the Cheyenne should. When the 1948-1957 TV series Our Miss Brooks starring Eve Arden underwent a change in format, Crenna joined the cast of the comedy series The Real McCoys, as Luke McCoy. Kathleen Nolan was cast as his wife, Kate McCoy. Later, Crenna became one of the four directors of the series during its six-year run, in the 1960s, Richard Crenna directed many of the episodes of the Andy Griffith Show.
Crenna was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Star – Male in 1965, in 1966, Crenna played the ill-fated captain of an American gunboat, in 1920s China, in The Sand Pebbles. During the 1970s, Crenna continued his acting in such Western dramas such as Catlow, Breakheart Pass and he made a notable performance in Jean-Pierre Melvilles final film Un Flic in 1972. Crenna himself spoofed this character in the movie Hot Shots, Crenna portrayed the character of New York City Police Lieutenant of Detectives Frank Janek in a series of seven popular made for television films starting in 1988 and ending in 1994. The character of Janek originally appeared in a series of novels by Award winning author William Bayer, Crenna was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 6714 Hollywood Boulevard
Guinness World Records
The book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2017 edition, it is now in its 63rd year of publication, the international franchise has extended beyond print to include television series and museums. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, the director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford. After missing a shot at a golden plover, he involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europes fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad and he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beavers idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954.
A thousand copies were printed and given away, after the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas. The following year, it launched in the US, and sold 70,000 copies, since then, Guinness World Records has become a household name and the global leader in world records. Because the book became a hit, many further editions were printed, eventually settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years, Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975. Following Ross assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot, Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades, under their management, the group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment.
Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002, with offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors, many records relate to the youngest person who achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world, being Maurizio Giuliano. Each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness database, as well as new records. The majority of records are no longer listed in the book or on the website. For those unable to wait the 4–6 weeks for a reply, the Guinness Book of Records is the worlds most sold copyrighted book, earning it an entry within its own pages
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana