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Ramesses IV

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef, he was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him. His promotion to crown prince: is suggested by his appearance in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22; as his father's chosen successor, the Prince employed three distinctive titles: "Hereditary Prince", "Royal scribe" and "Generalissimo". As heir-apparent he took on increasing responsibilities. Amenemope's Theban tomb accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles. Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne, his rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC.

It is now believed that Ramesses IV's mother was most Queen Tyti from discovered notes published in the 2010 issue of the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. They reveal that Tyti—who was a king's daughter, a king's wife and a king's mother in her own right—was identified in Papyrus BM EA 10052 to be a queen of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV's father; the 2010 JEA article authors—including Aidan Dodson—write that since Ramesses VI's mother is known to be a certain lady named Iset Ta-Hemdjert or Isis: only Ramesses IV and Ramesses VIII remain as candidates. Given that Ramesses VIII only reigned some 25 years after his father’s death, it is hardly that the decoration of QV52, with the mwt-nsw title intimately mixed with Tyti’s other titles, could have been delayed this late to refer to him; this leaves Ramesses IV as the only credible primary'subject' of the mwt-nsw title in the tomb. As for which--if any--of the other sons of Ramesses III were borne to Tyti, no unequivocal data is available, other than the fact that Amenhirkhopeshef B, buried in QV55, was ms n Hmt-nTr mwt-nTr Hmt-nsw-wrt, paralleling Tyti's titles so that he may with some confidence be proposed as her son.

Thus, the identity of Ramesses IV's mother has been resolved in favour of Queen Tyti, once erroneously thought to be the mother of another king in the mid-1980s: Ramesses XI. Ramesses IV was succeeded to the throne by his son Ramesses V. Ramesses came to the throne in difficult circumstances. A plot by one of his father's secondary wives, Tiye, to establish her own son, Pentawer, on the throne led to an assassination attempt on Ramesses III; the king was badly wounded, died soon after. Ramesses IV, was able to secure himself on the throne, had the conspirators arrested and executed. At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai; the Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition—dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27—consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht.

The scribes who composed the text noted that this figure included 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list." Once this omitted figure is included to the tally of 8,368 men who served in the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 8,368 men perished during this endeavour for a mortality rate of 10.7%. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more. Other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances. Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines in the Sinai; the Serabit el-Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "third month of Shemu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise his fourth expedition."

This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V. Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el-Khadim; the stela reads: second month of Shomu. The sending by His Majesty <to> build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise

Bas Pease

Rendel Sebastian "Bas" Pease FRS was a British physicist. Pease's father was the geneticist Michael Pease, son of Edward Reynolds Pease, his mother was Helen Bowen Wedgwood, daughter of Josiah Wedgwood IV. He was the great-great-great-great-grandson of the potter Josiah Wedgwood. Bas Pease was educated at Bedales School. During World War II he joined RAF Bomber Command's Operational Research section, where he was the expert in charge of the use of a precision navigation system called G-H. Field-based, he advised on operational techniques to use the equipment most effectively. Notably, he helped No. 218 Squadron RAF in Operation Glimmer, a diversionary "attack" on D-Day that distracted and pinned-down German defences while the real attack occurring 200 miles to the west. His G-H-equipped bombers flew low, in tight circles, dropping window over radar transponder-equipped small ships, in order to deceive the German radars that they were the main invasion fleet. After the war he was director of the Culham Laboratory for Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion and head of the British chapter of Pugwash

Ghods Saeghe

The Qods Saeghe is a simple Iranian recoverable target drone. The Saeghe has a bullet-shaped fuselage, it has no landing gear. Control surfaces are located on the horizontal stabilizers; the Saeghe is constructed of composite. It is powered by one 18.6 kW WAE-342 pusher engine in a pusher configuration. The Saeghe is launched via a small rocket from a short metal rail, called a JATO launch, it is recovered by skidding on its belly over flat terrain. It comes in two versions; the first one which only has radio command guidance system and the other one which has GPS guidance and IR emissions. Both versions are recovered by parachute; the Saeghe 1's flight path and maneuvers are controlled by simple radio command. This variant is known as the N-Q-A 100; the Saeghe-2 has more advanced avionics, with tele-command and telemetry uplinks and downlinks between the drone and the ground control station. The Saeghe 2 has GPS navigation it can use to follow navigational points on autopilot beyond the line-of-sight of the operator.

The Saeghe-2 shares the same airframe as the Saeghe-1. The Saeghe 2 carries three IR flares, it is controlled from a ground control station. The Saeghe 2 first flew in 2002. Data from Jane'sGeneral characteristics Length: 2.81 m Wingspan: 2.6 m Height:.7 m Max takeoff weight: 60 kg Powerplant: 1 × WAE-342 twin-cylinder piston engine Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 250 km/h in level flight Combat range: 50 km Endurance: 45 min Service ceiling: 3,355 m