Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Pamplona from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. With his marriage to Urraca, queen regnant of Castile, León and Galicia, in 1109, he began to use, with some justification, the grandiose title Emperor of Spain employed by his father-in-law, Alfonso VI. Alfonso the Battler earned his sobriquet in the Reconquista, he won his greatest military successes in the middle Ebro, where he conquered Zaragoza in 1118 and took Ejea, Calatayud, Tarazona and Monreal del Campo. He died in September 1134 after an unsuccessful battle with the Muslims at the Battle of Fraga, his nickname comes from the Aragonese version of the Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña, which says that "they called him lord Alfonso the battler because in Spain there wasn't as good a knight who won twenty-nine battles". His earliest years were passed in the monastery of Siresa, learning to read and write and to practice the military arts under the tutelage of Lope Garcés the Pilgrim, repaid for his services by his former charge with the county of Pedrola when Alfonso came to the throne.
During his brother's reign, he participated in the taking of Huesca, which became the largest city in the kingdom and the new capital. He joined El Cid's expeditions in Valencia, his father gave him the lordships of Biel, Luna and Bailo. A series of deaths put Alfonso directly in line for the throne, his brother's children and Peter, died in 1103 and 1104 respectively. A passionate fighting-man, he was married in 1109 to the ambitious Queen Urraca of León, widow of Raymond of Burgundy, a passionate woman unsuited for a subordinate role; the marriage had been arranged by her father Alfonso VI of León in 1106 to unite the two chief Christian states against the Almoravids, to supply them with a capable military leader. But Urraca was tenacious of her right as queen regnant and had not learnt chastity in the polygamous household of her father. Husband and wife quarrelled with the brutality of the age and came to open war placing Urraca under siege at Astorga in 1112. Alfonso had the support of one section of the nobles.
Being a much better soldier than any of his opponents he won the Battle of Candespina and the Battle of Viadangos, but his only trustworthy supporters were his Aragonese, who were not numerous enough to keep Castile and León subjugated. The marriage of Alfonso and Urraca was declared null by the Pope, as they were second cousins, in 1110, but he ignored the papal nuncio and clung to his liaison with Urraca until 1114. During his marriage, he had called himself "King and Emperor of Castile, Aragón, Pamplona and Ribagorza" in recognition of his rights as Urraca's husband, he inserted the title of imperator on the basis. Alfonso's late marriage and his failure to remarry and produce the essential legitimate heir that should have been a dynastic linchpin of his aggressive territorial policies have been adduced as a lack of interest in women. Ibn al-Athir describes Alfonso as a tireless soldier who would sleep in his armor without benefit of cover, whom when asked why he did not take his pleasure from one of the captives of Muslim chiefs, responded that the man devoted to war needs the companionship of men not women.
The king quarrelled with the church, the Cistercians as violently as with his wife. As he defeated her, so he expelled the monks of Sahagún, he was compelled to give way in Castile and León to his stepson, Alfonso VII of Castile, son of Urraca and her first husband. The intervention of Pope Calixtus II brought about an arrangement between the old man and his young namesake. In 1122 in Belchite, he founded a confraternity of knights to fight against the Almoravids, it was the start of the military orders in Aragon. Years he organised a branch of the Militia Christi of the Holy Land at Monreal del Campo. Alfonso spent his first four years as king in near-constant war with the Muslims. In 1105, he refortified Castellar and Juslibol. In 1106, he defeated Ahmad II al-Musta'in of Zaragoza at Valtierra. In 1107, he took Esteban de la Litera. Followed a period dominated by his relations with Castile and León through his wife, Urraca, he resumed his conquest in 1117 by conquering Fitero, Cintruénigo, Murchante and Cascante.
In 1118, the Council of Toulouse declared a crusade to assist in the conquest of Zaragoza. Many Frenchmen joined Alfonso at Ayerbe, they took Almudévar, Gurrea de Gállego, Zuera, besieging Zaragoza itself by the end of May. The city fell on 18 December, the forces of Alfonso occupied the Azuda, the government tower; the great palace of the city was given to the monks of Bernard. Promptly, the city was made Alfonso's capital. Two years in 1120, he defeated a Muslim army intent on reconquering his new capital at the Battle of Cutanda, he promulgated the fuero of tortum per tortum, facilitating taking the law into one's own hands, which among others reassumed the Muslim r
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pamplona y Tudela
The Archdiocese of Pamplona y Tudela is an archdiocese located in the cities of Pamplona and Tudela in Spain. 5th century: Established as Diocese of Pamplona 9th century: northern boundary established by Charles's Cross September 5, 1851: Renamed as Diocese of Pamplona – Tudela July 17, 1889: Renamed as Diocese of Pamplona September 2, 1955: Renamed as Diocese of Pamplona – Tudela August 11, 1956: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Pamplona – Tudela August 11, 1984: Renamed as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Pamplona y Tudela Firminus Liliolus John I Atilanus Marcianus Opilanus Wiliesind In 850, in the face of a Muslim invasion, the seat of the bishop was transferred to Leire. Jimeno I Basilio Galindo Valentín Blasco I Bibas Julian Sisebut Jimeno II Sancho I el Mayor In 1023, the see was reestablished in Pamplona. Sancho II el Menor John II Blasco II García Ramírez Sancha of Aragon, regent Pedro de Roda William I Sancho de Larrosa Lope de Artajona Sancho III Pedro Compostelano Raymond Bibiano Peter of Paris Martín de Tafalla, elected García Ferrández Juan de Tarazona Espárago de la Barca William of Saintonge Remiro de Navarra Pedro Ramírez de Pedrola Between 1238 and 1242, the throne was vacant while the chapter was divided between supporters of Lope García and of the archdeacon Guillermo de Oriz.
Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz Armingot Miguel Sánchez de Uncastillo Miguel Periz de Legaria Arnaud de Poyanne Guillaume Mechin Raul Rossellet Michel Maucondiut, elected Semén García de Asiáin, elected Arnaud de Barbazan Pierre de Monteruc Miguel Sánchez de Asiáin Bernard Folcaut Martín de Zalba Martín resigned the see to become a cardinal in 1390, but he continued as apostolic administrator until 1403. Miguel de Zalba, elected Martín de Eusa, vicar general Nicolás López de Roncesvalles, vicar García de Aibar, vicar general Lancelot de Navarra, vicar general Sancho Sánchez de Oteiza Martín de Peralta I Martín de Peralta II Basilios Bessarion, apostolic administrator Nicolás de Echávarri Alfonso Carrillo César Borja, transferred to the archdiocese of Valencia Antonio Pallavicino Gentili, apostolic administrator Fazio Giovanni Santori, apostolic administrator Amaneu de Labrit, apostolic administrator Giovanni Ruffo de Theodoli, apostolic administrator Amaneu de Labrit, apostolic administrator Alessandro Cesarini, apostolic administrator, resigned Juan Remmia Pedro Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara, transferred to the diocese of Jaén Antonio de Fonseca, resigned Álvaro Moscoso, transferred to the diocese of Zamora Diego Ramírez Sedeño de Fuenleal Antonio Manrique Valencia Pedro de Lafuente Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, transferred to the diocese of Jaén Antonio Zapata y Cisneros, transferred to the archdiocese of Burgos Mateo de Burgos, transferred to the diocese of Sigüenza Antonio Venegas y Figueroa, transferred to the diocese of Sigüenza Prudencio de Sandoval Francisco Hurtado de Mendoza y Ribera, transferred to the diocese of Málaga Cristóbal de Lobera y Torres, transferred to the diocese of Córdoba José González Díez, transferred to the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela Pedro Fernández Zorrilla Juan Queipo de Llano y Flórez, transferred to the diocese of Jaén Francisco Diego Alarcón y Covarrubias, transferred to the diocese of Córdoba Diego de Tejada y la Guardia Andrés Girón Pedro Roche Juan Grande Santos de San Pedro Toribio de Mier Juan Íñiguez Arnedo Pedro Aguado Juan Camargo Angulo Andrés Murillo Velarde Melchor Angel Gutiérrez Vallejo Francisco Ignacio Añoa y Busto, transferred to the archdiocese of Zaragoza Gaspar Miranda Argáiz Juan Lorenzo Irigoyen Dutari Agustín de Lezo Palomeque, transferred to the archdiocese of Zaragoza Esteban Antonio Aguado Rojas Lorenzo Igual de Soria, transferred to the diocese of Plasencia Veremundo Anselmo Arias Teixeiro, transferred to the archdiocese of Valencia Joaquín Javier Uriz Lasaga Severo Leonardo Andriani Escofet Pedro Cirilo Uriz Labayru José Oliver y Hurtado Antonio Ruiz–Cabal y Rodríguez José López Mendoza y García Mateo Múgica y Urrestarazu, transferred to the diocese of Vitoria Tomás Muñiz Pablos, transferred to the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela Marcelino Olaechea Loizaga, transferred to the archdiocese of Valencia Enrique Delgado y Gómez, became bishop of Tudela Enrique Delgado y Gómez, became archbishop Enrique Delgado y Gómez Arturo Tabera Araoz, cardinal José Méndez Asensio, transferred to the archdiocese of Gr
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Provence
Ramon Berenguer III or IV, born Peter, was the count of Cerdanya and count of Provence. He was the third son of Queen Petronilla of Aragon, he received Cerdanya, including Carcassonne and Narbonne, on his father's death, but relinquished it to his younger brother Sancho in 1168. He never did govern his inherited territories. In 1173, his elder brother, granted him Provence. In 1176, he joined Sancho in conquering Nice from Genoa, he ventured to war with the lords of Languedoc and the count of Toulouse. He was assassinated on 5 April 1181 by the men of Adhemar of Murviel near Montpellier. Provence passed to his brother Sancho
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV, sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon. Ramon Berenguer IV inherited the county of Barcelona from his father Ramon Berenguer III on 19 August 1131. On 11 August 1137, at the age of about 24, he was betrothed to the infant Petronilla of Aragon, aged one at the time. Petronilla's father, Ramiro II of Aragon, who sought Barcelona's aid against Alfonso VII of Castile, withdrew from public life on 13 November 1137, leaving his kingdom to Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer, the latter in effect becoming ruler of Aragon, although he was never king himself, instead using the titles "Count of the Barcelonans and Prince of the Aragonians", those of "Marquis of Lleida and Tortosa", he was the last Catalan ruler to use "Count" as his primary title. The treaty between Ramon Berenguer and his father-in-law, Ramiro II, stipulated that their descendants would rule jointly over both realms, that if Petronilla died before the marriage could be consummated, Berenguer's heirs would still inherit the Kingdom of Aragon.
Both realms would preserve their laws and autonomy, remaining distinct but federated in a dynastic union under one ruling House. Historians consider this arrangement the political masterstroke of the Hispanic Middle Ages. Both realms gained Aragon got its much needed outlet to the sea. On the other hand, formation of a new political entity in the north-east at the time when Portugal seceded from León in the west gave more balance to the Christian kingdoms of the peninsula. Ramon Berenguer pulled Aragon out of its pledged submission to Castile, aided no doubt by his sister Berengaria, wife of Alfonso the Emperor, well known in her time for her beauty and charm. In the middle years of his rule, Ramon Berenguer turned his attention to campaigns against the Moors. In October 1147, as part of the Second Crusade, he helped Castile to conquer Almería, he invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege with the help of Southern French, Anglo-Norman and Genoese crusaders.
The next year, Fraga and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army. Ramon Berenguer campaigned in Provence, helping his brother Berenguer Ramon and his infant nephew Ramon Berenguer II against the Counts of Toulouse. During the minority of Ramon Berenguer II, the Count of Barcelona acted as the regent of Provence. In 1151, Ramon signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Alfonso VII of Castile; the treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia as an attempt to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. In 1151, Ramon Berenguer founded and endowed the royal monastery of Poblet. In 1154, he accepted the regency of Gaston V of Béarn in return for the Bearnese nobles rendering him homage at Canfranc, thus uniting that small principality with the growing Aragonese empire. Ramon Berenguer IV died on 6 August 1162 in Borgo San Dalmazzo, Italy, leaving the title of Count of Barcelona to his eldest surviving son, Ramon Berenguer, who inherited the title of King of Aragon after the abdication of his mother Petronilla of Aragon two years in 1164.
He changed his name to Alfonso as a nod to his Aragonese lineage, became Alfonso II of Aragon. Ramon Berenguer IV's younger son Pere inherited the county of Cerdanya and lands north of the Pyrenees, changed his name to Ramon Berenguer; the Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña said he was, " man of great nobility and probity, of lively temperament, high counsel, great bravery, steady intellect, who displayed great temperance in all his actions. He was handsome in appearance, with a large body and well-proportioned limbs." Riley-Smith, Jonathan. Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File. Villegas-Aristizabal, Lucas, "Anglo-Norman involvement in the conquest of Tortosa and Settlement of Tortosa, 1148-1180", Crusades 8, pp. 63–129
Roman Catholic Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón is located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragón. The diocese forms part of the ecclesiastical province of Zaragoza, is thus suffragan to the Archdiocese of Zaragoza; the city of Barbastro is at the junction of the rivers Vero. The diocese is bounded on the north by the Pyrenees, on the east and south by the Diocese of Lleida, on the west by those of Huesca and Jaca; the cathedral, the episcopal palace, the seminary, the college of the Clerks Regular of the Pious Schools, or Piarists, are among the most noted buildings in Barbastro. Besides the seminary for the education of young ecclesiastics, there are various communities in the diocese devoted to a contemplative life and the education of the young, including: the Piarists, the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, the Poor Clares, the Capuchin nuns have foundations in the capital, the Benedictines in the town of Pueyo, the Discalced Carmelites in Graus and Salas Altas.
There are schools in all the towns of the diocese. With the Ummayad invasion of Spain in the 8th century the Moor's northward push led to the fall of Lleida, in 716, whereupon the diocese of Lleida was removed to Roda de Isabena. By the 12th century, the Reconquest of Spain, pushed the borders back south again, such that Lleida was able to reassume control of its diocese, after 300 years, Barbastro was strategically chosen to take over the episcopal see from Roda. In 1101, King Pedro I sent Barbastro's first bishop, Poncio, to Rome to obtain the pope's permission for the transfer, approved. In 1149, the Moors in Lleida were vanquished by Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and the city regained its episcopal seat and diocesan control of lands. Barbastro was annexed to the Diocese of Huesca in the sixteenth century, but in 1571 the Diocese of Barbastro was erected out of part of Huesca; the Concordat of 1851 annexed it once more to Huesca, preserving its name and administration, but being administered by a vicar Apostolic.
By 1907 the diocese was composed of 154 parishes under the supervision of ten archpriests, or vicars. The population was about 240,000; the clergy numbered about 220, there were 231 churches and 177 chapels. In 1950 or 1951 it regained its full independence. Since 1995 this diocese has been renamed Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón, becoming larger by the annexion of neighboring parishes. In that year, following the Ilerdensis et Barbastrensis de finum mutatione decree, 84 culturally Catalan parishes that had traditionally belonged to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lleida for over eight centuries, were segregated and transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón; these were followed by a further 27 parishes in June 1998. The annexed parishes are in the Baix Cinca Catalan-speaking Aragonese areas. After the parish segregation a controversy began regarding the return of ancient works of art belonging to the segregated parishes and which were stored at the Lleida Diocesan Museum. Since there was no previous consultation, the decree and the ensuing controversies were perceived as anti-Catalan measures by many in Lleida and in the concerned parishes, part of a strategy towards the cultural assimilation of the La Franja people into the Spanish-speaking mainstream congregation by cutting them off from their cultural roots.
All the names are given in Spanish: 887–922: Adulfo — 923–955: Atón 955–975: Odisendo 988–991: Aimerico — 996---?---: Jacobo — 1006–1015: Aimerico II — 1017–1019: Borrell 1023–1067: Arnulfo 1068–1075: Salomón 1075–1076: Arnulfo II 1076–1094: Pedro Ramón Dalmacio 1094–1096: Lupo 1097–1100: PoncioIn 1101 the Diocese of Roda is transferred to Barbastro. In 1101 the Diocese of Roda is transferred to Barbastro. All the names are given in Spanish: 1101–1104: Poncio 1104–1126: St. Ramón — ---------1126: Esteban 1126–1134: Pedro Guillermo 1134: Ramiro, a prince of the royal house of Aragon — 1135–1143: Gaufrido 1143–1149: Guillermo Pérez de RavitatsIn 1149 the episcopal see is moved to Lleida. In 1571 the Diocese of Barbastro is erected out of part of the Diocese of Huesca. 1573–1585: Felipe de Urríes 1585–1595: Miguel Cercito Bereterra 1596–1603: Carlos Muñoz Serrano 1604–1616: Juan Moriz de Salazar 1616–1622: Jerónimo Bautista Lanuza 1622–1625: Pedro Apaolaza Ramírez 1625–1639: Alonso de Requesens y Fenollet 1640–1643: Bernardo Lacabra 1643–1647: Diego Chueca 1647–1656: Miguel de Escartín 1656–1673: Diego Francés de Urritigoyti y Lerma 1673–1680: Iñigo Roto 1681–1695: Francisco López Urraca 1695–1696: Jerónimo López 1696–1699: José Martínez del Villar 1700–1708: Francisco de Paula Garcés y Marcilla 1708–1714: Pedro Gregorio Padilla 1714–1717: Pedro Teodoro Granel 1717–1739: Carlos Alamán y Ferrer 1739–1747: Francisco Antonio Bustamante 1748–1750: Benito Marín 1750–1755: Juan Ladrón de Guevara 1755–1766: Diego Rivera 1766–1772: Felipe Perales 1773–1789: Juan Manuel Cornel 1790–1813: Agustín Iñigo Abad y Lasierra 1815–1828: Juan Nepomuceno de Lera y Cano 1828–1896: See administered by Capitular Vicars.
1896–1898: Casimiro Piñera y Naredo — 1898–1905: Juan Antonio Ruano y Martín —, born at Gijude del Barro, in the Diocese of Salamanca, 3 Nov. 1848, appointed titular bishop of Claudiopolis, Administrator of Barbastro, 3 Nov. 1898 and transferred to Lleida, 14 Dec. 1905. 1907–1917: Isidoro Badia y Sarradell — 1918–1926: Emilio Jiménez Pérez — (Apostolic Administra