Rammed earth known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé in French, hāngtǔ in Chinese, is a technique for constructing foundations and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, lime, or gravel. It is an ancient method, revived as a sustainable building method. Edifices formed of rammed earth are on every continent except Antarctica, in a range of environments including temperate, semiarid desert and tropical regions; the availability of suitable soil and a building design appropriate for local climatic conditions are the factors that favour its use. Making rammed earth involves compacting a damp mixture of sub soil that has suitable proportions of sand, gravel and stabilizer, if any into a formwork. Additives such as lime or animal blood were used to stabilize it. Soil mix is poured into the formwork to a depth of 10 to 25 cm and compacted to 50% of its original volume; the soil is compacted iteratively, in batches or courses, so as to erect the wall up to the top of the formwork.
Tamping was manual with a long ramming pole, was laborious, but modern construction can be made less so by employing pneumatically powered tampers. After a wall is complete, it is sufficiently strong to remove the formwork; this is necessary if a surface texture is to be applied, e.g. by wire brushing, carving, or mold impression, because the walls become too hard to work after one hour. The compressive strength of rammed earth increases. Cement stabilised rammed. In modern rammed earth buildings, the walls are constructed on top of conventional footings or a reinforced concrete slab base; the construction of an entire wall begins with a temporary frame, denominated the "formwork", made of wood or plywood, as a mold for the desired shape and dimensions of each section of wall. The form must be durable and well braced, the two opposing faces must be clamped together to prevent bulging or deformation caused by the large compressing forces. Formwork plays an important role in building rammed earth walls.
Wooden planks tied using rope were used to build walls. Modern builders use plywood and/or steel to build formwork; the compressive strength of rammed earth is dictated by factors such as soil type, particle size distribution, amount of compaction, moisture content of the mix and type/amount of stabiliser used. Well produced. Higher compressive strength might require more cement, but addition of more cement can affect the permeability of the walls. Indeed, properly constructed rammed earth endures for thousands of years, as many ancient structures that are still standing around the world demonstrate. Rammed earth walls are reinforced with rebars in areas of high seismic activity. Adding cement to soil mixtures low in clay can increase the load-bearing capacity of rammed-earth edifices; the United States Department of Agriculture observed in 1925 that rammed-earth structures endure indefinitely and can be constructed for less than two-thirds of the cost of standard frame houses. Rammed earth works require at least one skilled person for quality control.
All other workers can be semi-skilled. One significant benefit of rammed earth is its high thermal mass: like brick or concrete, it can absorb heat during daytime and nocturnally release it; this action moderates daily temperature variations and reduces the need for air conditioning and heating. In colder climates, rammed-earth walls can be insulated with a similar insert, it must be protected from heavy rain and insulated with vapour barriers. Rammed earth can regulate humidity if unclad walls containing clay are exposed to an internal space. Humidity is regulated between 40% and 60%, the ideal range for asthma sufferers and for the storage of susceptible objects such as books; the material mass and clay content of rammed earth allows an edifice to breathe more than concrete edifices, which avoids problems of condensation but prevents significant loss of heat. Rammed-earth walls have the texture of natural earth. Moisture-impermeable finishes, such as cement render, are avoided because they impair the ability of a wall to desorb moisture, which quality is necessary to preserve its strength.
Blemishes can be sanded smooth. The thickness 30 to 35 centimetres, density of rammed-earth walls make them suitable for soundproofing, they are inherently fireproof, resistant to termite damage, non-toxic. Edifices of rammed earth are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than other building techniques that use more cement and other chemicals; because rammed-earth edifices use locally available materials, they have low embodied energy and generate little waste. The soils used are subsoil which conserve the topsoil for agriculture; when the soil excavated in preparation for a foundation can be used, the cost and energy consumption of transportation are minimal. Rammed earth is the least environmentally detrimental construction material and technique, commercially available today to construct solid masonry edifices. Rammed earth has low manufacturing impact, contingent on the amount of cement and the amount, locally sourced. Formwork can be reused, reducing the need for lumber. Mixing cement with the soil
Dominique Ellen Dunne was an American actress. She appeared in several films and television series from 1979 to 1982, but was best known for portraying Dana Freeling in the 1982 horror film Poltergeist. On October 30, 1982, Dunne was strangled by her ex-boyfriend, John Thomas Sweeney, in the driveway of her West Hollywood home and went into a coma, she never regained consciousness and died five days later. In a controversial court case, Sweeney was convicted of voluntary manslaughter in Dunne's death and served three and a half years in prison. Dunne was born in Santa Monica, the youngest child of Ellen Beatriz "Lenny", a ranching heiress, Dominick Dunne, a writer and actor, she had two older brothers, Alexander "Alex" and Griffin Dunne, an actor. She was the niece of married novelists John Gregory Dunne and Joan Didion, her godparents were Maria Cooper-Janis, daughter of actors Gary Cooper and Veronica "Rocky" Cooper, producer Martin Manulis. Her parents divorced in 1967. Dunne attended Harvard-Westlake School in Los Angeles, Taft School in Watertown and Fountain Valley School in Fountain, Colorado.
After graduation, she spent a year in Florence, where she learned Italian. She studied acting at Milton Katselas' Workshop and appeared in various stage productions including West Side Story, The Mousetrap, My Three Angels. Dunne's first role was in the 1979 television film Diary of a Teenage Hitchhiker, she got supporting roles in episodes of popular 1980s television series such as Lou Grant, Hart to Hart and Fame. Dunne had a recurring role on the comedy-drama television series Breaking Away and appeared in several other television films. In 1981, she was cast in her first feature film, Poltergeist. Dunne portrayed Dana Freeling, the teenaged daughter of a couple whose family is terrorized by malevolent ghosts. Produced by Steven Spielberg and directed by Tobe Hooper, the film opened on June 4, 1982, went on to gross more than $70 million; this was her only theatrical film appearance before her death. After Poltergeist, she appeared in the final season premiere episode of CHiPs and the 1982 television film The Shadow Riders, starring Tom Selleck and Sam Elliott.
Shortly before her death, Dunne was cast as Robin Maxwell in the miniseries V. She died during filming and her role was recast with actress Blair Tefkin. According to the DVD director's commentary by series creator Kenneth Johnson, Dunne appears in the scene in which the Maxwells and others watch the L. A. mother ship glide in on the day the Visitors first arrive. Her back is all, seen; the miniseries is dedicated to her. Dunne appeared posthumously in the Hill Street Blues episode "Requiem For a Hairbag", which aired on November 18, 1982, two weeks after her death, she played a teenaged mother, a victim of parental abuse and gives her baby up for adoption out of fear of repeating what her parents had done to her. The episode was dedicated to her in memoriam in the opening credits. Dunne met John Thomas Sweeney, a sous-chef at the restaurant Ma Maison, at a party in 1981. After a few weeks of dating, they moved into a one-bedroom house on Rangely Avenue in West Hollywood together; the relationship deteriorated because of Sweeney's possessiveness and jealousy.
The couple fought and Sweeney began physically abusing Dunne. According to one account, he yanked handfuls of her hair out by the roots during an argument on August 27, 1982, she fled to her mother's house where Sweeney showed up and began to bang on the door and windows, demanding to be let in. Dunne's mother told him to leave and threatened to call the police. A few days Dunne returned to their home and continued their relationship. During another argument at their home on September 26, 1982, Sweeney grabbed Dunne by the throat, threw her on the floor, began to strangle her. A friend, staying with the couple heard "loud gagging sounds" and ran into the room where Dunne was being attacked. Dunne told the friend that Sweeney had tried to kill her, but Sweeney denied the claim and told Dunne to come back to bed, she pretended to comply, but snuck out of the bathroom window instead. When Sweeney heard Dunne start the engine of her car, he ran out and jumped on the car's hood. Dunne stopped the car long enough for Sweeney to jump off the hood and drove away.
For the next few days, she stayed with her mother and at the homes of her friends. She called Sweeney and ended the relationship. After he moved out, she had the locks changed and moved back into the Rangely Avenue home. On October 30, 1982, a few weeks after the breakup, Dunne was at her home rehearsing for the miniseries V with actor David Packer. While she was speaking to a female friend on the phone, John Sweeney had the operator break into the conversation. Dunne told her friend, "Oh God, it's Sweeney. Let me get him off the phone." Ten minutes Sweeney showed up. After speaking to him through the locked door, Dunne agreed to speak to him on the porch while Packer remained inside. Outside, the two began to argue. Packer said he heard smacking sounds, two screams and a thud, he called police but was told that Dunne's home was out of their jurisdiction. Packer phoned a friend and told him if he was found dead, John Sweeney was the killer. Packer left the home through the back entrance, approached the driveway, saw Sweeney in some nearby bushes kneeling over Dunne.
Sweeney told Packer to call the police. When police arrived, Sweeney met them in the driveway with his hands in the air and stated, "I killed my girlfriend and I tried to kill myself." Sweeney testified that Dunne and he had argued, but he could not remember what happened after their exchange and could only recall being on top of her with his hands aro
On December 7, 2005, NASCAR signed a new eight-year broadcast deal effective with the 2007 season, valued at $4.48 billion, with Fox and Speed Channel, which would share event rights with Disney-owned ABC, ESPN and ESPN2, as well as TNT. The rights would be divided as follows: Fox became the exclusive broadcaster of the Daytona 500 and hold the rights to the first thirteen points paying races. In addition, the network carried two Truck Series races. Fox did not air any races of what is now the Gander Outdoors Truck Series from 2010 to 2013, with all 25 races instead airing on Speed. Fox's 2011 coverage ended with the STP 400 at Kansas Speedway. TNT carried six NASCAR Cup Series races during the month of June and the first half of July, including the Coke Zero 400 at Daytona. In 2013, in particular, the network aired Pocono Raceway, Michigan International Speedway, Sonoma Raceway, Kentucky Speedway, the Coke Zero 400, New Hampshire Motor Speedway. ESPN and ABC carried the final seventeen NASCAR Cup Series races from the Brickyard 400 through the end of the season, with the Cup Series Chase for the Championship races airing on ABC.
The entire Nationwide season was aired on ESPN2 and ESPN, with selected races on ABC, NASCAR returned to ESPN airing the first six races including Daytona, Las Vegas, ESPN2 carrying Phoenix to Michigan. Speed/Fox Sports 1 carried the Budweiser Duel races and the Sprint All-Star Race, as well as the entire Camping World Truck Series season, except for the 2 races carried each year by Fox from 2007 to 2009. After the 2009 season, all the Truck races aired on Speed/FS1 – with the exception of the 2014 Talladega race, which aired on Fox. Fox Sports, their corporate sibling Speed, TNT, ESPN/ABC are in the fourth year of a seven-year television contract scheduled to expire after the 2014 season. Showtime is going to show a highlights show for the first time. Fox - Fox Sports broadcast the first 13 races, including the Budweiser Shootout, the 52nd Daytona 500, the Coca-Cola 600. With Dover moving to mid-May, Fox ended their coverage with the 51st Coca-Cola 600; the Sprint All-Star Race XXVI along with the Gatorade Duels, practice sessions, all qualifying and practice sessions were all broadcast on Speed.
The network's Gopher Cam mascot, returned for on-screen displays. TNT - Time Warner's Turner Sports division broadcast the next six races, including the Coke Zero 400 at Daytona in its limited commercial interruption wide open coverage format; that race will be telecast in 3-D on both NASCAR.com and DirecTV. TNT's coverage will end with Chicagoland. Qualifying and practice sessions will remain on Speed. Adam Alexander will be the new lead announcer, with Lindsay Czarniak hosting pre-and-post-race shows, replacing Bill Weber and Marc Fein respectively. ESPN/ABC - ESPN carried the remaining races, beginning with the Brickyard 400. ABC, which carried the last 11 races of the season, will carry the Saturday night races in Bristol and Charlotte. Although races could not be moved from ABC to ESPN, early start times and ABC's plans to expand its Sunday morning political shows meant that NASCAR had to allow most Chase races to move to ESPN; this was met from criticism from most of ABC's southern-based affiliates, who had counted on NASCAR on those Sundays for ratings gains against the NFL.
Most qualifying sessions will air on ESPN2, practice sessions and some qualifying will be shared by SPEED and ESPN2. Qualifying for the Pep Boys Auto 500 and AMP Energy 500 aired on Speed because they are Saturday afternoon sessions during the college football season. Additionally, Jerry Punch was replaced in the play-by-play position by Marty Reid. Showtime - CBS-owned pay cable premium service Showtime carried a weekly one-hour highlight show titled Inside NASCAR every Wednesday at 10 pm ET/PT, with the series premiere on February 10. Chris Myers, who hosts FOX's NASCAR coverage, will serve as host, joined by SPEED's Randy Pemberton & Michael Waltrip, ESPN's Brad Daugherty, with the shows taping at the NASCAR Hall of Fame Studio 43. 38 episodes are planned. In NASCAR on ESPN's advertising campaign, their slogan was "Feel your heart race", a slogan, trademarked by Kyle Petty's Victory Junction Gang; the latter's advertising appeared on ESPN-carried races. This was changed to "Cause it's Racing" in 2010 and "Nothing Beats First Place" in 2011 and 2012.
During ESPN's broadcasts since 2010, several improvements were made, including reduction in technology. There were changes in announcing and pit reporters, most notably the moving Dr. Jerry Punch to pit road and IndyCar and occasional Nationwide Series lead announcer Marty Reid to lead broadcaster for the majority of NASCAR broadcasts beginning in 2010, including the Sprint Cup races. Sponsorship by non-NASCAR sponsors was reduced. Allen Bestwick the lap-by-lap announcer for NBC's NASCAR coverage from 2001 to 2004, took over as lead broadcaster for Sprint Cup Series races in 2011. Once the Chase for the Sprint Cup began and in the races leading up to the Chase, ESPN shifted its focus to the drivers in the Chase, in particular Jimmie Johnson. If a driver