Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Nandi is the gate-guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva. He is depicted as a bull, which serves as the mount to Shiva. According to Saivite siddhantic tradition, he is considered as the chief guru of eight disciples of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni, who were sent in eight different directions, to spread the wisdom of Shaivism; the word Nandi has come from Tamil root word, which means to grow, to flourish, or to appear, used to indicate growing or flourishing of white bulls, as well as divine bull nandi. The Sanskrit word nandi has the meaning of happy and satisfaction, the properties of divine guardian of Shiva- Nandi. All Shiva temples display stone-images of a seated Nandi facing the main shrine, it is documented, that the application of the name Nandi to the bull, is in fact a development of recent syncretism of different regional beliefs within Saivism. The name Nandi was used instead for an anthropomorphic door-keeper of Kailasha, rather than his mount, in the oldest Saivite texts in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.
Siddhantic texts distinct Nandi from Vṛṣabha. According to them, Chandesha, Mahakala, Vṛṣabha, Ganesha and Murugan, are the eight Ganeshwaras of Shiva; the worship of Shiva and Nandi can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization time-period. The famous'Pasupati Seal' depicts a seated figure, identified as Shiva, there were many bull-seals found in Mohenjo daro and Harappa, which led to conclusion of the researchers, that it might be the origin of Bull-cum-Nandi worship. Nandi is described as the son of the sage Shilada. Shilada underwent severe penance to have a boon– a child with immortality and blessings of Lord Shiva, received Nandi as his son, it is said that Nandi was born from a Yajna performed by the Shilada, his body was clad in armour made out of diamonds, when he was born. Nandi grew as an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva and he did penance to become his gate-keeper, as well as his mount, on the banks of river Narmada, near Tripur Tirth Kshetra in present-day Nandikeshwar Temple, in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
Nandi got the divine-knowledge of Agamic and Tantric wisdom taught from goddess Parvati. He could teach that divine-knowledge to his eight disciples, who are identified as the progenitors of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni; these eight disciples were sent in eight different directions of the world by Nandi, to spread this knowledge. Many other puranic tales are available about Nandi. One describes his conflict with the anti-hero of Ramayana. Nandi cursed Ravana. Hanuman burned Lanka when he went in search of Sita, imprisoned by Ravana in Ashok Vatika. Tamil Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam mentions another story, it says. Parvati incarnated as a fisher-woman to atone. To unite his master and his beloved-wife, Nandi took the form of a whale and started to trouble the people. Fisher-woman Parvati's father told. Shiva took the form of a fisherman and killed the whale, received Parvati in her previous form. Agamas describe him in a zoo-anthropomorphic form, with the head of bull and four hands, with antelope, axe and abhayamudra.
In his mount form, Nandi is depicted as a seated bull in all Shiva temples, all over the world. This form has been found in Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia; the white color of the bull symbolizes justice. Symbolically, the seated Nandi towards sanctum in Shiva temples, represents an individual jiva and the message that the jiva should always be focused on the Parameshwara. From the yogic perspective, Nandi is the mind dedicated to the absolute. In other words, to understand and absorb light, the experience and the wisdom is Nandi, the guru within. Nandi flag or Vrshabha flag, a flag with the emblem of seated bull is recognized as the flag of Saivism among Tamil community all over the world. Nandi was the emblem of historical Tamil Saivite monarchs, such as Pallava dynasty and Jaffna Kingdom. Several campaigns to aware the Saivites about their Nandi flag is carried out continuously during the Shivaratri session among Tamil community of Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, diaspora; the nandi flag used nowadays was designed by Ravindra Sastri of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, according to the request and guidance of S. Danapala, a Sri Lankan Saivite personage, in the 1990s.
The first Nandi flag was hoisted at Colombo Hindu College at Ratmalana, Sri Lanka. Following years, It was declared as the official Saivite flag in fourth International Saiva Siddhanta Conference, held in Zurich in 2008. Nowadays, Tamil Saivites in Sri Lanka, Australia, UK, South Africa, Switzerland, hoist the flag in all religious and cultural festivals. Nandi flag was declared as the official Hindu flag of Sri Lanka. Kamadhenu Cattle in religion Gavaevodata, the primordial cow in Zoroastrianism Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend 2004 by Anna Dallapiccola
Indian Museum, Kolkata
The Indian Museum in Kolkata referred to as the Imperial Museum at Calcutta in British India era texts, is the largest and oldest museum in India and has rare collections of antiques and ornaments, skeletons and Mughal paintings. It was founded by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata, India, in 1814 C. E; the founder curator was a Danish botanist. It has six sections comprising thirty five galleries of cultural and scientific artifacts namely Art, Anthropology, Geology and Economic Botany. Many rare and unique specimens, both Indian and trans-Indian, relating to humanities and natural sciences, are preserved and displayed in the galleries of these sections; the administrative control of the Cultural sections, viz. Art and Anthropology rests with the Board of Trustees under its Directorate, that of the three other science sections is with the geological survey of India, the zoological survey of India and the Botanical survey of India; the museum Directorate has eight co-ordinating service units: Education, publication, photography, medical and library.
This multipurpose Institution with multidisciplinary activities is being included as an Institute of national importance in the seventh schedule of the Constitution of India. It is one of oldest museums in the world; this is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Government of India. The present Director of the Indian Museum is Rajesh Purohit; the museum was closed to visitors due to massive restoration and upgrades from 1 September 2013 to 3 February 2014. The Indian Museum originated from the Asiatic Society of Bengal, created by Sir William Jones in 1784; the concept of having a museum arose in 1796 from members of the Asiatic Society as a place where man-made and natural objects could be collected, cared for and displayed. The objective began to look achievable in 1808 when the Society was offered suitable accommodation by the Government of India in the Chowringhee-Park Street area. In February 2, 1814, Nathaniel Wallich, a Danish botanist, captured in the siege of Serampore but released, wrote a letter supporting the formation of a museum in Calcutta which he said should have two sections - an archaeological and technical section and a geological and zoological one.
The Museum was created, with Wallich named the Honorary Curator and Superintendent of the Oriental Museum of the Asiatic Society. Wallich donated a number of botanical specimens to the museum from his personal collection. After the resignation of Wallich, curators were paid salaries ranging from Rs 50 to Rs 200 a month; until 1836 this salary was paid by the Asiatic Society but in that year its bankers and Company became insolvent and the Government began to pay from its public funds. A temporary grant of Rs 200 per month was sanctioned for maintenance of the museum and library, J. T. Pearson of the Bengal Medical Service was appointed curator followed shortly by John McClelland and after his resignation by Edward Blyth. In 1840, the Government took a keen interest in the geology and mineral resources and this led to an additional grant of Rs 250 per month for the geological section alone. A new building became a need and this was designed by Walter R Granville and completed in 1875 for the cost of Rs 1,40,000.
In 1879 it received a portion of the collection from the India Museum when that collection was dispersed. The Zoological and Anthropological sections of the museum gave rise to the Zoological Survey of India in 1916, which in turn gave rise to the Anthropological Survey of India in 1945; the Scottish anatomist and zoologist John Anderson took up the position of curator in 1865, catalogued the mammal and archaeology collections. The English zoologist James Wood-Mason worked at the museum from 1869 and succeeded Anderson as curator in 1887, it occupies a resplendent mansion, exhibits among others: an Egyptian mummy. The mummy is being restored. Indian artifacts include the Buddhist stupa from Bharhut, the Buddha's ashes, the Ashoka pillar, whose four-lion symbol became the official emblem of the Republic of India, fossil skeletons of prehistoric animals, an art collection, rare antiques, a collection of meteorites; the Indian Museum is regarded as "the beginning of a significant epoch initiating the socio-cultural and scientific achievements of the country.
It is otherwise considered as the beginning of the modernity and the end of medieval era" by UZER Places. The museum has four galleries dedicated to natural history, namely the botanical, insect and bird galleries. Official Website History of Indian Museum Indian Museum Kolkata at Google Cultural Institute Don Bosco Museum The Indian Museum Completes 200 Years by Shakunt Pandey
Honeysuckles are arching shrubs or twining vines in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. 180 species of honeysuckle have been identified. About 100 of these species can be found in China and 20 native species have been identified in Europe, 20 in India, 20 in North America. Known species include Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera japonica and Lonicera sempervirens. In North America hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa. Honeysuckle derives its name from the edible sweet nectar obtainable from its tubular flowers; the name Lonicera stems from a Renaissance botanist. Some species are fragrant. Several are cultivated with numerous cultivars available. Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a large minority of shrubby habit; the leaves are 1 -- 10 cm long. Many of the species have sweetly scented, bilaterally symmetrical flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar, most flowers are borne in clusters of two.
Both shrubby and vining sorts have fibrous stems which have been used for binding and textiles. The fruit is a blue or black spherical or elongated berry containing several seeds. Most honeysuckle berries are attractive to wildlife, which has led to species such as L. japonica and L. maackii spreading invasively outside of their home ranges. Many species of Lonicera are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species—see a list of Lepidoptera that feed on honeysuckles. Several species of honeysuckle have become invasive when introduced outside their native range in New Zealand and the United States. Invasive species include L. japonica, L. maackii, L. morrowii, L. tatarica. Honeysuckles are valued as garden plants, for their ability to cover unsightly walls and outbuildings, their profuse tubular flowers in summer, the intense fragrance of many varieties; the hardy climbing types need their roots in shade, their flowering tops in sunlight or light shade. Varieties need to be chosen with care. Cultivars of the dense, small-leaved L. nitida are used as narrow hedges.
The following hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: Other cultivars are dealt with under their species names. Honeysuckle is renowned for its colorful, fragrant flowers and variously colored fruit, indicating the presence of complex phytochemicals underlying these properties. Component analyses of berries from 27 different cultivars and 3 genotypes of edible honeysuckle showed the presence of iridoids, flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids. While sugars determine the level of sweetness in the berries, organic acids and polyphenols are responsible for the sour taste and tartness; some 51 of the same compounds in berries are found in flowers, although the proportions of these compounds varied among cultivars studied. Many insects in the order Lepidoptera visit honeysuckles as a food source. An example of this is the moth Deilephila elpenor; this nocturnal species of moths are attracted to honeysuckles, they visit the flowers at night to feed on its nectar.
Some 180 species of Lonicera are documented: Flora of China: Lonicera species list "Honeysuckle". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Lieutenant Colonel Laurence Austine Waddell, CB, CIE, F. L. S. L. L. D, M. Ch. I. M. S. RAI, F. R. A. S was a British explorer, Professor of Tibetan, Professor of Chemistry and Pathology, Indian Army surgeon, collector in Tibet, amateur archaeologist. Waddell studied Sumerian and Sanskrit, his reputation as a Assyriologist gained little to no academic recognition and his books on the history of civilization have caused controversy. Some of his book publications however were popular with the public, he is regarded by some today to have been a real-life precursor of the fictional character Indiana Jones. Laurence Waddell was born on 29 May 1854, was the son of Rev. Thomas Clement Waddell, a Doctor of Divinity at Glasgow University and Jean Chapman, daughter of John Chapman of Banton, Stirlingshire. Laurence Waddell obtained a bachelor's degree in Medicine followed by a master's degree in both Surgery and Chemistry at Glasgow University in 1878, his first job was as a resident surgeon near the university and was the President of Glasgow University's Medical Society.
In 1879 he visited Ceylon and Burma and was'irresistibly attracted' towards Buddhism which in years led him to study the tenets and art of Buddhism. In 1880 Waddell joined the British Indian Army and served as a medical officer with the Indian Medical Service, subsequently he was stationed in India and the Far East; the following year he became a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology at the Medical College of Kolkata, India. While working in India, Waddell studied Sanskrit and edited the Indian Medical Gazette, he became Assistant Sanitary Commissioner under the government of India. After Waddell worked as a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology for 6 years, he became involved in military expeditions across Burma and Tibet. Between 1885-1887 Waddell took part in the British expedition that annexed Upper Burma, which defeated Thibaw Min the last king of the Konbaung dynasty. After his return from Burma Waddell was stationed in Darjeeling district and was appointed Principal Medical Officer in 1888.
In the 1890s Waddell, while in Patna, established. His first publications were essays and articles on medicine and zoology, most notably "The Birds of Sikkim". In 1895 he obtained a doctorate in law. Waddell traveled extensively in India throughout the 1890s and wrote about the Tibetan Buddhist religious practices he observed there. Stationed with the British army in Darjeeling, Waddell learned the Tibetan language and visited Tibet several times secretly, in disguise, he was the cultural consultant on the 1903-1904 British invasion of Tibet led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, was considered alongside Sir Charles Bell as one of the foremost authorities on Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. Waddell studied archaeology and ethnology in-between his military assignments across India and Tibet, his exploits in the Himalayas were published in his successful book Among the Himalayas. Various archaeological excavations were carried out and supervised by Waddell across India, including Pataliputra, of which he did not receive recognition of discovery until long after his death, in 1982, by the government of Bengal.
His discoveries at Pataliputra were published in an official report in 1892. During the 1890s Waddell specialised in Buddhist antiquities and became a collector, between 1895-97 he published "Reports on collections of Indo-Scythian Buddhist Sculptures from the Swat Valley", in 1893 he read a paper to the International Congress of Orientalists: "On some newly found Indo-Grecian Buddhistic Sculptures from the Swat Valley". In 1895 Waddell published his book Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, one of the first works published in the west on Buddhism; as a collector, Waddell had come across many Tibetan manuscripts and maps, but was disappointed to not find a single reference to a lost ancient civilization, which he had hoped to discover. Waddell continued his military service with the Indian Medical Service, he was in China during the Boxer Rebellion, including the Relief of Peking in August 1900, for which he was mentioned in despatches, received the China War Medal with clasp, was in 1901 appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire.
By late 1901 he had moved to North-West Frontier Province and was present during the Mahsud-Waziri Blockade, 1901–02. He was in Malakand in 1902 and took part in the Tibet Mission to Lhasa 1903–04, for which he was again mentioned in despatches, received a medal with clasp and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath. Waddell returned to England where he became Professor of Tibetan at the University College of London. In 1908, Waddell began to learn Sumerian, thus in his career he turned to studying the ancient near east Sumeria and dedicated his time to deciphering or translating ancient cuneiform tablets or seals, most notably including the Scheil dynastic tablet. In 1911, Waddell published two entries in the Encyclopædia Britannica. By 1917, Waddell was retired and first started writing on Aryans, beginning in an article published in the Asiatic Review entitled "Aryan Origin of the World's Civilization". From the 1920s Waddell published several works which attempted to prove an Aryan origin of the alphabet and the appearance of Indo-European myth figures in ancient Near Eastern mythologies.
The foundation of his argument is what he saw as a persistence of cult practices, religious symbols, mythological stories and figures, go