Eva Emery Dye
Eva Emery Dye was an American writer and prominent member of the Women's Suffrage movement. As the author of several historical novels, fictional yet researched, she is credited with "romanticizing the historic West, turning it into a poetic epic of expanding civilization." Her best known work, The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis & Clark, is notable for being the first to present Sacagawea as a significant character in her own right. Born Eva Lucinda Emery, the daughter of Cyrus and Caroline Trafton Emery, in Prophetstown, she first attracted notice at the age of fifteen, when she began writing poems under the pseudonym "Jennie Juniper"; these works, published first in the local Prophetstown Spike in other regional newspapers, fueled an ambition for intellectual achievement, unsupported by her family. When her father opposed her seeking a college education, she worked as a school teacher and saved the funds to attend Oberlin College independently. Graduating in 1882, Emery married a fellow Oberlin alumnus, that same year.
Although she had been named Poet Laureate of her class, her writing career was dormant until 1890, when the Dyes made the decision to move to Oregon City, Oregon. Arriving the following year, the couple rose to both wealth and local prominence, with Charles Dye prospering as a lawyer and real estate investor. Dye promptly began what would prove to be her life's work, the chronicling of the early history of the Pacific Northwest; as she commented, "I began writing as soon as I reached this old and romantic historical city. I saw beautiful historical material lying around like nuggets." "At the turn of the century Eva Emery Dye replaced Victor as Oregon's best-known historical researcher," wrote Richard Etulain in 2001. "But Dye turned her prodigious findings toward other ends, producing several works of historical fiction."Writing in a style described as "a curious blend of fact, fiction and romance," Dye first completed McLoughlin and Old Oregon, a portrait of Doctor John McLoughlin 1784-1857, the former Chief Factor of the Columbia District and for years the de facto leader of the Oregon Country.
While taking considerable liberties with its subject, the work was based upon considerable research, including extensive interviews with aged pioneers who had known McLoughlin personally. The book's popular success established Dye as an author, contributed to the posthumous re-evaluation of McLoughlin's complex role in American history. Dye and her husband interceded when McLoughlin's house in Oregon City was slated for destruction, leading the effort to purchase it and restore it as a museum in 1910, it is now part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. Dye began researching the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which had reached the Pacific Northwest in 1805, her subsequent book The Conquest was loosely a joint biography of William Clark and his brother George Rogers Clark, yet it was soon lauded for its vivid portrayal of a personage who had played only a minor role in earlier narratives. Reliable historical information about Sacagawea is limited; as the Oregon History Project observes: The Expedition journals make note of her service as an interpreter and mention that she pointed out familiar landmarks when they entered Shoshone territory.
There is little evidence to suggest, that she acted as the Expedition’s guide beyond recognizing Bozeman Pass as a good place to cross the Continental Divide. While her previous book included fictional stylistic elements but conformed on a narrative level to known facts, The Conquest was notably unfettered by adherence to the historical record. Dye's portrayal of Sacagawea ascribed to her imagined features, postulated that her role was integral to the expedition's success, to the extent that she should be commemorated with Lewis and Clark: Sacajawea's hair was neatly braided, her nose was fine and straight, her skin pure copper like a statue in some Florentine gallery. Madonna of her race, she had led the way to a new time. To the hands of this girl, not yet eighteen, had been entrusted the key that unlocked the road to Asia... Some day, upon the Bozeman Pass, Sacajawea's statue will stand beside that of Clark; some day where the rivers part, her laurels will view with those of Lewis. Across North America a Shoshone Indian princess touched hands with Jefferson.
The book became an immediate popular success. As Dye herself recalled: The world snatched at my heroine, Sacajawea... The beauty of that faithful Indian woman with her baby on her back, leading those stalwart mountaineers and explorers through the strange land appealed to the world; the book's popularity brought political ramifications. As Dye noted in her book, Sacagawea had been given a vote in a key decision of the expedition: whether or not to build Fort Clatsop and spend the winter on the Pacific coast; this led to "the Madonna of her race" being championed as a symbol of the burgeoning women's suffrage movement, which Dye enthusiastically supported. In keeping with her book's suggestion of a memorial to Sacagawea, a Statue Association was founded in Portland, with Dye serving as its president. In this capacity she issued appeals to women's groups across the country, coordinated the fundraising sale of commemorative "Sacajawea spoons" and "Sacajawea buttons." In 1905 The National American Woman's Suffrage Association, convening in Portland, unve
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633 to 1639, ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American trade through a series of unequal treaties, it was preceded by a period of unrestricted trade and widespread piracy when Japanese mariners travelled Asia and official embassies and envoys visited both Asian states, New Spain, Europe. This period was noted for the large number of foreign traders and pirates who were resident in Japan and active in Japanese waters; the term Sakoku originates from the manuscript work Sakoku-ron written by Japanese astronomer and translator Shizuki Tadao in 1801.
Shizuki invented the word while translating the works of the 17th-century German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer concerning Japan. Japan was not isolated under the sakoku policy, it was a system in which strict regulations were applied to commerce and foreign relations by the shogunate and by certain feudal domains. There was extensive trade with China through the port of Nagasaki, in the far west of Japan, with a residential area for the Chinese; the policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Western scientific and medical innovations did flow into Japan through Rangaku. Trade with Korea was limited to the Tsushima Domain. Trade with the Ainu people was limited to the Matsumae Domain in Hokkaidō, trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom took place in Satsuma Domain. Apart from these direct commercial contacts in peripheral provinces, trading countries sent regular missions to the shōgun in Edo and Osaka Castle. Japan traded at this time with five entities, through four "gateways".
The largest was the private Chinese trade at Nagasaki, where the Dutch East India Company was permitted to operate. The Matsumae clan domain in Hokkaidō traded with the Ainu people. Through the Sō clan daimyō of Tsushima, there were relations with Joseon-dynasty Korea. Ryūkyū, a semi-independent kingdom for nearly all of the Edo period, was controlled by the Shimazu clan daimyō of Satsuma Domain. Tashiro Kazui has shown that trade between Japan and these entities was divided into two kinds: Group A in which he places China and the Dutch, "whose relations fell under the direct jurisdiction of the Bakufu at Nagasaki" and Group B, represented by the Korean Kingdom and the Ryūkyū Kingdom, "who dealt with Tsushima and Satsuma domains respectively". Many items traded from Japan to Korea and the Ryūkyū Kingdom were shipped on to China. In the Ryūkyū Islands and Korea, the clans in charge of trade built trading towns outside Japanese territory where commerce took place. Due to the necessity for Japanese subjects to travel to and from these trading posts, this resembled something of an outgoing trade, with Japanese subjects making regular contact with foreign traders in extraterritorial land.
Commerce with Chinese and Dutch traders in Nagasaki took place on an island called Dejima, separated from the city by a narrow strait. Trade in fact prospered during this period, though relations and trade were restricted to certain ports, the country was far from closed. In fact as the shogunate expelled the Portuguese, they engaged in discussions with Dutch and Korean representatives to ensure that the overall volume of trade did not suffer. Thus, it has become common in scholarship in recent decades to refer to the foreign relations policy of the period not as sakoku, implying a secluded, "closed" country, but by the term kaikin used in documents at the time, derived from the similar Chinese concept haijin, it is conventionally regarded that the shogunate imposed and enforced the sakoku policy in order to remove the colonial and religious influence of Spain and Portugal, which were perceived as posing a threat to the stability of the shogunate and to peace in the archipelago. The increasing number of Catholic converts in southern Japan was a significant element of that, seen as a threat.
Based on work conducted by Japanese historians in the 1970s, some scholars have challenged this view, believing it to be only a partial explanation of political reality. The motivations for the gradual strengthening of the maritime prohibitions during the early 17th century should be considered within the context of the Tokugawa bakufu's domestic agenda. One element of this agenda was to acquire sufficient control over Japan's foreign policy so as not only to guarantee social peace, but to maintain Tokugawa supremacy over the other powerful lords in the country the tozama daimyōs; these daimyōs had used East Asian trading linkages to profitable effect during the Sengoku period, which allowed them to build up their military strength as well. By restricting the daimyōs' ability to trade with foreign ships coming to Japan or pursue trade opportunities overseas, the Tokugawa bakufu could ensure none would become powerful enough to
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew Calbraith Perry was a Commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Perry was interested in the education of naval officers, assisted in the development of an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the U. S. Navy and came to be considered "The Father of the Steam Navy" in the United States. Matthew Perry was the son of Navy Captain Christopher Raymond Perry, he was born April 10, 1794, South Kingstown, R. I. U. S, his siblings included Oliver Hazard Perry, Raymond Henry Jones Perry, Sarah Wallace Perry, Anna Marie Perry, James Alexander Perry, Nathaniel Hazard Perry, Jane Tweedy Perry. His mother was born in County Down and was a descendant of an uncle of William Wallace, the Scottish knight and landowner, known for leading a resistance during the Wars of Scottish Independence and is today remembered as a patriot and national hero.
His paternal grandparents were James Freeman Perry, a surgeon, Mercy Hazard, a descendant of Governor Thomas Prence, a co-founder of Eastham, a political leader in both the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, governor of Plymouth. In 1809, Perry received a midshipman's warrant in the Navy, was assigned to USS Revenge, under the command of his elder brother, his early career saw him assigned to several ships, including USS President, where he served as an aide to Commodore John Rodgers. President was in a victorious engagement over a British vessel, HMS Little Belt, shortly before the War of 1812 was declared. Perry continued aboard President during the War of 1812 and was present at the engagement with HMS Belvidera. Rodgers fired the first shot of the war at Belvidera. A shot resulted in a cannon bursting, killing several men and wounding Rodgers and others. Perry transferred to USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, saw little fighting in the war afterwards, since the ship was trapped in port at New London, Connecticut.
Following the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, Perry served on various vessels in the Mediterranean. Perry served under Commodore William Bainbridge during the Second Barbary War, he served in African waters aboard USS Cyane during its patrol off Liberia from 1819 to 1820. After that cruise, Perry was sent to suppress the slave trade in the West Indies. During this period, while in port in Russia, Perry was offered a commission in the Imperial Russian Navy, which he declined. Perry commanded USS Shark, a schooner with 12 guns, from 1821 to 1825. In 1763, when Britain possessed Florida, the Spanish contended that the Florida Keys were part of Cuba and North Havana. Certain elements within the United States felt that Key West could be the "Gibraltar of the West" because it guarded the northern edge of the 90 miles wide Straits of Florida—the deep water route between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1815 the Spanish governor in Havana deeded the island of Key West to Juan Pablo Salas of Saint Augustine.
After Florida was transferred to the United States, Salas sold Key West to American businessman John W. Simonton for $2,000 in 1821. Simonton lobbied the U. S. Government to establish a naval base on Key West both to take advantage of its strategic location and to bring law and order to the area. On March 25, 1822, Perry sailed Shark to Key West and planted the U. S. flag, physically claiming the Keys as United States territory. Perry renamed Cayo Hueso "Thompson's Island" for the Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson and the harbor "Port Rodgers" for the president of the Board of Navy Commissioners. Neither name stuck however. From 1826 to 1827, Perry acted as fleet captain for Commodore Rodgers. Perry returned to Charleston, South Carolina for shore duty in 1828, in 1830 took command of a sloop-of-war, USS Concord, he spent the years 1833–1837 as second officer of the New York Navy Yard, gaining promotion to captain at the end of this tour. Perry had an ardent interest and saw the need for the naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy.
He was a vocal proponent of modernizing the Navy. Once promoted to captain, he oversaw construction of the Navy's second steam frigate USS Fulton, which he commanded after its completion, he was called "The Father of the Steam Navy", he organized America's first corps of naval engineers, conducted the first U. S. naval gunnery school while commanding Fulton in 1839–1841 off Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey. Perry received the title of commodore in June 1840, when the Secretary of the Navy appointed him commandant of New York Navy Yard; the United States Navy did not have ranks higher than captain until 1857, so the title of commodore carried considerable importance. An officer would revert to his permanent rank after the squadron command assignment had ended, although in practice officers who received the title of commodore retained the title for life, Perry was no exception. During his tenure in Brooklyn
James Glynn was a U. S. Navy officer who in 1848 distinguished himself by being the first American to negotiate with the Japanese during the "Closed Country" period. James Glynn entered the United States Navy on March 4, 1815, he became a lieutenant in 1825, a commander in 1841, served on the California coast during the Mexican–American War. He was sent to China. In Canton, he learned from the Dutch consul about the imprisonment at Nagasaki of 15 American sailors from the whaleship Lagoda, shipwrecked on the northern Japanese island of Yeso on June 7, 1848. Although the coast of Japan was poorly known, the American Commander James Biddle, with the ships USS Columbus and USS Vincennes had been repelled by the Japanese in the bay of Edo, Glynn was ordered by David Geisinger to leave for Nagasaki, where he arrived on April 17, 1849; the sailing orders to Captain Glynn recommended both caution and firmness in his enterprise: In your correspondence with the Japanese, your conduct will be conciliatory but firm.
You will be careful not to violate the laws or customs of the Country, or by any means prejudice the success of any pacific policy our government may be inclined to pursue. You may be placed in situations which cannot be foreseen. In all such cases, every confidence is reposed in your discretion and ability to guard the interests as well as the honor of your country The Japanese tried to block the entrance to Glynn's ship, but he forced his way through a row of boats and anchored in the middle of the bay of Nagasaki. Despite Japanese menaces, he insistently demanded the release of the prisoners, threatened an intervention of the United States. With some help from the Dutch in the negotiations, the prisoners were delivered to him on April 26; the sailors had suffered throughout their internment, after several attempts to escape were put in cages where several died of exposure. Another had hanged himself, was left hanging in his cage for two days. Ranald MacDonald was among the party of the rescued, although he had traveled to Japan of his own will and taught English to several Japanese during his internment in Nagasaki, becoming the first American to teach English in Japan.
The Preble returned to Hong Kong and the prisoners returned to the United States on December 31, 1849, where the story of their harsh internment made a sensation. Following his voyage, Glynn made a proposition to the United States government to open relations with Japan through diplomacy, and, if necessary, by a show of strength, his recommendation paved the way for the expedition of Commodore Matthew Perry in 1853 and 1854. Glynn was made a captain in 1855. Arnold, Bruce Makoto. Diplomacy Far Removed: A Reinterpretation of the U. S. Decision to Open Diplomatic Relations with Japan. University of Arizona. United States Navy. Deposition of Ranald MacDonald regarding his imprisonment in Japan, made to Commander James Glynn, USS Preble. G. P. O. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection Senate executive document, 31st Congress, 1st session, no. 84
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to both indigenous North Americans and European settlers. The term applied to French-speaking mixed-race families in the Red River area of what became Manitoba, Canada. Since the late 20th century, the Métis in Canada have been recognized as a distinct aboriginal people under the Constitution Act of 1982. Smaller communities identifying as Métis exist in the U. S; the word derives from the French adjective métis spelled metice, referring to a hybrid, or someone of mixed ancestry. In the 16th century, French colonists used the term métis as a noun for people of mixed European and indigenous American parentage in New France and La Louisiane in North America, it came to be used for people of mixed European and indigenous backgrounds in other French colonies, including Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. In Latin America, a similar word is mestizo in Spanish-speaking countries, in Portuguese-speaking countries, mestiço is used.
The English word mestee is a corruption of the Middle French mestis. It has been used to refer to people of mixed race born to indigenous women and French men in New France; the Métis in Canada married within their own group, over time, created a distinct culture and ethnicity of their own. In former French colonies where slavery was part of society, a group known as gens du couleur libre developed from unions between African or mixed-race women and French male colonists. In New Orleans, the system of plaçage was well developed in the eighteenth century, in which women in these relationships received some protection by contracts negotiated by their mothers; the men freed the women, if they were enslaved, their mixed-race children, if born into slavery. Property settlements were part of the relationship, the men sometimes provided for education of sons, sometimes in France; the term mestee was used in the antebellum United States for mixed-race individuals, according to Jack D. Forbes, it was used for people of European and Native American ancestry, as well as European and African, for those who were tri-racial.
In the 19th century and up until 1930, United States census takers recorded people of color as mulatto meaning mixed race. After the American Civil War, the term "mestee" fell into disuse when millions of slaves were emancipated as freedmen; as conservative whites in the South worked to re-establish white supremacy, they imposed Jim Crow laws after regaining control of state legislatures. In the early 20th century, they passed more stringent laws establishing the "one-drop rule". By this anyone with any known Sub-Saharan African ancestry was "Black", a more restrictive definition than had operated in the South on the frontier. Scholar Jack D. Forbes has attempted to revive "mestee" as a term for the mixed-race peoples who were established as free before the Civil War. Worldwide, since the early 20th century the term Metis has been applied in various ways. Metisaje was used from the 1920s to the 1960s in some Latin American countries to indicate cultural hybridity, at times to invoke a nationalist sentiment.
Cultural "Hybridity" theorists have used the term "métissage" to examine postcolonial themes, including Françoise Lionnet. Creolité is a cultural and literary movement that has common threads with "métis" identity, has been a counterpoint to the Négritude movement, although it has been used to indicate "race and gender specific" themes as well; the Canadian Encyclopedia indicates that there is no complete consensus for the definition of Métis in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia's definition of Métis was not developed in consultation with Métis people or communities, it uses the following definition: Written with a small m, métis is the French word for "mixed", it is used here in a general sense for people of dual Indian-White ancestry. Capitalized, Métis refers to people of the post-contact indigenous people, the Métis Nation, it may variously refer to a distinctive socio cultural heritage, a means of ethnic self-identification, sometimes a political and legal category, more or less narrowly defined.
The Métis Nation is considered to be rooted in what is known as the "Métis Homeland," an area ranging from northwestern Ontario and moving westward across the prairies. In this area, fur trappers married indigenous Saulteaux women. A distinct ethnicity developed, as mixed-race descendants married within this group and remained involved with fur trapping and trading, they began to farm in the Red River of the North area. People of "mixed ancestry," although not of the Métis Nation, have a distinct history of their own; these unions began in the east. The fur trade and colonial development drew French voyageurs and coureurs des bois to the west, along with the Hudson's Bay Company employees. Wintering partners of the fur trading companies took a wikt:country wife for their months away from the eastern cities. After the fall of New France to the British 1763, many mixed-race populations continued to establish themselves spec
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai means "large", myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history; the backgrounds of daimyō varied considerably. The term daimyō sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans called "Lord", it was though not from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as few could afford to pay samurai in money; the daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The shugo daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō.
They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held not only military and police powers, but economic power within a province, they accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu; the greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they appointed relatives or retainers, called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces; some of these in turn came to reside in Kyoto, appointing deputies in the provinces. The Ōnin War was a major uprising. During this and other wars of the time, kuni ikki, or provincial uprisings, took place as locally powerful warriors sought independence from the shugo-daimyō; the deputies of the shugo-daimyō, living in the provinces, seized the opportunity to strengthen their position. At the end of the fifteenth century, those shugo-daimyō who succeeded remained in power.
Those who had failed to exert control over their deputies fell from power and were replaced by a new class, the sengoku-daimyō, who arose from the ranks of the shugodai and ji-samurai. Among the sengoku daimyō were many, shugo-daimyō, such as the Satake, Takeda, Rokkaku, Ōuchi, Shimazu. New to the ranks of the daimyō were the Asakura, Nagao, Miyoshi, Chōsokabe, Jimbō, Hatano and Matsunaga; these came from the ranks of their deputies. Additional sengoku-daimyō such as the Mōri, Ryūzōji arose from the ji-samurai; the lower officials of the shogunate and rōnin, provincial officials, kuge gave rise to sengoku-daimyō. The Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1600 marked the beginning of the Edo period. Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized 200 daimyō and their territories into han, which were assessed by rice production; those heading han assessed at 10,000 koku or more were considered daimyō. Ieyasu categorized the daimyō according to their relation to the ruling Tokugawa family: the shinpan were related to the Tokugawa.
The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. A few fudai daimyō, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han; the shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Many fudai daimyō took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū; the fact that fudai daimyō could hold government positions while tozama in general, could not was a main difference between the two. Tozama daimyō held large fiefs far away from the capital, with e.g. the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, the Hachisuka of Awa; the Tokugawa regarded them as rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin-kōtai, resulted in peaceful relations.
Daimyō were required to maintain residences in Edo as well as their fiefs, to move periodically between Edo and their fiefs spending alternate years in each place, in a practice called sankin-kōtai. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyō, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus ending the daimyō era in Japan. In the wake of this change, many daimyō remained in control of their lands, being appointed as prefectural governors. Despite this, members of former daimyō families remained prominent in government and society, in some cases continue to re
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre