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The Spanish word ranchería, or rancherío, refers to a small, rural settlement. In the Americas the term was applied to native bunkhouses. English adopted the term with both these meanings to designate the residential area of a rancho in the American Southwest, housing aboriginal ranch hands and their families; the term is still used in other parts of Spanish America. The Columbia Encyclopedia describes it as: a type of communal settlement characteristic of the Yaqui Indians of Sonora, Tepehuanes of Durango, of various small Native American groups of the Southwestern U. S. in California. These clusters of dwellings were less permanent than the pueblos but more so than the camps of the migratory Native Americans; the term could be applied to the settlements of the California Mission Indians beyond the Spanish missions, such as Maugna of the Tongva people. In California, the term refers to a total of 59 Indian settlements established by the U. S. government, 54 of them between 1906 and 1934, for the survivors of the aboriginal population.

San Diego State University maintains a reference titled California Indians and Their Reservations: An Online Dictionary. It says: The Spanish term for small Indian settlements. Rancherías are a particular California institution. A small area of land was set aside around an Indian settlement to create a ranchería; some rancherías developed from small communities of Indians formed on the outskirts of American settlements who were fleeing Americans or avoiding removal to the reservations. With the passage of Public Law 83-280 in the mid-1950s, terminating federal supervision and control over California tribes, some 40 rancherías lost the right to certain federal programs, their lands no longer had the protection of federal status. In 1983, a lawsuit resulted in restoring federal recognition to 17 rancherías, with others still waiting for the reversal of their termination; the word migrated north with the 49ers to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in an adapted form, "rancherie". It survives in British Columbia as a somewhat archaic but still used word, in rural areas and small towns, as well as in general First Nations English usage, meaning the residential area of an Indian Reserve.

It means the historical residential area, as opposed to newer subdivisions. It was further extended to refer to other non-white residential communities, such as the Kanaka Rancherie in early Vancouver, British Columbia, which came to house the city's Kanaka residents. In an more truncated form, the Ranche was used to refer to the Tlingit portion of Sitka, Alaska. Indian colony Indian reserve, Canada Indian reservation Rancherie, Canada California ranchos

John Rodgers (geologist)

John Rodgers was an American geologist, Silliman Professor of Geology at Yale University. He was educated at Albany Academy, he studied at Cornell University, where he was awarded a B. A. in 1936 and an M. S. in geology in 1937. He gained a post-graduate Ph. D. at Yale University in 1944. In the latter year, during the Second World War, he joined the Military Geology Branch of the United States Geological Survey and was delegated to map beachheads from Kamchatka in Siberia down to China and Japan. In 1946 he accepted a post in the Department of Geology at Yale, becoming in 1962 the Benjamin Silliman Professor, a position he was to hold for the rest of his career. At Yale he began to research the geology of Connecticut, producing a full geological map of the state in 1985. In 1948 he was appointed an assistant editor of the American Journal of Science, becoming its editor from 1954 to 1995. In 1970 he served as President of the Geological Society of America, he was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1973–74. In his private life he was linguist.

He died in 2004 at his home in Hamden, Connecticut and is buried at Evergreen Cemetery, New Haven in a plot reserved for people who have donated their bodies to science. Member, National Academy of Science Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow, Geological Society of America 1947 Medal of Freedom from the U. S. Army 1981 Penrose Medal of the Geological Society of America 1987 Prix Gaudry of the Geological Society of France 1987 Fourmarier Medal of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium Principles of Stratigraphy with Carl Dunbar The Company I Kept, autobiography findagrave memorial record

Roger Miner

Roger Jeffrey Miner was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York. Miner was born on April 1934, in Hudson, New York, he received a Bachelor of Laws from New York Law School in 1956. He received a Bachelor of Science from State University of New York in 1977, he served as a Captain in the United States Army Judge Advocate General's Corps from 1956 to 1959. He was in private practice of law in Hudson from 1959 to 1975, he was corporation counsel for the City of Hudson, New York from 1961 to 1964. He was an assistant district attorney of Columbia County, New York in 1964, he was the district attorney of Columbia County from 1968 to 1975. He was an adjunct associate professor, Columbia-Greene Community College from 1974 to 1979, he was a Justice of the New York State Supreme Court from 1976 to 1981. He was an adjunct professor, New York Law School from 1986 to 1996.

He was an adjunct professor of Albany Law School of Union University from 1997 until his death. Miner was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on July 28, 1981, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York vacated by Judge James Thomas Foley, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 25, 1981, received commission on September 28, 1981. His service was terminated on August 1985, due to elevation to the Second Circuit. Miner was nominated by President Reagan on June 25, 1985, to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333. He was confirmed by the Senate on July 22, 1985, received commission the same day, he assumed senior status on January 1997, serving in that status until his death. In January 1987 Miner and Jon O. Newman heard Salinger v. Random House, deciding that with unpublished works the right of the copyright owner to control publication took precedence over the right of "fair use".

This was interpreted as setting the right of an individual to privacy ahead of the public right to know. In 1987 after Robert Bork's Supreme Court nomination was rejected by the Senate, President Reagan considered appointing Miner. However, due to his refusal to disclose his position on abortion, Reagan nominated Anthony Kennedy instead. Kirsten Gillibrand, the junior Senator from New York, served as his law clerk from 1992-1993. Roger Miner died of heart failure at his Hudson home, he was survived by his wife, several sons and a brother. George H. W. Bush Supreme Court candidates Roger Jeffrey Miner at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Archival Collection of Judge Roger J. Miner: 1981-2012 Roger Jeffrey Miner entry at The Political Graveyard

Babar Ahmad

For the Anglo-American film director, see Babar Ahmed. Babar Ahmad is a British Muslim of Pakistani descent who spent eight years in prison without trial in the United Kingdom from 2004 to 2012 fighting extradition to the United States; the US accused him of providing material support to terrorism via a website that he set up in the UK in 1996 to publish stories about the conflicts in Bosnia and Chechnya, but which in 2000–2001 allowed two articles to be posted on the site offering support to the Taliban government in Afghanistan. The US accepted that the website was operated from the UK but claimed jurisdiction because one of the servers hosting the website was located in the US, he fought a public eight-year legal battle, from prison, to be tried in Britain but the British Crown Prosecution Service concluded that there was "insufficient evidence to prosecute" him. In 2009, the High Court in London awarded Ahmad £60,000 compensation after the London Metropolitan Police admitted that its officers had subjected him to "serious gratuitous prolonged unjustified violence" and "religious abuse" during his arrest which led to 73 injuries.

It was revealed that the officers, who abused Ahmad were accused of dozens of other assaults on black and Asian men but the four officers were acquitted by a jury in June 2011. In October 2015, a London High Court of Justice judge ruled that PC Mark Jones, one of the officers acquitted in the Ahmad case and racially abused two Arab teenage boys in another case. In 2011, celebrities and senior British lawyers backed a public campaign which led to 140,000 British citizens signing a UK Government e-petition calling for him to be tried in the UK, his case was subsequently debated twice in the British Parliament. Ahmad was extradited to the US in October 2012, having become the longest-serving British prisoner to be detained without trial in the UK, he spent the next two years in solitary confinement at a US Supermax prison. In December 2013, after his first year in solitary confinement and after being in prison for over nine years without trial, Ahmad pleaded guilty to two of the charges against him as part of a plea bargain that would allow him to return home within the year.

He pleaded guilty to "conspiracy and providing material support to terrorism." In July 2014, US federal Judge Janet Hall sentenced Ahmad to an unexpectedly lenient sentence of 12-and-a-half years in prison, meaning that with credit for time served he only had another 12 months to serve. Judge Hall concluded that Ahmad was never interested in terrorism, stating, "There was never any aid given by these defendants to effectuate a plot. By plot, I mean a terrorist plot... Neither of these two defendants were interested in what is known as terrorism..." Hall stated that Ahmad "never supported or believed in or associated with Al-Qaida or Osama bin Laden."Judge Hall described Ahmad as a "good person" who she believed posed no threat to the public and stated she had weighed the seriousness of his crime with his good character after reading thousands of letters of support and hearing from British prison officials who described him as an exemplary inmate. Judge Hall said "It appears to me that he is a generous, thoughtful person, funny and honest.

He is well liked and humane and empathetic... This is a good person who does not and will not act in the future to harm other people."Ahmad was released in July 2015 and returned to the UK where Metropolitan Police officers welcomed him at London Heathrow Airport offered to drive him home to his family. Upon his release he stated, "Eleven years of solitary confinement and isolation in ten different prisons has been an experience too profound to sum up in a few words here and now... In October 2012, I was blindfolded and forcibly stripped naked when I was extradited to the US." He added that "UK government officials" had treated him with respect after his release. In March 2016, he told The Observer in his first press interview since his release that he was "wrong and naive" to advocate support for the Taliban government back in 2001. Babar Ahmad was brought up in Tooting, London, his parents emigrated to Britain from Pakistan in 1963. His father worked as a Foreign Office civil servant for 30 years and his mother is a retired science teacher.

Ahmad was educated at Emanuel School, where he won academic prizes and obtained outstanding results at both GCSE and A-Level. He went to university and obtained a master's degree in Engineering from the University of London in 1996. Ahmad fought on and off in the Bosnian War from 1992 until 1995. Before his imprisonment in August 2004, Ahmad was working in the IT department at Imperial College, University of London. At the time of his arrest, he lived in Tooting. On 18 March 2009, the London Metropolitan Police agreed to pay Ahmad £60,000 in damages after admitting he was subjected to "violent assault and religious abuse" during the raid. Babar Ahmad was arrested in London on 5 August 2004 on charges of providing material support to terrorism. An affidavit filed with the US court detailed that Ahmad established, a website established in 1996 that solicited support for Chechen insurgents and the Taliban regime in 2000/01. It further stated that items recovered from a house used by Ahmad included a floppy disk containing a detailed description of the movements of the US Fifth Fleet battlegroup.

Ahmad was indicted by a grand jury of US citizens in October 2004. Another man, Syed Talha Ahsan, was indicted in 2006 of involvement with Ahmad and with the battlegroup information in the document. In 2008, a US former navy seaman, Abu Jihad, was indicted and convicted of disclosing the classified information on the battlegroup but he was cleared of terrorism charges. Howev

Elisa Monte

Elisa Monte is an American artistic director and dancer who founded Elisa Monte Dance in New York City. Monte's first choreographic work, defined her as an important innovator and contributor to contemporary dance, her signature style, recognized as "daring and passionate, is classical and athletic." Monte was born in Brooklyn, New York to Anthony Montemarano, a bookkeeper, Elisa Montemarano. Both Monte and her older sister, now a personal fitness trainer shortened their surname to “Monte.”Monte started her dance training in 1955 at the age of 9, studying ballet under the tutelage of Russian classical dancer Vladimir Dokoudovsky. Monte continued her ballet training through high school, taking classes at the School of American Ballet while attending the Professional Children's School for her formal education. Years Monte joined the professional dance world, beginning her modern dance studies with the Pearl Lang Dance Theater. Monte made her professional debut dancing with Agnes DeMille in the 1957 Broadway revival of Carousel, but her modern dance debut was not until the late 60s when she performed with the Lar Lubovitch Dance Company.

In 1974 Monte joined Martha Graham Dance Company, performing as a principal dancer in such classics as Seraphic Dialogue, Appalachian Spring, O Thou Desire Who Art About to Sing. In 1977, Moses Pendleton, a founding member of Pilobolus Dance Theatre, invited Monte to join the company for their 1977-78 season, during which Monte created Molly’s Not Dead with Pilobolus, foretelling her future career as a choreographer. In 1979, Monte and fellow Graham dancer, David Brown, starred in her first choreographic work, Treading; as the piece was performed around NYC, critics and audiences alike marveled at the new choreographer's work. Monte was praised for “tun in to the sensuousness of the music” to create an effect “as lulling at the music.” One reviewer wrote, “… Monte’s choreography is a significant addition to post-modernist dance, as effective as it is unusual.” This not only led to the formation of her company, but established Monte as an important innovator and contributor to contemporary dance.

In 1981, Monte formed Elisa Monte Dance with the “conviction of bridging cultural barriers through the universal language of dance.” Around the same time as the company's formation, legendary choreographer Alvin Ailey saw the performance of Treading and brought the piece to his company, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater. She explained, “to me, pigs and fishes symbolize some of the basic things in life.” Monte's jazzy, primal movements and swinging arcs of the pelvis produced “… a dance of great violent energy… a bold exploration of space made by dancers pushing themselves beyond the bounce.” The success of both pieces with the well-established Ailey Company helped launch EMD into the modern dance world, as well as concrete the friendship between Monte and her new mentor, Ailey. In 1982, EMD was named Best Company at the International Dance Festival of Paris; as the company grew, with partner Brown as artistic director, created new works with a focus on diversity and multidisciplinary collaboration.

A few years after the formation of the company and Brown married, Brown began to choreograph new works for the company alongside Monte. In 1987, their daughter, Elia Brown, was born, the formation of the family harmonized with the growth of the company: “For me, my work and my personal life are one thing. It’s not two separate compartments to me at all; the art I do as a dancer-choreographer has always been who I am, who I’m married to is who I am, my child is who I am. So for me, it’s all one picture.” In 1998, Monte changed the company's name to Monte/Brown Dance. Under this new name, the company continued to grow with new works by the artists. In 2002, Monte and Brown divorced, the company returned to its original name, Elisa Monte Dance. Rooted in sensuality and controlled, sustained energy, Monte's work is notable for its expansive range of movement. Monte collaborates with artists in other disciplines, examples being: composers Glenn Branca, Richard Peaslee, Barbara Kolb, David Van Tieghem, Joe Dallarda.

The company is celebrating its 33rd year. Since the Company's inception, Monte has choreographed more than 45 works danced by this company and others, including Boston Ballet, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, San Francisco Ballet, Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, Ballet Gulbenkian of Portugal, Teatro alla Scala Ballet, Dallas Black Dance Theatre, North Carolina Dance Theater, the Batsheva Dance Company of Israel, the PACT Contemporary Dance Company of South Africa. Monte was among the first choreographers awarded commission by the National Choreography Project; this resulted in Monte creating VII for VIII for the Boston Ballet. Now into her third decade of choreography, Monte's Volkmann Suite, Light Lies and other recent works have received widespread acclaim and represent her continuing contribution to dance, her 2014 world premiere, Lonely Planet, with an original score by David Van Tieghem, was a success at the company's performance at the New York

Vergennes Schoolhouse

The Schoolhouse is an exhibit building at Shelburne Museum in Shelburne, Vermont. It was located in Vergennes, Vermont; the town of Vergennes, Vermont built the schoolhouse about 1840 on land leased from General Samuel Strong, an American Revolutionary War officer and descendant of one of Addison County’s first families. In the terms of the lease Strong stipulated that the town pay him an annual rent of one kernel of Indian corn and use the property for educational purposes; the schoolhouse, although built at the height of Greek Revival’s popularity, reflects an amalgamation of architectural styling. Moderate classical elements include the arched door, sash windows, projecting bell tower, while the split-gable and octagonal shape of the bell tower’s cupola reflect 19th-century Eclecticism that developed as local builders and craftsmen combined elements from different architectural styles. On the exterior, the bricklayer ornamented the one-room structure with a simple patterning of six rows of stretchers and one row of headers that formed subtle bands circling the building.

When the Shelburne Museum relocated the Schoolhouse to its present site in 1947, the structure had been in disuse for many years. In preparation for the building’s restoration, the Museum created architectural drawings of the building’s exterior before removing the belfry and dismantling the brickwork piece-by-piece; the Museum replaced the original tinwork of the belfry’s dome with stronger copper, repaired its acorn finial, replaced missing windows, resurfaced the plastered interior walls, re-hung the bell. The inclusion of desks and maps reflect the modest furnishings of a 19th-century rural school. One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In most rural and small town schools, all of the students met in a single room. There, a single teacher taught academic basics to five to eight grade levels of elementary-age boys and girls. For more information see One-room school The early school room was about 20 feet square with a huge fireplace in the front.

Heat was supplied by an iron wood stove. Two privies were out back, one for the boys and one for the girls. Drinking water was ladled out of a wooden pail; the buildings were dark and dirty, with no insulation to keep out the winter cold. There were no playgrounds and no shade. There were few text books. Children used a Bible as school supplies. Seats were arranged with the smallest in the front and the tallest in the back so the teacher could see each head. Schools were consisted of winter and summer sessions; the older boys were working in the fields during the summer, so they only attended in the winter. Men predominated as teachers until the early 19th century, but by the mid-19th century most teachers were women. Women could be teachers. Women were paid half the salaries as men. Students ranged in age from 4 or 5 to 21 and sometimes toddlers went to school with older siblings who were caregivers. In 1870 in Vermont the average cost to educate one student was $13.60 per year. Grading did not exist.

Curriculum consisted of the fundamentals of reading, spelling and calculating. Students recited the alphabet, the definitions of spelling words, the rules of grammar, arithmetic facts, long prose passages. Few students went beyond the fundamentals taught in the one-room schoolhouse. Teachers were themselves 14 or 15 years old with no advanced training. Correct conduct was considered the most important part of a student’s education. Boys entered the school room, took off their hats, bowed to the teacher and others. On leaving school they would bow again. Girls would enter, bow or curtsey, repeat on leaving. Shelburne Museum General Samuel Strong House One-room school Vergennes, Vermont Hill, Ralph Nading and Lilian Baker Carlisle; the Story of The Shelburne Museum. 1955. Shelburne Museum. 1993. Shelburne Museum: A Guide to the Collections. Shelburne: Shelburne Museum, Inc. Shelburne Museum Schoolhouse