The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War, was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River, it included all the land west of Pennsylvania, northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River below the Great Lakes. It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U. S. States, it was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, the remainder attached to Indiana Territory. At its inception the Territory was a vast wilderness sparsely populated by nomadic Indians including the Delaware, Potawatomi and others.
At the territory's dissolution, there were dozens of towns and settlements, a few with thousands of settlers in Ohio chiefly along the Ohio and Miami Rivers and around the Great Lakes. The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783; the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7, 1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution; the Territory was governed by martial law under a governor and three judges, but as population increased, a legislature, the Territorial General Assembly, was formed. Administratively, the Territory was divided into a succession of counties totaling 13. Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of eastern Ohio. The Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, northwest of the Ohio River, it incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, Illinois Country. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France; the area included more than 260,000 square miles and comprised about 1/3 of the land area of the United States at the time of its creation. It was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders Canadien and British. Among the tribes inhabiting the region were the Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot and Potawatomi. Notably, the Miami capital along with British trading posts was at Kekionga at the site of present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Neutralizing Kekionga became the focus of the Northwest Indian War, the driving events in the early evolution of the territory.
Integration of the Northwest Territory into a political unit, settlement, depended on three factors: relinquishment by the British, extinguishment of states' claims west of the Appalachians, usurpation or purchase of lands from the Indians. These objectives were accomplished correspondingly by the American Revolutionary War, provisions in the Articles of Confederation, various treaties preceding the Northwest Indian War including Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Fort McIntosh; the treaty process would extend well beyond the War and existence of the Territory as a political entity. European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin; the French exercised control from separate posts in the region, which they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War.
From the 1750s to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, the British had a long-standing goal of creating an Indian barrier state, a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover most of the Old Northwest. It would be independent of the United States and under the tutelage of the British, who would use it to block American expansion and to build up their control of the fur trade headquartered in Montreal. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region. However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; this action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act
Illinois's 12th congressional district
The 12th Congressional District of Illinois is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Illinois, represented by Republican Rep. Mike Bost since 2015; the district covers parts of Madison county, all of Alexander, Jackson, Monroe, Pulaski, Randolph, St. Clair and Williamson counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Belleville, Carbondale, East St. Louis, Granite City, Marion, Mt. Vernon, O'Fallon and Swansea are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 12th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Phil Crane on November 8, 2014. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present, bioguide.congress.gov. Washington Post page on the 12th District of Illinois U. S. Census Bureau - 5th District Fact Sheet
Nathaniel W. Pope was a politician and jurist from the U. S. state of Illinois. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, to a family long important in Virginia and Kentucky politics, his parents were Lieutenant Colonel William Pope, Virginia colonel in the Revolutionary War and a founder of Louisville, Penelope Edwards, granddaughter of Sir Humphrey and Rebecca Walker Sanford. Pope graduated from Transylvania University in Lexington in 1804 read law under his brother John Pope before being admitted to the bar. Pope soon moved to Ste. Genevieve, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, started practicing law in the Louisiana Territory, which had become part of the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. However, Pope soon realized economic opportunities were greater in Kaskaskia on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, planned to move there. Furthermore, Kaskaskia became the seat of government when Congress organized the Illinois Territory in 1809, splitting off what became Ohio and the Indiana Territory.
Pope's Democratic-Republican leanings and family connections his brother John who became U. S. Senator from Kentucky in 1807, mattered. President James Madison on 23 February 1809 appointed Pope as Secretary of the Illinois Territory; when Kentucky Judge John Boyle declined appointment as the new territory's governor, Pope's cousin, Ninian Edwards, accepted. Pope and Illinois' new judges resolved that laws in effect in Indiana would remain in force in Illinois unless repealed. During the War of 1812, Pope served on Governor Edwards' staff during an expedition to fight hostile native tribes near Peoria Lake. Reappointed as Territorial Secretary in 1813, Pope published a volume of legal cases decided in the territorial courts, with his nephew and clerk Daniel Pope Cook published a volume of the new territory's laws. After being elected on September 5, 1816 as Territorial Delegate to the United States Congress, Pope resigned as territorial Secretary. Meanwhile, Pope moved to Vandalia and to Springfield to follow transfers of the territorial capital.
Pope returned East in 1817 to serve as the Territory's Delegate in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth United States Congress. As such, Pope was instrumental both in securing the new territory's admission as the 21st State on December 3, 1818 as well as in adjusting the new state's northern boundary from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to 42° 30'. Adding the land now included in the thirteen northern counties became important for Illinois' development, because it included what was to become its largest city, although it retarded Wisconsin's qualification for admission to the Union. Furthermore, Pope drafted the statehood resolution to ensure that 2% of land sales would be used to fund roads and 3% to fund schools, unlike the previous statehood resolutions which required 5% to be used to fund roads. Upon leaving Congress, Pope was appointed register of the land office at Edwardsville, Illinois, on November 30, 1818, served until March 3, 1819. On that date, he was nominated by President James Monroe to a new seat on the United States District Court for the District of Illinois, was confirmed by the United States Senate.
When Ninian Edwards resigned as Illinois' Senator in 1824, Pope was an unsuccessful candidate for that seat tainted by his association with the anti-slavery views of Governor Edward Coles as well as his nephew Daniel Pope Cook. Pope was an unsuccessful candidate for a seat on the United State Supreme Court. Pope continued to serve as a federal judge until his death in 1850. Pope died at his daughter's home in St. Louis and was interred at Colonel O'Fallon Burying Ground, reburied at Bellefontaine Cemetery, his son became John Pope. His nephew, Daniel Pope Cook, was prominent in Illinois politics. Pope County, was named for Pope, as was the closed Nathaniel Pope Elementary School in North Lawndale, Chicago. "Nathaniel Pope:From Connections and Factional Politics to Champion of Statehood" from Illinois History, December 1993 "Nathaniel Pope". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Nathaniel Pope at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
Angle, Paul M. McClelland. Nathaniel Pope from 1784 to 1850, A Memoir.: Privately printed, 1937. OCLC 5844104 Bloom, Jo Tice. "Peaceful Politics: The Delegates from Illinois Territory from 1809 to 1818." The Old Northwest 6: 203-15. Illinois Laws, etc. Laws of the Territory of Illinois and digested, under the authority of the legislature. By Nathaniel Pope. Kaskaskia: Printed by Matthew Duncan Printer to the Territory, 1815. Nathaniel Pope at Find a Grave
Perry County, Illinois
Perry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 22,350, its county seat is Pinckneyville. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Perry County was formed in 1827 out of Randolph counties, it was named in honor of Oliver Hazard Perry who defeated the British fleet at the decisive Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. In its early history, Perry County was an inland pioneer outpost. Early settlers, including some Revolutionary War veterans bearing land grants, moved here from the Eastern United States; these were Protestant settlers. Growth boomed in the 1850s for two reasons: construction of the Illinois Central Railroad through the eastern portion of the county, the discovery of large coal reserves. Immigrants from Ireland, Germany and elsewhere increased the County's population from 1850 through the 1920s. African Americans were established in the County during northward migration following the Civil War.
Mining continued to be the dominant employment sector through the 1990s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 447 square miles, of which 442 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. Perry County is located in Southern Illinois. Pinckneyville, at the center of the county, is 70 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri and 300 miles southwest of Chicago; the Mississippi River southwest of the County at its closest point. The County's topography is flat with some rolling hills; the part of the County's eastern border, the part shared with Franklin County, is formed by the Little Muddy River. Beaucoup Creek lies just east of Pinckneyville; the county's topography features many "strip cut" lakes, lakes left behind following above-ground coal mining. Lakes at two of the county's chief recreation areas, the Du Quoin State Fairgrounds and Pyramid State Recreation Area, were formed this way. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Pinckneyville have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1934.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.61 inches in February to 4.81 inches in May. U. S. Route 51 Illinois Route 4 Illinois Route 13 Illinois Route 14 Illinois Route 127 Illinois Route 150 Illinois Route 152 Illinois Route 154 Washington County - north Jefferson County - northeast Franklin County - east Jackson County - south Randolph County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,350 people, 8,335 households, 5,622 families residing in the county; the population density was 50.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,426 housing units at an average density of 21.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.9% white, 8.3% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.8% were German, 14.3% were Irish, 10.6% were English, 8.1% were American, 6.3% were Polish. Of the 8,335 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,696 and the median income for a family was $50,130. Males had a median income of $40,768 versus $28,377 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,926. About 11.5% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Du Quoin Pinckneyville Cutler St. Johns Tamaroa Willisville Conant Swanwick Winkle National Register of Historic Places listings in Perry County
Illinois County, Virginia
Illinois County, was a political and geographic region, part of the British Province of Quebec, claimed during the American Revolutionary War on July 4, 1778 by George Rogers Clark of the Virginia Militia, during the Illinois Campaign. It was formally recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia that year; the County was accorded official governmental existence, including defined boundaries and a formal governmental structure under the laws of the Commonwealth. The county seat was the old French village of Kaskaskia. John Todd was appointed by Governor Patrick Henry to head the county's government; the county was abolished in Jan. 1782, the Commonwealth of Virginia ceded the land to the new United States federal government in 1784. The area became the Northwest Territory by an Act of Congress in 1787. Geographically, the county was bordered to the southeast by the Ohio River, in the west by the Mississippi River, in the north by the Great Lakes at the time of its existence, it included all of what were known as Illinois Country under French sovereignty.
Politically, its effective reach extended only to the French settlements of Vincennes and Kaskaskia. Ohio Country Former counties and towns of Virginia Virginia County Maps and Atlases
Southern Illinois is the southern third of the state of Illinois. The southern part of Illinois has a unique regional history. Part of downstate Illinois, the Southern Illinois region is bordered by the two most voluminous rivers in the United States: the Mississippi River and its connecting Missouri River to the west, the Ohio River to the east and south with the Wabash as tributary. Southern Illinois' most populated city is Belleville at 44,478. Other principal cities include Alton, Collinsville, Effingham, O'Fallon, Herrin, Mt. Vernon and Carbondale, where the main campus of Southern Illinois University is located. Residents may travel to amenities in St. Louis and Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the region is home to a major military installation. The area has a population of 1.2 million people, who live in rural towns and cities separated by extensive farmland and the Shawnee National Forest. The two higher density areas of population are Metro-East, the industrialized Illinois portion of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area, centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area, home to 123,272 residents.
The first European settlers were French colonists in the part of their North American empire called Illinois Country. Settlers migrated from the Upland South of the United States, traveling by the Ohio River; the region was affiliated with the southern agricultural economy, based on enslaved African Americans as workers on major plantations, rural culture. Some settlers owned slaves before the territory was organized and slavery was prohibited. Many areas developed an economy based on coal mining. Except for the counties in the St. Louis MSA, much of Southern Illinois is still culturally affiliated with the Mid-South: Western Kentucky, Southwestern Indiana, West Tennessee, the Missouri Bootheel; the people speak with similar accents throughout this area. Southern Illinois, the earliest settled and once the wealthiest part of Illinois, is known for its rich history and the abundance of antebellum architecture remaining in its small towns and cities; the earliest inhabitants of Illinois are thought to have arrived about 12,000 BC.
They were indigenous hunter-gatherers, but they developed a primitive system of agriculture. After AD 1000, the production of agricultural surpluses resulted in the development of complex, hierarchical societies. With the rise of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, tribal leaders organized thousands of workers to build complex urban areas featuring numerous large earthworks – pyramidal and conical mounds used for religious and ceremonial purposes. Cahokia, located within the boundaries of present-day Collinsville, was the major regional center of this culture, it contains the largest prehistoric earthworks in the Americas, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mound builders' culture seems to have collapsed between AD 1400–1500; the Mississippians had abandoned Cahokia long. The Illinois tribes, for whom the state is named, other historic tribes migrated to Southern Illinois around AD 1500. Archeologists say, they had migrated from eastern areas, where Algonquian-language tribes emerged along the Atlantic Coast and waterways.
The Illini left numerous artifacts, including burial sites, burned-out campfires along the bases of bluffs, flint implements, weapons. Structures built by them include stone forts or "pounds". Visitors can see a stone fort in Giant City State Park near Makanda. At least eight other such structures are known in the region. In about 1673, French explorers from Quebec became the first Europeans to reach Illinois; the French named the area Illinois after the Indians. The French explored the Mississippi River, establishing outposts and seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Far East; as increasing Indian unrest and warfare began in Northern Illinois over the lucrative fur trade along the Great Lakes, the French concentrated on building outposts in Southern Illinois. The earliest European settlers were concentrated along the Mississippi and Wabash rivers, which provided easy routes for travel and trade; the settlements including Cahokia town and Chartres became important market villages and supply depots between Canada and the French ports on the lower Mississippi River.
Other important early outposts in Southern Illinois were at Old Shawneetown and Fort Massac on the Ohio River. After defeating the French in the French and Indian War and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the English ruled the Great Lakes region. At the time, many French settlers moved from towns on the eastern side of the Mississippi to the western side, ruled by Spain after the war, it took over all the Louisiana Territory west of the river. During the American Revolutionary War, the Southern Illinois area was the scene of the best known campaign in what was the American west, when Virginians sought to occupy it against the British. European-American settlers were slow to arrive in Illinois after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. By 1800, fewer than 2,000 European Americans lived in Illinois. Soon more settlers came from the backwoods areas of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas; these early settlers w
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government