White Top is a knob and spur of Cheat Mountain in southeastern Randolph County, West Virginia, USA. Sitting at an elevation of 4,085 feet, it is located just west of the Shavers Fork of Cheat River and Cheat Bridge. While White Top was crossed by the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike, modern-day U. S. Route 250 skirts the base of the knob beside Shavers Fork to the east. White Top is best known as the site of the highest Union camp during the American Civil War. Fort Milroy known as Cheat Summit Fort, offered an excellent view of the surrounding area including the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike which crossed about 100 feet below the fort. In guarding the Turnpike, Fort Milroy helped to guard entrance to the Tygart Valley River valley to the west. Construction on Fort Milroy began on July 16, 1861. Due to its high elevation, the Union Army faced a number of winter-related miseries. Snow was first reported for the year on August 13. Horses froze to death in mid-September; these issues, along with some success in driving Confederate forces from the area led to the abandonment of the fort in April 1862.
One Indiana soldier is quoted as having said this of their departure: "With what a light step all started. Soon on the road turning at the brow of the hill, the fourteenth took what I fondly hope is their last look at Cheat Mountain." The Cheat Summit Fort site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. A cemetery for those who died at Fort Milroy was built just south of the fort. All bodies were exhumed from the site after the Civil War ended with many being reinterred at West Virginia National Cemetery in Grafton. Depressions from the graves are still visible today; as of 2008, Monongahela National Forest was working to develop interpretive signage for the site. White Top is known as the first location where the Cheat Mountain Salamander was identified; this small vertebrate species was identified in 1935 by M. Graham Leonard Llewellyn; the salamander is found only on Cheat Mountain and adjacent mountains in the West Virginia highlands. Battle of Camp Allegheny – Confederate base several miles east on Allegheny Mountain
Shavers Mountain, is a high and rugged ridge situated in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia. It is about 35 miles long, north to south, several of its peaks exceed 4,000 feet in elevation. Shavers Mountain is notable for being "bookended", at its northern and southern ends, by two exceptional natural areas: the Otter Creek Wilderness and the Gaudineer Scenic Area both of which preserve small stands of old growth forest on the mountain. Most of Shavers Mountain lies within eastern Randolph County, although along its southern third, its crest forms the boundary between Randolph and Pocahontas Counties. Shavers Mountain is defined to the west by the valley of Shavers Fork and to the east by the valley of Glady Fork, West Fork of Glady Fork and the West Fork Greenbrier River. Shavers Mountain is part of the Shavers Fork Mountain Complex, which includes Cheat Mountain to the west and Middle Mountain to the east. Shavers Mountain's northern end is in a bend of Dry Fork of Cheat River near the town of Gladwin.
Its southern end is at U. S. Route south of which the same structural fold continues as Back Allegheny Mountain; the highest point of Shavers Mountain is located just north of US 250 at Gaudineer Knob, which has an elevation of 4,432 feet. According to E. C. Wyatt, a local historian who published in The Randolph Enterprise newspaper in the 1920s, the mountain was named for Peter Shaver, an early settler to the area, killed by Indians. Wyatt believed that in 1848 his grandfather, Ellis Wyatt, became the first man to build a house on Shavers Mountain. Ellis was a farmer, civil engineer, constable, deputy sheriff, a miller, he was the first and only man to vote a Democratic ticket in the Dry Fork District in the first election held after the Civil War. Indeed, no Democratic ticket had been printed in the District, so one had to be written to accommodate him. In June 1879, Ellis Wyatt became the first postmaster of the town of Alpena, holding the position until 1897; the timber industry in West Virginia grew towards the end of the 19th century.
In the early 1900s, Shavers Mountain was completely denuded of trees. For the most part, native trees have been allowed to grow back with only some non-native Norway spruce planted on top of the mountain in the 1920s. Most of Shavers Mountain lies within the Monongahela National Forest; the Shavers Mountain Spruce-Hemlock Stand is a 68-acre virgin red spruce-hemlock stand within the Otter Creek Wilderness. The Gaudineer Scenic Area, encompassing 140 acres around Gaudineer Knob, includes about 50 acres of virgin red spruce forest; the Shavers Mountain Trail, somewhat strenuous but affording exceptional views, is 10 miles long. Shavers Mountain Survey Project, an effort by cavers of the VAR to locate and survey the caves of Shavers Mountain
Shavers Fork of the Cheat River is situated in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia, USA. It forms the Cheat at its confluence with Black Fork at Parsons, it was traditionally considered one of the five Forks of Cheat and its upper reaches constitute the highest river in the eastern United States. Shavers Fork, via the Cheat and Ohio Rivers, is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 214 mi², it flows for much of its length through the Monongahela National Forest, drains rural and forested areas. 97% of the river's basin is forested, two-thirds of it is public land. Shavers Fork rises in north-central Pocahontas County at Thorny Flat, highest peak of Cheat Mountain and the site of Snowshoe Mountain ski resort, its headwaters flow through the ghost town of Spruce. The river flows north-northeastwardly through Randolph and Tucker Counties, where its valley is the trough between Cheat Mountain and Shavers Mountain. Settlements along its course include Cheat Bridge, Bemis and Porterwood.
The "High Falls of Cheat" is a few miles upstream of Bemis. Shavers Fork joins the Black Fork at Parsons to form the Cheat at an elevation of 1621 ft; the creek was named after the local Shaver family. According to the Geographic Names Information System, Shavers Fork has been known as: Chavers Fork Main Cheat River Shafers Fork Shaffers Fork of Cheat River Shaver's Fork Shavers Fork River Shavers Fork of Cheat River List of West Virginia rivers List of waterfalls in West Virginia The Nature Conservancy's Upper Shavers Fork Preserve
U.S. Route 250
U. S. Route 250 is a route of the United States Numbered Highway System, is a spur of U. S. Route 50, it runs for 514 miles from Richmond, Virginia to Sandusky, Ohio. It passes through the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, it goes through the cities of Richmond, Charlottesville and Waynesboro, Virginia. West of Pruntytown, West Virginia, US 250 intersects and forms a short overlap with its parent US 50. In Virginia and Ohio, the route is signed east–west. In West Virginia, the route is signed north–south. In Ohio, U. S. 250 is an important cross-state corridor linking Sandusky to Bridgeport. From a regional/traffic perspective, the route can be divided into five sections linking major regions and routes of the state: US 6 in Sandusky to US 20 at Norwalk US 20 at Norwalk to US 30 at Wooster US 30 at Wooster to I-77 at Strasburg I-77 at New Philadelphia to US 22 at Cadiz US 22 at Cadiz to I-70 at Bridgeport U. S. Route 250 begins in Sandusky, Ohio at an intersection with U. S. Route 6, it begins carrying the name Sycamore Line.
This part of the route carries much traffic connecting to the Ohio Turnpike, during the summer, people bound for Cedar Point. It is the most developed section of the road, lined with big box stores, a regional shopping mall, an outlet mall, numerous hotels, indoor waterparks and restaurants. US 250 crosses Ohio Route 2 as it travels south and crosses the Ohio Turnpike on Interstate 90 and Interstate 80, it picks up Ohio State Route 13 before passing west of Milan. After a short stretch, it enters Norwalk on Milan Avenue, it turns onto League Street and travels southwest to Whittlesey Avenue, which becomes Benedict Avenue as the street travels southeast through the center of the city. Much of this section of the route is rural and two-lane, but it carries a high level of truck and regular traffic. US 250 exits Norwalk and crosses US 20/SR 18 at a diamond interchange; the route heads in a southeasterly direction until Fitchville, where it enters on Wooster Street. SR 13 separates from US 250 before the latter turns onto Mill Street Extension, turning south off said road shortly after.
US 250 continues southeast until it meets SR 60, the two routes enter Savannah on North Main Street and pass straight through town. They continue together toward Ashland. SR 60 continues south on Cottage Street, while US 250 turns east, meeting US 42 east of the city and forming an overlap as it turns south. Upon meeting Main Street, US 250 turns east, it passes through sparse development outside the city until it interchanges with Interstate 71. US 250 continues east on Ashland Road in open countryside. West of Wooster, US 250 enters US 30, carrying the name Lincoln Way, bypasses the city to the south, exiting at a partial cloverleaf interchange which sends it south on SR 83. US 250 turns east on Dover Road south of the city. On Dover Road, US 250 follows a two-lane alignment as it passes through open fields on its path to Strasburg; the route forms the main streets of several communities as it passes through them, such as Apple Creek, Mount Eaton, Wilmot. It intersects OH 21 just before entering town.
This densely populated stretch of US 250 in Strasburg has been proposed for a bypass, but the project has not been selected for further work as of 2008. After passing through Strasburg, US 250 enters Interstate 77; the two routes travel south concurrent with one another. Interstate 77 and US 250 travel in a southern direction until reaching New Philadelphia; the two highways form a bypass of the city, with the concurrency forming the west side and US 250 along forming the south side, as Interstate 77 separates from US 250 in the southwest corner of the city. OH 800 joins the freeway at Broadway outside of New Philadelphia as it follows the Dennison/Uhrichsville freeway bypass of US 250; the two routes follow a four-lane, divided highway toward Uhrichsville, where US 250/SR 800 turns west at an interchange with U. S. Route 36. At the end of the dual highway, SR 800 turns south toward Dennison, US 250 turns north, following a two-lane, curvy alignment en route to Cadiz. Halfway between Dennison and Cadiz, US 250 follows Tappan Lake for several miles on a series of causeways built during the construction of the lake by the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District in the 1930s.
This route is of good quality, although ODOT is studying replacement or upgrade through its Macro-Corridors Project. Near Cadiz, it merges onto the Cadiz Bypass, where it runs concurrent with US 22, it turns onto Lincoln Avenue and passes through the city of Cadiz. US 250 turns onto Market Street and follows it south out of town. From Cadiz, US 250's name changes to Cadiz -- Harrisville Road. Shortly after exiting the city, US 250 begins to curve and wind with several hairpin turns. For much of this distance, the road runs on ridge tops. After it passes through Harrisville, the road becomes less curvy but is fronted densely with homes for the remainder of its route within the state, save the forest at its south end, where it features another hairpin curve, it continues southeast to Bridgeport, where it features a partial interchange with OH 7. US 250 joins US 40 and crosses the Ohio River into West Virginia; the poor alignment of this section of the highway, along with the fact that it runs through Cadiz as opposed to bypassing it, li
Tucker County, West Virginia
Tucker County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,141, making it West Virginia's second-least populous county, its county seat is Parsons. The county was created in 1856 from a part of Randolph County part of Virginia. In 1871, a small part of Barbour County, was transferred to Tucker County; the county was named after Henry St. George Tucker, Sr. a judge and Congressman from Williamsburg, Virginia. Tucker County was created in 1856 from a part of Randolph County part of Virginia. In 1861, as a result of the Wheeling Convention, Tucker County joined the rest of West Virginia in breaking away from Virginia to remain a part of the Union. Between 1889 and 1893, a dispute known as the Tucker County Seat War took place between the people in the town of Parsons and that of St. George, over the location of the county seat. Although nobody was killed in the "war", the situation came to a climax when a mob of armed men from Parsons marched on St. George and took the county records by force.
Beginning in 1907, the Babcock Lumber Company of Pittsburgh, while operating out of Davis, West Virginia, clear cut the mountain ridges throughout Tucker Country. This clear cutting, with its residual slashings, converted the landscape into a "tinderbox". By 1910, fires burned continuously — in some areas for years on end, from spring until the first snows — leaving little other than thin mineral soil and bare rock. In 1914, with the county denuded of standing trees, the ground burned continually for 6 months; as a result, top soils that once produced huge timbers on the mountainsides — including the largest tree harvested in West Virginia, a white oak some 13 feet in diameter just 10 feet from the ground — washed down into the narrow valleys and bottom lands, which had always been too narrow for harvesting productive crops or livestock. Uncontrollable soil erosion and flooding further depopulated the region. To this day, Tucker County and surrounding regions bear the scars of this remarkable conflagration.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 421 square miles, of which 419 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 219 West Virginia Route 32 West Virginia Route 38 West Virginia Route 72 West Virginia Route 90 West Virginia Route 93WV 48 Preston County Garrett County, Maryland Grant County Randolph County Barbour County Blackwater Falls State Park Canaan Valley Resort State Park Fairfax Stone State Park Big Run Bog Canaan Valley Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service web site Dolly Sods Wilderness U. S. Forest Service web site Fernow Experimental Forest U. S. Department of Agriculture web site Fisher Spring Run Bog Monongahela National Forest U. S. Forest Service web site As of the census of 2000, there were 7,321 people, 3,052 households, 2,121 families residing in the county; the population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 4,634 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.85% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.01% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races.
0.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,052 households out of which 27.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.84. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, 17.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,250, the median income for a family was $32,574. Males had a median income of $24,149 versus $17,642 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,349.
About 14.90% of families and 18.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.30% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,141 people, 3,057 households, 2,052 families residing in the county; the population density was 17.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,346 housing units at an average density of 12.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.7% white, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.3% were German, 15.7% were Irish, 8.1% were American, 7.9% were English, 5.8% were Dutch. Of the 3,057 households, 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families, 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age was 46.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,712 and the median income for a family was $43,307. Males had a median income of $34,321 versus $22,938 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,020. About 12.9% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 20.7%
West Virginia's 2nd congressional district
West Virginia's 2nd congressional district stretches from the Ohio River border with Ohio to the Potomac River border with Maryland and the border with Virginia. It includes the capital city of Charleston and the growing residential communities of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands regions connected by a narrow strip of nearly unpopulated counties, it has been described as 20 miles wide and 300 miles long. The district is represented by Alex Mooney, a Republican. West Virginia had four Congressional seats from 1973 to 1993. Much of the western portion of the current 2nd District had been in the 3rd District, based in Charleston; the eastern portion of the district had been in the 2nd District, anchored in Martinsburg and Morgantown for all but a few years since statehood. For all but two years from 1949 to 1993, it was held by the Democratic Staggers family--Harley O. Staggers from 1949 to 1981 and Harley "Buckey" Staggers, Jr. from 1983 to 1993. When West Virginia lost a seat following the 1990 Census, the state legislature divided Staggers's district among the remaining three districts.
Much of Staggers's old territory was merged with the 3rd District, represented by five-term Democrat Bob Wise and renumbered the 2nd. However, Staggers's home in Mineral County wound up in the 1st District, where he was routed in the Democratic primary by Alan Mollohan. Wise represented the new district until 2000, when he won West Virginia's governorship. Following the 2010 Census, Mason County was transferred to the 3rd District, which changed the character of the district only slightly; this change took effect for the 2012 election. The district is expensive to campaign in, because six counties on the district's eastern fringe are in the expensive Washington, D. C. television market. The two main parts and the Eastern Panhandle, have little in common and little interaction; the district is more conservative and prosperous than the rest of the state. It shares West Virginia's tendency to give congressmen long tenures in Washington; the 2000 election that resulted in Capito's victory marked the first open-seat race in the district since 1945.
The old 2nd District had only five congressmen from 1933 until its elimination in 1993. George W. Bush carried the district twice in 2000 with 54% of the vote and in 2004 with 57% of the vote. John McCain won the district in 2008 with 54.63% of the vote while Barack Obama received 43.77%. The district contains much of the territory, represented by longtime Senator Robert Byrd when he served in the House from 1953 to 1959; the Second District as formed in 1863 included Taylor, Monongalia, Tucker, Upshur, Pocahontas, Pendleton, Hampshire and Morgan counties. It was the successor of Virginia's 10th congressional district; the district was unchanged for 1882. In 1902, the district was changed to Monongalia, Tucker, Barbour, Randolph, Grant, Mineral, Morgan and Jefferson counties; the district was unchanged for 1916. Taylor was removed for 1934; the district was again unchanged for 1954. In 1962 Upshur, Webster and Greenbrier counties were added. In 1972, Monroe and Fayette were added. In 1982, Barbour was added.
1992 first saw the district as constituted, consisting of Berkeley, Calhoun, Glimer, Hardy, Jefferson, Lewis, Morgan, Pendleton, Randolph, Roane and Wirt counties. In 2002, Gilmer and Nicholas were removed and for the election cycle beginning in 2012, Mason was removed. West Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of