Randwick is a suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Randwick is located 6 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the local government area of the City of Randwick. Randwick is part of the Eastern Suburbs region; the postcode is 2031. Randwick was named after the village of Randwick, England, birthplace of Simeon Henry Pearce, who became Mayor of Randwick no less than six times. Simeon, who migrated to Australia in 1842, his brother James who arrived in 1848, were responsible for the founding and early development of Randwick. Simeon built the first stone house in the area in 1848, called Blenheim House, which can still be seen in Blenheim Street, it was neglected for some time in the mid-1900s, but was acquired by Randwick City Council and restored. Proclaimed as a Municipality in February 1859, as a City in 1990, Randwick has a rich history and a number of heritage buildings. Another Mayor of Randwick, George Kiss, lived in the house known as Ventnor in the 1870s.
A two-storey sandstone house, Ventnor was built by Alderman Edward Dawson in 1859, is situated on Avoca Street, overlooking Coogee. It is now owned by the nearby Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Church. Other buildings of note include the St Jude's Church group on Avoca Street. Designed by Edmund Blacket, the church was completed in 1865, it was modified by H. M. Robinson in 1889; the rectory next door was built in 1870. The Verger's Residence, designed by Thomas Rowe and completed in 1862, was the original Randwick Municipal Chambers; this distinctive building, with its Gothic touches, was followed by the present Randwick Town Hall, built further north in Avoca Street in 1881. The church group and Ventnor are listed on the Register of the National Estate. Further south down Avoca Street is the sandstone building with a tower, built in 1859 as an investment property by William Ellis, one of Randwick's first six elected aldermen. After being used as the'Star and Garter' Inn by Mrs Elizabeth Shipway, it was the home of Captain Thomas Watson, responsible for commissioning the 1874 statue of Captain James Cook, sculpted by Walter McGill, which still stands at the south side of the building.
Captain Watson heightened the square tower, thus ensuring another distinctive landmark feature of the area. Close by is another more imposing building in Randwick's heartland - the Prince of Wales Hospital, which started life as the Randwick Asylum for Destitute Children. Opened in 1858, it was financed by the legacy of Dr. Cuthill, whose name is commemorated by the adjacent Cuthill Street; the southern wing was added in 1863. In 1915 the Asylum buildings were deemed unsuitable as premises in which to provide a realistic home life for children, they were adapted for WWI use as a military and repatriation hospital. In 1953 the complex was re-named as the Prince of Wales Hospital, which continues to grow as a renowned medical facility. Other noteworthy buildings include private homes like Ilfracombe and Torquay in Avoca Street, Venice, in Frenchmans Road; the latter was built 1884-84 on part of St Mark's Glebe. The land had been leased in 1880 for 99 years to S. Holmes and J. Parsons; the house has stained glass windows.
It has been described as a "comparatively rare and distinctive example of late Victorian Gothic architecture retaining most of its detailing intact." It has a New South Wales heritage listing. Another notable home was Sandgate, located in Belmore Road; this sandstone house was built circa 1870 on Crown land purchased by Simeon Pearce in 1853. It was bought by the Federal Government in the 1920s, it was restored by Randwick Council. The last Gothic mansion left in Randwick is Nugal Hall, located in Milford Street, it was designed by Mortimer Lewis and the southern portion of the house was built in 1853 for Alexander McArthur, a shipping merchant. The house features a staircase with glass dome above; the coach house building at the front was a lodge for horse-drawn vehicles. The northern portion of the house was completed by Dr Fred Tidswell; the architect of the northern portion is thought to have been Oswald. The Tidswell family owned the house from c. 1880 – 1903. Frederick Squire Tidswell and his wife Mary Ann had nine children including the microbiologist Dr Frank Tidswell and architect Thomas Tidswell.
Randwick has a number of heritage-listed sites, including the following sites listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register: 124 Alison Road: Randwick Post Office 162 Alison Road: Randwick Presbyterian Church 102-108 Avoca Street: St Jude's Church, Randwick 211-215 Avoca Street: Corana and Hygeia 128 Belmore Road: Sandgate, Randwick 60 Bundock Lane: Electricity Substation No. 341 66 Frenchmans Road: Venice, Randwick 17 Gilderthorpe Avenue: Hooper Cottage 16-18 Milford Street: Nugal Hall 2S Frances Street: Electricity Substation No. 349 43 St Marks Road: Rathven, Randwick 43 St Pauls Street: Ritz Cinema, Sydney 18-20 Stanley Street: Emanuel School, Australia 26-42 The Avenue: Avonmore Terrace 29-39 Young Street: Big Stable NewmarketThe following structures are listed on the Register of the National Estate, or the heritage schedule of Randwick Council's Local Environment Plan.
Sarah Hope Summers, better known as Hope Summers, was an American character actress known for her work on CBS's The Andy Griffith Show and Mayberry RFD, portraying Clara Edwards. Hope Summers was born in Mattoon, the daughter of U. S. Representative John W. Jennie, she was reared in Illinois and in Walla Walla, Washington. She graduated from Northwestern School of Speech at Northwestern University in Evanston and taught speech and diction there. From here, she became the head of the Speech Department at Bradley University in Illinois. A regional actress who performed in one-woman shows, she made her network television debut in 1951 on the soap opera Hawkins Falls, broadcast from Chicago. She was past fifty. Hope Summers first attracted attention in 1958 in the semi-regular role as Hattie Denton on the western series The Rifleman, starring Chuck Connors, she guest starred on dozens of series including Maverick, Wagon Train, State Trooper, Rescue 8, Peter Gunn, Dennis the Menace, It's a Man's World, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Gunsmoke, The Danny Thomas Show, My Three Sons, Petticoat Junction, Love on a Rooftop, The Pruitts of Southampton, The Second Hundred Years, Adam-12 and The Paul Lynde Show, was a regular in the cast of the short-lived 1978 situation comedy Another Day.
She made thirty-six appearances on the Andy Griffith Show during the 1960s, five appearances on the post-Griffith spinoff, Mayberry R. F. D.. Her film work was in quite small parts unbilled, but she had a credited part as Mrs. Gilmore, one of the kindlier members of the witches' coven at the heart of Roman Polanski's film classic Rosemary's Baby. In the 1970s, Sarah Summers was the voice for Mrs. Butterworth's syrup commercials with actress Kim Fields, she acted until 1978, a year before her death from congestive heart failure in 1979, aged 83, in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California. She is interred at Mountain View Cemetery in Washington in the Masonic Section. Hope Summers on IMDb Hope Summers at Find a Grave Peorian Article
The Alliance of Nova Scotia Student Associations was the largest post-secondary student advocacy group in Nova Scotia and the largest student organization in the Atlantic Provinces. In 2012 it was renamed Students Nova Scotia; the organization represented 80-87% of the province's university students. It worked towards improved funding for education in Nova Scotia and the elimination of real and perceived financial barriers for university students. ANSSA's member organizations were the Dalhousie Student Union, the Acadia Students' Union, the Atlantic School of Theology Students' Union, the St. Francis Xavier University Students' Union, the Saint Mary's University Students' Association, the Cape Breton University Student Union. In 2003 the Nova Scotia Student Advocacy Coalition collapsed as a result of ideological differences between the Canadian Federation of Students and Canadian Alliance of Student Associations schools within the organization. Schools who were members of the CFS remained affiliated with that group's provincial wing, but the DSU, ASU, STFXSU, SMUSA—as members of CASA—were left without a provincial lobby group.
Talks between those schools led to the establishment of ANSSA in April 2004. SMUSA entered the alliance until that fall, following a successful referendum and the ASTSU that same year. CBUSU joined in 2009 after voting to leave the CFS. In August 2012, ANSSA's board of directors voted to change their name as part of a series of larger governance reforms, alongside an expansion of the organization's research and engagement capacities; the organization took on Students Nova Scotia. Official Site
Sulzbach am Main is a market municipality in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. Sulzbach lies on the rivers Main and Sulzbach 7 km south of Aschaffenburg on the western edge of the Spessart; the hill Pfaffenberg with its radio transmitter is located within the municipal territory. Sulzbach's Ortsteile are Sulzbach and Dornau. Sulzbach is bordered by: Aschaffenburg, Hohe Wart, Kleinwallstadt, Großwallstadt and Niedernberg. Findings from the Neolithic show that the Sulzbach valley was settled as early as 3500 BC. A circular rampart on the Schlossberg between Sulzbach-Soden and Ebersbach was in use in the late Hallstatt period. During Roman times, the Main and the Limes Germanicus formed Germania's border with the Roman-occupied Odenwald area across the river. In the centuries that followed, several tribes lived in the Sulzbach valley: the Chatti, the Alamanni, the Burgundians and the Franks, it was in Charles Martel's time that the municipality of Ruchelnheim, which lay within what are now Sulzbach's municipal borders and, abandoned in the Thirty Years' War, was founded.
As far back as Carolingian times, settlements on the streams Sulzbach and Leidersbach, like Sulzbach, Leidersbach and Roßbach came into being. It is likely that Soden's founding occurred in late Carolingian times. Sulzbach and Soden were assigned to the parish of Ruchelnheim, itself subordinate to the Stiftskirche Aschaffenburg in Aschaffenburg. Sulzbach had its first documentary mention in a document from Pope Lucius III, in which a curtem in Sulzibah was listed among the Aschaffenburg Stiftskirche's holdings; this dates to 1184. From the mid-13th century, Sulzbach belonged to the Centena Ascaffinburg – the tithing area of Aschaffenburg – whose place was taken in the 15th century by the Cent vorm Spessart; until the 1803 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, Sulzbach was under Electoral Mainz's lordship. Thereafter, it was part of Prince Primate von Dalberg's newly formed Principality of Aschaffenburg, with which it passed in 1814, to the Kingdom of Bavaria, it has remained Bavarian since. As in all other areas in the Spessart, farmland was splintered by Mainz inheritance law in the 18th and 19th centuries pulling Sulzbach, into an economic downswing with its attendant consequences for living conditions.
Only with the onset of industrialization in Aschaffenburg and the opening of the Aschaffenburg-Miltenberg railway line in 1876 did conditions improve. The self-administering municipalities of Dornau and Soden were amalgamated with Sulzbach on 1 July 1971 and 1972, respectively; the status of the municipality was changed to Markt on 15 May 1973. Industries associated with Sulzbach are lighter manufacturing. Sulzbach became well known above all for its lighter industry: Ibelo, Europe's biggest lighter producer, had its production facility in Sulzbach and employed more than 300 workers. Today the firm's building is nothing more than a ruin; the firm was refounded after the war by Hermann Zahn, after the original owners, who were Jewish, had emigrated to England, where they founded another lighter firm. The firm was expanded to several times its former size, with the number of employees steadily rising. Owing to cheaper lighters from Japan, the company became insolvent in 1985 and was sold to another owner, who cut back production bit by bit until in the end, in 2000, he let the remaining workers go because the outside marketing company ended up going bankrupt.
Today, remaindered stock is being sold worldwide through a North German company. A great number of Sulzbach's inhabitants worked in the local textile industry. Given this industry's general situation, only a few of these companies have survived; the drink manufacturer Sodenthaler was founded in 1950. Since 1996 the business has belonged to the Coca-Cola Group and is still in operation today in Sulzbach's outlying centre of Soden; the firm Möbel Kempf made the leap in Sulzbach from a small business to a nationally known furniture shop. Given the bad connection with Hesse, the management decided to move the company to Aschaffenburg. Today a subsidiary still sells furniture and other consumer items at a cash-and-carry shop; the Altenburg is an oval hilltop fortress on the Schlossberg, right at the municipal border between Sulzbach and Leidersbach. The circular rampart measures about 365 m west to east, with a width of up to 180 m; the remains of the rampart consist of an outer wall and a moat. Excavations in 2008 and 2009 indicated at least three distinct periods of use.
The first period was during the Neolithic Michelsberg culture, as evidenced by findings of ceramic fragments and stone artefacts. No extant structures can be attributed to this period, however; the second phase of use was during the late Hallstatt period. The inner wall was built during this time, it had a fortified gate to the southeast. This inner wall was destroyed by a fire; the outer wall is the most recent. It may have seen use well into early medieval times as a refuge castle for the population of the surrounding villages. A map from the 19th century shows remains of a square building near the southeast of the structure. However, this area was affected by locals using the Altenburg as a source of construction material and tod
Bob Hobbs was an Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1940s and 1950s. He played for Western Suburbs and Parramatta as a second rower. Hobbs began his first grade career with Canterbury-Bankstown in 1945 after moving from Cowra in country New South Wales. Hobbs featured more for the reserve grade team. In 1946, Hobbs joined Western Suburbs spending a solitary season with them making 4 appearances. In 1949, Hobbs joined newly admitted side Parramatta and was a regular starter for the club over the following 6 seasons finishing as top point scorer for the side in 1952 and 1953. Hobbs time at Parramatta was not a successful one though with the team finishing last on two occasions and finishing towards the bottom in the other years
Nickel mining in New Caledonia is a major sector of the New Caledonian economy. The islands contain about 7,100,000 tonnes of nickel, about 10% of the world's nickel reserves. With the annual production of about 107,000 tonnes in 2009, New Caledonia was the world's fifth largest producer after Russia, Indonesia and Australia. Nickel production in New Caledonia accounts for 7–10% the country's GDP and is responsible for as much as 80% towards foreign earnings. With the exclusion of tourism, nickel ore and derived metallurgical products represent about 97% of the total value of exports. New Caledonia has the longest history of mining in the Pacific islands. Nickel was found in New Caledonia in 1864 by the engineer Jules Garnier, it was distributed in the ore layers which cover about one third of the area of the main island of New Caledonia. The nickel concentration was inhomogeneous and varied with the depth. Whereas its usual concentration was 2–5 percent, it could reach 10–15 percent in scattered deposits of green garnierite.
Those areas were developed first using primitive manual extraction methods and were depleted, resulting in the present average concentration of about 2.6 percent. This nickel is located at the depth of about 30 metres. Shallower layers of 10–20 metres contain nickel, but at half of the concentration, they constitute most of the nickel reserves of New Caledonia. Wide-scale mining started in 1875 in Canala communes. Early mining was done by hand and gradually became mechanised. By beginning of the 20th century two large mines at Bourai and Thio were established. In the initial years, after nickel was discovered mining was done in about 330 mines. However, in 1981 there were only 30 functional mines as against 130 in the early 1970s; because of the remote location of the islands, about half of the ore was smelted locally, despite the underdeveloped industrial infrastructure of New Caledonia. Another half was exported to Japan; the first nickel smelter was built in 1879 with two other added in 1910 and 1913.
The smelted product was sent for refining to France. Because of low nickel content in the ore, local smelting resulted in vast amount of displaced rocks near the smelters that changed the local landscape; the production of ore was nearly constant between 1875 and 1948, but increased about 70 times reaching a peak of about 8 million tonnes in 1971. This rise followed by a decline, to about 4 million tonnes of ore in 1981, due to cyclones, reducing demand for the metal and increasing role of other world producers, such as Indonesia and Australia. Correspondingly, the mined area decreased from 21,500–8,700 hectares and the number of people employed in the industry from about 6,200 to about 3,600. Nearly half of them worked at the mines and another half at the major Doniambo processing plant near Noumea. Strip mining is the most common technique adopted for nickel mining and statistics show that stripping of 500 million tonnes of overburden had to be removed to extract nickel ore, which amounted to clearing an area of 20 hectares per million tonne.
The local nickel industry is dominated by the French company Eramet which has a 60% interest in its nickel mining subsidiary, SLN in New Caledonia. Other firms such as Falconbridge Ltd. Inco, Argosy Minerals and QNI however are still active in New Caledonia Inco in the Goro mine which produces both nickel and cobalt, about 54,000 tonnes of nickel annually. Despite a decline in the nickel mining, New Caledonia remains one of world's largest producers of laterite, a source of ferronickel which constitutes about 20% of country's production. Another 80% is nickel extracted from saprolite. In 2008, New Caledonian ferro-nickel was exported to the European Union, Taiwan, India, South Africa, South Korea and the United States. On the contrary, all smelted nickel is sent to France; the major mines are Goro, Koniambo, Nepoui – Kopeto and Etoile du Nord. The new Tiebaghi mine has been opened which will be responsible for some 30% of SLN's annual production, accounting to 20,000 tonnes per year. Goro Nickel Plant, is one of the largest hydrometallurgical process plants constructed, estimated to cost $3.2bn, with a design capacity of 60,000 tonnes of nickel per annum.
The nickel is extracted with proven reserves of 120 million tonnes. Cobalt is being produced here from saprolite deposits. Opencast extraction to depths of 50–60 m is being employed; the major share in the Plant is held by a consortium with Vale Inco holding a 69% share and a joint company called Sumic Nickel Netherlands, Japan's Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. and Mitsui Co. Ltd. holding 21%.share. The three provinces of New Caledonia hold the balance 10% share; the project was stalled for a while as the local community of Kanak people stiffly opposed the project of laying the offshore line. As of 2014 pollution into the lagoon was a problem and there were shutdowns. Though the nickel mining operation is crucial to the economy of the region, its environmental adverse impacts on the environment and ecology have invited protests from the Environmental lobbies; the environmental groups, with its social and political undertones are seeking remedial measures to redress mines' landscape impacts and the ecological aspects.
Some of the impacts brought out are the following. Ramsar Organization dealing with wetlands has brought out a few advers