A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging. Active methods use passive reflection. Active rangefinding methods include laser, radar and ultrasonic rangefinding. Other devices measure distance using trigonometry are stadiametric and stereoscopic rangefinders. Older methodologies that use a set of known information to make the measurement, have been in regular use since the 18th century. Special ranging makes use of synchronized transmission and travel time measurements; the time difference between several received signals is used to determine exact distances. This principle is used in satellite navigation. In conjunction with a standardized model of the Earth's surface, a location on that surface may be determined with high accuracy. Ranging methods without accurate time synchronization of the receiver are called pseudorange, for example, in GPS positioning. With other systems ranging is obtained from passive radiation measurements only: the noise or radiation signature of the object generates the signal, used to determine range.

This asynchronous method requires multiple measurements to obtain a range by taking multiple bearings instead of appropriate scaling of active pings, otherwise the system is just capable of providing a simple bearing from any single measurement. Ranging is the term applied to distance measurement with moving objects. Combining several measurements in a time sequence leads to tracking and tracing. A used term for residing terrestrial objects is surveying. Applications include surveying, navigation, to assist focusing in photography, choosing a golf club according to distance, correcting aim of a projectile weapon for distance. Laser rangefinders are used for many things today, including golf. People can use this technology not only to measure the yardage of a particular shot but to gauge slope and wind as well; the technology makes it simple to obtain yardage. In a typical rangefinder, one aims the reticle at the flagstick and presses a button to get the yardage. There has been debate over. While their use is banned on the professional level, they are becoming used on the amateur level.

Rangefinders may be used by users of firearms over long distances, to measure the distance to a target to allow for projectile drop. The laser rangefinder displays; until the development of electronic means of measuring range during the Second World War, warships used large optical rangefinders—with a baseline of many meters—to measure range for naval gunnery. Rangefinders are used for surveying in forestry. Special devices with anti-leaf filters are used. Since the 1990s, rangefinders have been used in virtual reality systems to detect operator movements and locate objects. Bradley A. Fiske Fire-control system Dazzle camouflage Range-finder painting Depression range finder The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Range Finder." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2014. "How Google's Self-Driving Car Works." IEEE Spectrum. N.p. n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. Army Test and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland Laser Rangefinders Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center, U.

S. Army, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia, OCLC 227620848 20 pages Gething, Michael J. Airborne Weapons: A Defence Handbook: A compilation of articles from Defence magazine over the last five years, charting the development of Airborne Weapons since 1987 Cardiff Publishing Company, Colorado, ISBN 1-881289-11-7, 44 pages Infantry and Cavalry School Notes on rangefinders, compasses and on contouring with the Scale of Horizontal Equivalents Staff College Press, U. S. Army, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, OCLC 278057724, 35 pages Photographic and Imaging Manufacturers Association American national standard for photography: rangefinders and other focusing aids – performance specifications American National Standards Institute, New York, OCLC 41501265, 14 pages Hicks and Schultz, Frances Rangefinder: Equipment, Techniques Guild of Master Craftsman, United Kingdom, ISBN 1-86108-330-0 Ehlert, Detlef. S. Army, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, OCLC 278057724, 35 pages Whitehouse, J. C. "Further considerations of defocus rangefinders" Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 27: pp. 297–316 Ward, A..

"A New Location Technique for the Active Office" IEEE Personal Communications 4: pp. 42–47 Werb, J. and Lanzi, C. "Designing a positioning system for finding things arid people indoors" IEEE Spectrum 35: pp. 71–78 Range-Finding in the Army. How to use range-finders to get results: the erect and inverted types, Popular Science monthly, February 1919, page 118–120, Scanned by Google Books "Distance calculator - Calculates the exact distance between places" "Rangefinder Comparison - A National Forest Service document" "Light Pulse Generator for rangefinder testing"

Doña Juana

Doña Juana is a stratovolcano, located within the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park in Nariño, Colombia. With a previous eruption of VEI 4, Doña Juana is rated as a "large" volcano of "cataclysmic" destructive power. During its last eruption, in 1906, more than 100 people were killed and many houses were destroyed, its largest known historical eruption was on November 13, 1899. In its prehistory, it is known to have erupted in the 23rd century BC in a caldera-forming eruption of unknown magnitude; the name of the volcano originated from a legend of the Chincha Indians, within whose native lands it is located: Mama Juana, a beautiful Quiteña, fell in love with Pedro, a commoner, but with the parents opposed to the marriage, they fled, becoming the victims of a curse that turned them into volcanoes. The volcano can be ascended from a slope, part of the so-called Valley of Orchids, it is surrounded by an area of extraordinary biodiversity, which includes 471 species of birds, bears and pumas.

The summit of Dona Juana consists of a number of peaks, which afford a number of views, including of Laguna del Silencio, one of 42 lakes in the national park. The Petacas is located to the northeast of Doña Juana. Both volcanoes are located between the El Tablón Fault in the west and the San Jerónimo Fault in the east. List of volcanoes in Colombia List of volcanoes by elevation Núñez, Jorge Gómez. 2002. Plancha 411 - La Cruz - 1:100,000, 1. INGEOMINAS. Accessed 2017-06-06

Miranda Lambert discography

The discography of Miranda Lambert, an American country artist, consists of eight studio albums, one extended play, seven other appearances, 27 singles, 12 music videos. Lambert has sold an estimated 7 million albums in the United States, with her first six studio albums being certified platinum. In 2001, Lambert released a self-financed independent album. After gaining exposure as the third-place winner of the television competition Nashville Star, Lambert signed with Epic Nashville in 2004. Lambert's debut major-label album, was released in March 2005. Although its debut single, "Me and Charlie Talking", only reached 27 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, the album debuted at number 1 on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart and 18 on the Billboard 200 list; the second single, entitled "Bring Me Down", was a second Top 40 hit. The release did not spawn a major hit until the title track was issued, peaking at number 15 on the Hot Country Songs chart, pressing the album to certify platinum in the United States.

Her third album, Crazy Ex-Girlfriend, was released in May 2007, debuted at number 1 on the Top Country Albums chart, but peaked at number 6 on the Billboard 200 list. The title track was released as the lead single, but only peaked at number 50; the album's second single, "Famous in a Small Town", became her highest-peaking hit at that point, reaching number 14 in mid-2007. It was the third spawned single, entitled "Gunpowder & Lead", that yielded Lambert her first Top 10 hit on the Billboard Country Songs chart, peaking at number 7; the song's background and story yielded Crazy Ex-Girlfriend to certify gold in the United States in 2008, after selling 500,000 copies. The final single, "More Like Her", became her fourth Top 20 hit, after peaking at 17 in early 2009. Revolution, was released in September 2009, it became Lambert's third release to debut at number 1 on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart, while debuting at number 8 on the Billboard 200. The lead single, "Dead Flowers", was released in May 2009, peaked within the Top 40.

The album's second and third singles, "White Liar" and "The House That Built Me", have become her highest charting singles to date. The final two singles from Revolution were "Only Prettier" and "Heart Like Mine", the latter has become Miranda's second number one hit. Miranda Lambert has sold about 3 million records according to the Recording Industry Association of America, her fifth studio album, Four the Record, was released in November 2011. The album produced five singles: "Baggage Claim", "Over You", "Fastest Girl in Town", "Mama's Broken Heart", "All Kinds of Kinds"; the first four singles reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, with "Over You" becoming her third number one country single. Lambert released her sixth studio album Platinum on June 3, 2014; the album debuted at number one on Billboard Top Country Albums as well as became her first number one on the Billboard 200 selling 180,000 copies in its first week. On the Top Country Albums chart, Lambert became the first artist to debut at number one on that chart with five consecutive albums.

The album was met with widespread critical acclaim and earned her the Grammy Award for Best Country Album as well as a CMA Award and ACM Award in the same category. The album was certified platinum by the RIAA. On November 18, 2016, Lambert released her seventh studio album titled The Weight of These Wings, it debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 and number one on Top Country albums chart selling 133,000 equivalent album units in its first week of release, becoming her sixth consecutive number one debut on the latter chart. The following songs have not appeared on any of Lambert's albums. Pistol Annies Official Discography of Miranda Lambert Discography of Miranda Lambert at Allmusic