The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. The Ranger spacecraft were designed to take images of the lunar surface, transmitting those images to Earth until the spacecraft were destroyed upon impact. A series of mishaps, led to the failure of the first six flights. At one point, the program was called "shoot and hope". Congress launched an investigation into "problems of management" at NASA Headquarters and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. After two reorganizations of the agencies, Ranger 7 returned images in July 1964, followed by two more successful missions. Ranger was designed, beginning in 1959, in three distinct phases, called "blocks"; each block had progressively more advanced system design. The JPL mission designers planned multiple launches in each block, to maximize the engineering experience and scientific value of the mission and to assure at least one successful flight.
Total research, development and support costs for the Ranger series of spacecraft was $170 million. Each of the block III Ranger spacecraft had six cameras on board; the cameras were fundamentally the same with differences in exposure times, fields of view and scan rates. The camera system was divided into two channels, P and F; each channel was self-contained with separate power supplies and transmitters. The F-channel had two cameras: the narrow angle B-camera; the P-channel had four cameras: P1 and P2 and P3 and P4. The final F-channel image was taken between 2.5 and 5 seconds before impact and the last P-channel image 0.2 to 0.4 seconds before impact. The images provided better resolution than was available from Earth-based views by a factor of 1000; the design and construction of the cameras was led by Leonard R Malling. The Ranger program manager for the first six spacecraft was James D. Burke. Ranger 1, launched 23 August 1961, lunar prototype, launch failure Ranger 2, launched 18 November 1961, lunar prototype, launch failureBlock 1, consisting of two spacecraft launched into Earth orbit in 1961, was intended to test the Atlas-Agena launch vehicle and spacecraft equipment without attempting to reach the Moon.
Problems with the early version of the launch vehicle left Ranger 1 and Ranger 2 in short-lived, low-Earth orbits in which the spacecraft could not stabilize themselves, collect solar power, or survive for long. In 1962, JPL utilized the Ranger 1 and Ranger 2 design for the failed Mariner 1 and successful Mariner 2 deep-space probes to Venus. Ranger 3, launched 26 January 1962, lunar probe, spacecraft failed, missed Moon Ranger 4, launched 23 April 1962, lunar probe, spacecraft failed, impact Ranger 5, launched 18 October 1962, lunar probe, spacecraft failed, missedBlock 2 of the Ranger project launched three spacecraft to the Moon in 1962, carrying a TV camera, a radiation detector, a seismometer in a separate capsule slowed by a rocket motor and packaged to survive its low-speed impact on the Moon's surface; the three missions together demonstrated good performance of the Atlas/Agena B launch vehicle and the adequacy of the spacecraft design, but not both on the same attempt. Ranger 3 had problems with both the launch vehicle and the spacecraft, missed the Moon by about 36,800 km, has orbited the Sun since.
Ranger 4 had a perfect launch, but the spacecraft was disabled. The project team tracked the seismometer capsule to impact just out of sight on the lunar far side, validating the communications and navigation system. Ranger 5 was disabled. No significant science information was gleaned from these missions; the craft weighed 331 kg. Around the end of Block 2, it was discovered that a type of diode used in previous missions produced problematic gold-plate flaking in the conditions of space; this may have been responsible for some of the failures. Ranger 6, launched 30 January 1964, lunar probe, cameras failed Ranger 7 Launched 28 July 1964 Impacted Moon 31 July 1964 at 13:25:49 UT 10.35°S 20.58°W / -10.35. These spacecraft boasted a television instrument designed to observe the lunar surface during the approach; the first of the new series, Ranger 6, had a flawless flight, except that the television system was disabled by an in-flight accident and could take no pictures. The next three Rangers, with a redesigned television, were successful.
Ranger 7 photographed its way down to target in a lunar plain, soon named Mare Cognitum, south of the crater Copernicus. It sent more than 4,300 pictures from six cameras to waiting engineers; the new images revealed that craters caused by impact were the dominant features of the Moon's surface in the smooth and empty plains. Great craters were marked by small ones, the small with tiny impact pockmarks, as far down in size as could be discerned—about 50 centimeters; the light-colored streaks radiating from Copernicus and a few other large craters turned out to be chains and nets of small crater
Ieuan David Lloyd is a Welsh competitive swimmer. He competed in both the 2012 London Olympics and the 2016 Rio Olympics for Team GB. Born just outside Cardiff in 1993, Lloyd found his enthusiasm for swimming early on. At the age of 11 he attended Stanwell School where he stayed until completing his A-levels in 2011, obtaining A grades in Chemistry and Maths, he now lives in the city of Cardiff. He is proficient in both English and Welsh. In 2009 he competed in the European Youth Olympic Festival in Tampere, winning Gold in the under-16s men's 200m individual medley at the age of 15, he competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the Men's 200 metre freestyle, finishing in 19th place in the heats, failing to qualify for the semifinals. On 31 July he competed in the 4 × 200 m swimming relay race where the team qualified for the final but finished 6th with a time of 7 minutes 9.33 seconds, 9.63 seconds behind the winning USA team. In the 2016 Rio Olympics he made the semifinal of the 200 Individual Medley where he lined up with Michael Phelps and Ryan Lochte.
Dayuma was a member of the Huaorani tribe and a citizen of Ecuador. She is a central figure in the Operation Auca saga, in that she was the first Huao to convert to Christianity, as well as the missionaries' key to unlocking the Huaorani language, a language that had not been studied. Dayuma became an influential figure in her tribe. Dayuma was born sometime in the early 1930s in the rain forest of eastern Ecuador; as a member of the Huaorani tribe, she grew up among her people in the rain forest. When she was young, her family was terrorized by a Huao warrior named Moipa, who had attacked and speared many of her family. On one occasion, her father was mortally wounded in an attack; this prompted Dayuma to flee from her tribe, along with two other girls, to go live with the more friendly Quechua Indians. Many of her family urged her not to leave, believing that all foreigners were cannibals, but Dayuma was convinced that her chances of survival were greater if she fled than if she stayed; when she came to a river at the edge of the jungle, Dayuma saw a group of foreigners coming down the river in canoes.
As she crossed over to them, the men raised their guns to fire at her, but for whatever reason they did not. When Dayuma arrived safely on the other side of the river, she called back to the two other girls who had come with her, they came over as well, it was that she received clothes for the first time, since the Huaorani traditionally only wear strings around their waists and ankles. Dayuma lived outside of Huaorani territory on an hacienda for many years. There were many Quechuas there, as well as people from other places. Over time she began to assimilate into culture, it was there that she was befriended by an American missionary named Rachel Saint, who took interest in learning the Huaorani language, "Huao Terero". This language is unrelated to any other known language on earth, had never been studied before this time. Dayuma was a great help to Saint, despite the fact that she had forgotten much of her language and did not speak English. In 1955, Jim Elliot, along with four other male missionaries including Rachel's brother, Nate Saint, were making plans to contact the Huaorani without Rachel's knowledge.
They met with Dayuma while Rachel learned Huao phrases from her. When the men first arrived in Huaorani territory in early 1956, they were met by three friendly Huaorani – a man and two women. One of the women was Gimade. One of the reasons that she had come to meet with the missionaries was to see if they knew what had happened to Dayuma. Two days the men were killed by a larger group of the Huaorani, including some of Dayuma's immediate family, in unclear circumstances. Not long afterwards, while still living at the hacienda and working with Rachel Saint, Dayuma became a Christian believer. Rachel Saint began to teach her more about the Bible and Dayuma continued to teach Rachel more of her language. In 1958, two women from Dayuma's tribe emerged from the jungle and wanted her to return with them, telling her that her mother, was still alive. Dayuma returned with them, soon came back to the Quechua village with an invitation for Rachel Saint, along with Elisabeth Elliot and her three-year-old daughter Valerie, to come and live with them.
Thus began the first peaceful outside contact recorded with the Huaorani tribe. Dayuma taught the language, was instrumental in converting much of her family to Christianity. Said Elisabeth Elliot, "Dayuma was the preacher." The teachings of Christianity had a large effect on the tribe. Dayuma had learned to sew while she was living with the Quechuas, she made clothes for her people. Dayuma remained with the Huaorani until her death in the village of Toñampade, near where the five missionary men were killed in 1956, it is the location of theirs and Rachel Saint's graves. 3) The Dayuma Story 4) Living Under the Spear Hitt, Russell T. Jungle Pilot Saint, Steve. End of the Spear Wallis, Ethel Emily. Dayuma: Life Under Waorani Spears Ziegler-Otero, Resistance in an Amazonian Community: Huaorani Organizing against the Global Economy, US: Berghahn Books, ISBN 978-1-84545306-0. Beyond the Gates of Splendor