In Māori mythology, Rūaumoko is the god of earthquakes and seasons. He is the youngest son of Papatūānuku. Ruaumoko Patera, named after this god, is one of many paterae on one of Jupiter's moons. After Rangi and Papa were separated by their sons, Rangi cried, his tears flooded the land. To stop this, the sons decided to turn Papa face down, so Rangi and Papa could no longer see each other's sorrow. Rūaumoko was at his mother's breast when this happened, so he was carried into the world below, he was given fire for warmth by Tama-kaka, his movements below the earth cause earthquakes and volcanoes. Another version tells that he remains in Papa's womb, with some variants saying it was to keep Papa company after her separation from Rangi. In these versions, his movements in the womb cause earthquakes; the earthquakes Rūaumoko causes are in turn responsible for the change of seasons. Depending on the time of year, the earthquakes cause the warmth, or cold, of Papa to come to the surface of the land, resulting in the warming, or cooling of the Earth.
Rūaumoko pulls on the ropes that control the land causing the shimmering effect of hot air, called haka of Tane-rore, in some versions, earthquakes. Rūaumoko is known as husband of his niece Hine-nui-te-pō, the goddess of death and a daughter of Tāne. Photo of carving of Rūaumoko in Te Papa Ruaumoko - God of Earthquakes on the Earthquake Commission website Earthquakes in Māori tradition article in Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
In Māori mythology, Tāwhirimātea is the god of weather, including thunder and lightning, wind and storms. He is a son of Ranginui. In his anger at his brothers for separating their parents, Tāwhirimātea destroyed the forests of Tāne, drove Tangaroa and his progeny into the sea, pursued Rongo and Haumia-tiketike till they had to take refuge in the bosom of their mother Papa, only found in Tūmatauenga a worthy opponent and eternal enemy. To fight his brothers, Tāwhirimātea gathered an army of his children and clouds of different kinds - including Apū-hau, Apū-matangi, Ao-nui, Ao-roa, Ao-pōuri, Ao-pōtango, Ao-whētuma, Ao-whekere, Ao-kāhiwahiwa, Ao-kānapanapa, Ao-pākinakina, Ao-pakarea, Ao-tākawe. Grey translates these as'fierce squalls, dense clouds, massy clouds, dark clouds, gloomy thick clouds, fiery clouds, clouds which preceded hurricanes, clouds of fiery black, clouds reflecting glowing red light, clouds wildly drifting from all quarters and wildly bursting, clouds of thunder storms, clouds hurriedly flying on'.
Other children of Tāwhirimātea are the various kinds of rain and fog. Tāwhirimātea's attacks on his brothers led to the flooding of large areas of the land; the names of the beings involved in this flooding include Ua-nui, Ua-roa, Ua-whatu, Ua-nganga. Tregear mentions Hau-maringiringi as a personification of mists. Tāwhirimātea live on the sky with his father Rangi and star Rehua. Eons ago, the Sky Father and Papa, the Earth Mother, were in an eternal embrace because of their love for each other, their union gave rise to many powerful sons. As their sons grew up, they soon began to grow tired of living in a cramped up space, forever in darkness. One brother, Tūmatūenga, the God of War and Humans, suggested. However, his brother, Tāne, the God of Forests, suggested. Except for Tāwhirimātea, all other brothers accepted the proposal; the brothers individually tried to separate their parents, but Tāne put his head on the earth and feet in the sky and pushed them apart. Tāwhirimātea was enraged. So the god communed with his father.
Rangi reluctantly agreed to help his son wage a brutal war on his siblings. Rangi and Tāwhirimātea together had many children, they were the spirits of winds and rain. Tāwhirimātea set out to conquer his brothers. Tāwhirimātea first attacked Tāne, razed his forests, causing Tāne to flee. Next Tāwhirimātea attacked his brother, the Sea God, he caused huge waves, spreading panic in Tangaroa. Tangaroa was himself helpless before Tāwhirimātea, as the sea was in such a chaotic rage, harming all living beings. Having never seen such chaos at sea, many of Tangaroa's children deserted their father and took shelter with Tāne. Since Tangaroa is at war with Tāne. Tāwhirimātea pursued his brother and Haumia, the gods of cultivated and uncultivated food, but they were cleverly hidden by their mother, who still loved her children. Tāwhirimātea began to fight Tumatuenga; this time, Tumatuenga embedded his feet in earth, saving him from Tāwhirimātea's storms. He cast spells, but neither brother could prevail against each other.
Tāwhirimātea withdrew. To punish his brothers for cowardice, Tumatuenga invented the arts of hunting, agriculture and fishing, to subjugate their respective denizens as food for humans; however and Tawhirimatea still fight each other to this day. Another result of the war was that, most of the land was submerged into the ocean, because of Tāwhirimātea causing heavy rains and thunderstorms. G. Grey, Polynesian Mythology, Illustrated edition, reprinted 1976. 1956. G. Grey, Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna, fourth edition. First published 1854. 1971. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. Tāwhirimātea – the weather in Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Prithvi or Prithvi Mata "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism. She is known as Bhūmi, she is Dyaus Pita both. As Pṛthvī Mātā she is complementary to Dyaus Pita. In the Rigveda and Sky are addressed in the dual as Dyavapṛthivi, she is associated with the cow. Prithu, an incarnation of Viṣṇu, milked her in cow's form, she is a national personification in Indonesia. In Buddhist texts and visual representations, Pṛthvī is described as both protecting Gautama Buddha and as being his witness for his enlightenment. Prithvi appears in Early Buddhism in the Pāli Canon, dispelling the temptation figure Mara by attesting to Gautama Buddha's worthiness to attain enlightenment; the Buddha is depicted performing the bhūmisparśa or "earth-touching" mudrā as a symbolic invocation of the goddess. The Pṛthvī Sūkta is a hymn of the Atharvaveda. Vasudhara Phra Mae Thorani Doniger O'Flaherty, Wendy, ed.. The Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140449891. Shaw, Miranda Eberle. Buddhist Goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. P. 27. ISBN 978-0-691-12758-3. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dallapiccola Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions by David Kinsley
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first literate civilization of ancient Mesopotamia. The Sumerians regarded their divinities as responsible for all matters pertaining to the natural and social orders. Before the beginning of kingship in Sumer, the city-states were ruled by theocratic priests and religious officials; this role was supplanted by kings, but priests continued to exert great influence on Sumerian society. In early times, Sumerian temples were simple, one-room structures, sometimes built on elevated platforms. Towards the end of Sumerian civilization, these temples developed into ziggurats—tall, pyramidal structures with sanctuaries at the tops; the Sumerians believed. First, the primeval waters, gave birth to An and Ki, who mated together and produced a son named Enlil. Enlil separated claimed the earth as his domain. Humans were believed to have been created by the son of An and Nammu. Heaven was reserved for deities and, upon their deaths, all mortals' spirits, regardless of their behavior while alive, were believed to go to Kur, a cold, dark cavern deep beneath the earth, ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal and where the only food available was dry dust.
In times, Ereshkigal was believed to rule alongside her husband Nergal, the god of death. The major deities in the Sumerian pantheon included An, the god of the heavens, the god of wind and storm, the god of water and human culture, the goddess of fertility and the earth, the god of the sun and justice, his father Nanna, the god of the moon. During the Akkadian Period and afterward, the goddess of sex and warfare, was venerated across Sumer and appeared in many myths, including the famous story of her descent into the Underworld. Sumerian religion influenced the religious beliefs of Mesopotamian peoples. Scholars of comparative mythology have noticed many parallels between the stories of the ancient Sumerians and those recorded in the early parts of the Hebrew Bible. Sumerian myths were passed down through the oral tradition until the invention of writing. Early Sumerian cuneiform was used as a record-keeping tool; these tablets were made of stone clay or stone, they used a small pick to make the symbols.
In the Sumerian city-states, temple complexes were small, elevated one-room structures. In the early dynastic period, temples developed multiple rooms. Toward the end of the Sumerian civilization, ziggurats became the preferred temple structure for Mesopotamian religious centers. Temples served as cultural and political headquarters until 2500 BC, with the rise of military kings known as Lu-gals after which time the political and military leadership was housed in separate "palace" complexes; until the advent of the lugals, Sumerian city states were under a theocratic government controlled by various En or Ensí, who served as the high priests of the cults of the city gods. Priests were responsible for continuing the cultural and religious traditions of their city-state, were viewed as mediators between humans and the cosmic and terrestrial forces; the priesthood resided full-time in temple complexes, administered matters of state including the large irrigation processes necessary for the civilization’s survival.
During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the Sumerian city-state of Lagash was said to have had sixty-two "lamentation priests" who were accompanied by 180 vocalists and instrumentalists. The Sumerians envisioned the universe as a closed dome surrounded by a primordial saltwater sea. Underneath the terrestrial earth, which formed the base of the dome, existed an underworld and a freshwater ocean called the Apsû; the deity of the dome-shaped firmament was named An. First the underground world was believed to be an extension of the goddess Ki, but developed into the concept of Kur; the primordial saltwater sea was named Nammu, who became known as Tiamat during and after the Sumerian Renaissance. The main source of information about the Sumerian creation myth is the prologue to the epic poem Gilgamesh and the Netherworld, which describes the process of creation: there was only Nammu, the primeval sea. Nammu gave birth to An, the sky, Ki, the earth. An and Ki mated with each other, causing Ki to give birth to Enlil, the god of wind and storm.
Enlil carried off the earth as his domain, while An carried off the sky. The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes covering the flat earth; each dome was made of a different kind of precious stone. The lowest dome of heaven was the home of the stars; the middle dome of heaven was the abode of the Igigi. The highest and outermost dome of heaven was made of luludānītu stone and was personified as An, the god of the sky; the celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well. The planet Venus was believed to be Inanna, the goddess of love, sex
In Māori mythology, Tangaroa is one of the great gods, the god of the sea. He is a son of Ranginui and Papatūānuku and Earth. After he joins his brothers Rongo, Tūmatauenga, Tāne in the forcible separation of their parents, he is attacked by his brother Tāwhirimātea, the god of storms, forced to hide in the sea. Tangaroa is the father of many sea creatures. Tangaroa's son, has two children, the ancestor of fish, Tū-te-wehiwehi, the ancestor of reptiles. Terrified by Tāwhirimātea's onslaught, the fish seek shelter in the sea, the reptiles in the forests. Since, Tangaroa has held a grudge with Tāne, the god of forests, because he offers refuge to his runaway children. Tangaroa is sometimes depicted as a whale; the contention between Tangaroa and Tāne, the father of birds and humans, is an indication that the Māori thought of the ocean and the land as opposed realms. When people go out to sea to fish or to travel, they are in effect representatives of Tāne entering the realm of Tāne's enemy. For this reason, it was important.
Another version of the origin of Tangaroa maintains that he is the son of Temoretu, that Papa is his wife. Papa commits adultery with Rangi while Tangaroa is away, in the resulting battle Tangaroa's spear pierces Rangi through both his thighs. Papa marries Rangi. In another legend, Tangaroa marries Te Anu-matao, they are the parents of the gods ‘of the fish class’, including Te Whata-uira-a-Tangawa, Te Whatukura, Te Pounamu. In some versions, Tangaroa has a son and nine daughters; as Tangaroa-whakamau-tai he exercises control over the tides. In the South Island Tangaroa's name can take the form Takaroa, in accordance with standard southern Māori phonology. Tangaloa is one of the oldest Polynesian deities and in western Polynesia traditions has the status of supreme creator god. In eastern Polynesian cultures Tangaroa is considered of equal status to Tāne and thus not supreme. In Samoan mythology, Tagaloa is the father of Fue. In Rarotonga, Tangaroa is the god of the fertility, he is the most important of all the departmental gods.
Carved figures made from wood carvings are popular on the island today. In Mangaia, Tangaroa is the younger twin brother of Rongo. Rongo and Tangaroa share food and fish: Tangaroa's share is everything, red. Tangaroa is said to have yellow hair and when Mangaians first saw Europeans they thought they must be Tangaroa's children. In Manihiki, Tangaroa is the origin of fire. Māui goes to him to obtain fire for humankind. Advised to reach Tangaroa's abode by taking the common path, he takes the forbidden path of death infuriating Tangaroa who tries to kick him to death. Māui insists that Tangaroa give him fire. Māui kills Tangaroa; when his parents are horrified, Māui uses incantations to bring him back to life. In Hawaii, Kanaloa is associated with the heʻe. In Tahiti, by the goddess Hina-Tu-A-Uta, Ta'aroa is the father of'Oro. In the Marquesas Islands, the equivalent deities are Taka'oa. In Tonga, the Tangaloa family of gods resided in the sky and were the ancestors of the Tuʻi Tonga kings. In Rennell and Bellona Islands Tangagoa is a sea god which stayed on the coastal cliff of east Rennell known as Toho, flew in the night with a flame in the sky.
Tangagoa was believed to take spirits of the dead, so when someone was near death, the sparkling fire would be seen at night. Some can still recall the time when this god appeared in the night as a flame in the sky, have many tales of it. Tangagoa started to disappear in the 1970s and early 1980s when Christian missionaries visited the cliff and reportedly'cast' him out. In Raiatea a legend reported by Professor Friedrich Ratzel in 1896 gave a picture of his all-pervading power. In Rapa Nui tradition Tangaroa was buried in the surrounding area. A legendary figure named Tagaro features in the Melanesian cultures of north-eastern Vanuatu. In the beliefs of North Pentecost island, Tagaro appears as a destructive trickster, while in other areas, he is an eternal creator figure, names cognate with Tagaro are applied nowadays to the Christian God. Tagaloa Samoan mythology Tagroa Siria Rotuman mythology RV Tangaroa, a New Zealand research vessel W. W. Gill and Songs of the South Pacific, 1876. G. Grey, Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna, fourth edition.
First published 1854. 1971. M. Orbell, The Concise Encyclopedia of Māori Myth and Legend, 1998. E. Shortland, Maori Religion and Mythology, 1882. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. A. Smith and Stories of Taranaki from the Writings of Te Kahui Kararehe, 1993. J. White, The Ancient History of the Maori, 6 Volumes, 1887–1891. Tangaroa in Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand