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Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved. When ransom means "payment", the word comes via Old French rançon from Latin redemptio = "buying back": compare "redemption".k Julius Caesar was captured by pirates near the island of Pharmacusa, held until someone paid 50 talents to free him. In Europe during the Middle Ages, ransom became an important custom of chivalric warfare. An important knight nobility or royalty, was worth a significant sum of money if captured, but nothing if he was killed. For this reason, the practice of ransom contributed to the development of heraldry, which allowed knights to advertise their identities, by implication their ransom value, made them less to be killed out of hand. Examples include Richard Bertrand du Guesclin. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro was paid a ransom amounting to a roomful of gold by the Inca Empire before having their leader Atahualpa, his victim, executed in a ridiculous trial.

The ransom payment received by Pizarro is recognized as the largest paid to a single individual over $2 billion in today's economic markets. The abduction of Charley Ross on July 1, 1874 is considered to be the first American kidnapping for ransom. East Germany, which built the Inner German border to stop emigration, practised ransom with people. East German citizens could emigrate through the semi-secret route of being ransomed by the West German government in a process termed Freikauf. Between 1964 and 1989, 33,755 political prisoners were ransomed. West Germany paid over 3.4 billion DM -- nearly $2.3 billion at 1990 prices -- in hard currency. Those ransomed were valued on a sliding scale, ranging from around 1,875 DM for a worker to around 11,250 DM for a doctor. For a while, payments were made in kind using goods that were in short supply in East Germany, such as oranges, bananas and medical drugs; the average prisoner was worth around 4,000 DM worth of goods. A request for ransom may be conveyed to the target of the effort by a ransom note, a written document outlining the demands of the kidnappers.

In some instances, the note itself can be used as forensic evidence to discover the identities of unknown kidnappers, or to convict them at trial. For example, if a ransom note contains misspellings, a suspect might be asked to write a sample of text to determine if they make the same spelling errors. In some instances, a person may forge a ransom note in order to falsely collect a ransom despite not having an actual connection to the kidnapper. In popular culture, ransom notes are depicted as being made from words in different typefaces clipped from different sources, in order to disguise the handwriting of the kidnapper, leading to the phrase ransom note effect being used to describe documents containing jarringly mixed fonts. On other occasions, a ransom note has been used as a ploy to convince family members that a person is being held for ransom when that person has left of their own volition, or was dead before the note was sent. There were numerous instances in which towns paid to avoid being plundered, an example being Salzburg which, under Paris Lodron paid a ransom to Bavaria to prevent its being sacked during the Thirty Year's War.

As late as the Peninsular War, it was the belief of the English soldiers that a town taken by storm was liable to sack for three days, they acted on their conviction at Ciudad Rodrigo and San Sebastian. In the early 18th century the custom was that the captain of a captured vessel gave a bond or “ransom bill,” leaving one of his crew as a hostage or “ransomer” in the hands of the captor. Frequent mention is made of the taking of French privateers which had in them ten or a dozen ransomers; the owner could be sued on his bond. Payment of ransom was banned by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1782 although this was repealed in 1864, it was allowed by other nations. In the Russo-Japanese War — no mention was made of ransom, with the disappearance of privateering, conducted wholly for gain, it has ceased to have any place in war at sea, but the contributions levied by invading armies might still be described by the name. Although ransom is demanded only after the kidnapping of a person, it is not unheard of for thieves to demand ransom for the return of an inanimate object or body part.

In 1987, thieves broke into the tomb of Argentinian president Juan Perón and severed and stole his hands. The ransom was not paid; the practice of towing vehicles and charging towing fees for the vehicles' release is euphemised or referred to as ransoming by opponents of towing. In Scotland, booting vehicles on private property is outlawed as extortion. In England, the clamping of vehicles is theoretically the Common law offence of'holding property to ransom'. Warring international military groups have demanded ransom for any personnel they can capture from their opposition or their opposition's supporters. Ransom paid to these groups can encourage more hostage taking. Bail Extortion Hostage Kidnapping Weregild

Arizona Native Plant Society

The mission of Arizona Native Plant Society is to promote knowledge, appreciation and restoration of Arizona native plants and their habitats, as well as the use of native plants in urban landscapes and gardens. Among its initiatives are the Plant Atlas Project of Arizona, which trains AZNPS volunteers in botanical fieldwork. AZNPS has five chapters that hold monthly seasonal meetings, field trips and special presentations, staff tables at local events, network with other nongovernmental organizations and government agencies in restoration and invasive species work; the organization has two publications: The Plant Press, published biannually in themed issues offering in-depth articles on a topic, Happenings, a quarterly listing of local chapter and state news. AZNPS began in 1977, when nursery owners and professionals created the non-profit society dedicated to educating Arizonans about the state's native plants, as well as other xeric landscape plants, including many new horticultural imports.

Early on, AZNPS published a series of eight landscaping booklets designed to educate the public about the use of native and xeric plants in desert landscapes. About the year 2000, AZNPS began to promote the total use of native plants in the landscape, as native plants are best adapted to local habitats and soils, use the least amount of water, are easier to maintain and keep disease-free than are imported plants, they provide an extension of native habitat into the urban area as a "corridor" for native pollinators and other wildlife. The Sonoran Desert Weedwackers is an organization of Tucson-area volunteers. Since 2000, it has removed invasive buffelgrass Pennisetum ciliare from Tucson Mountain Park, worked with other groups to remove Pennisetum setaceum, another fire-prone African import, from the Sonoran Desert; the Plant Press Arizona Rare Plant Committee. Arizona rare plant field guide: a collaboration of agencies and organizations. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office. Arizona Native Plant Society website Southern Arizona Buffelgrass Coordination Center Sonoran Desert Weedwackers

Amanda Reynolds

Amanda Reynolds is an Australian paracanoeist who has won two gold medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships. She won a silver medal in the Women's 200m KL3at the 2016 Rio Paralympics. Reynolds lives in Macclesfield, Victoria. In April 2012, Reynolds underwent elective surgery to amputate the lower part of her right leg. For 20 years before the amputation, Reynolds lived with depression, chronic pain and an addiction to prescriptive drugs following complications from a dislocated knee. In reflecting to life after the amputation, Reynolds commented: "Everybody's got the opportunity. You've just got to have the courage to take it." She is married to Wayne and they have two children. Reynolds is classified as KL3 paracanoeist. Reynolds paddling career started with the Murray Marathon and participated in the 2013 Sale to Sea Disability Kayak Challenge. In 2014, she won the K1 200 m, K1 500 m and 1000 m LTA events at the National and Oceania Championships. In her world championships debut, she won the bronze medal in the Women's K1 200 m LTA at the 2014 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Moscow, Russia.

At the 2015 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Milan, she won the gold medal in the Women's K–1 200 m KL3. At the 2016 ICF Paracanoe World Championships, Germany, she won the silver medal in the Women's 200 m KL3. A month prior to the championships, she underwent an appendix operation, she won a silver medal in the 200m KL3 at the 2016 Rio Paralympics where paracanoe made it Paralympics debut. At the 2017 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, Račice, Czech Republic, she won the gold medal in Women's KL2 200m. After a year of battling injury, Reynolds at 2018 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, Montemor-o-Velho, won the silver medal in the Women’s KL3 200m. At the 2019 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, Hungary, she finished seventh in the Women’s KL3 200m. Reynolds is a Victorian Institute of Sport scholarship holder and was coached by Steve Vegh and Mark Dougall. In 2015, she moved to the Gold Coast, Queensland to work closer with National Para-canoe Head Coach Andrea King, she named her new sprint canoe "Douglas" or "Doug" after two people that have inspired her - boxer James ‘buster’ Douglas and pilot Douglas Bader.

In 2015 and 2016, she was awarded the People's Choice Award at the Australian Canoeing Awards. AJ Reynolds at Paralympics Australia Amanda Reynolds at the Australian Paralympic Committee at the Wayback Machine Amanda Reynolds at Paddle Australia Amanda Reynolds at the International Paralympic Committee Amanda Reynolds on Twitter

Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough

Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough was a British peer and member of the House of Lords, styled Hon. Edward Noel from 1660 to 1681. Edward Noel was born in 1641, he was the son of 3rd Viscount Campden. Noel represented Rutland in the House of Commons of England from 1661 to 1679, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Rutland in March 1670. In 1676, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire in February, Warden and Keeper of the New Forest in March. After being appointed Colonel of the Hampshire Militia in 1678, he was knight of the shire for Hampshire in 1679. On 3 February 1681, he was created Baron Noel and entered the House of Lords, was appointed Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire. In 1682, he was given several local offices in Hampshire: Governor of Portsmouth, Constable of Porchester Castle, Lieutenant of South Bere Forest, he succeeded his father in October as Viscount Campden and as Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Rutland, was further honoured at the end of the year when he was created Earl of Gainsborough on 1 December 1682.

Between December 1687 and January 1688, during the purge of James II, he was dismissed from all his Hampshire offices in favour of the Duke of Berwick, although he was commissioned a captain in the Queen Dowager's Regiment of Foot in 1687. He was replaced by Earl of Peterborough as Lord Lieutenant of Rutland at this time. On 25 March 1688, he was reappointed the Park of Lyndhurst. By his first marriage to Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley, daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, he had five children: Wriothesley Baptist Noel, 2nd Earl of Gainsborough Lady Frances Noel, married Simon Digby, 4th Baron Digby Lady Jane Noel, married William Digby, 5th Baron Digby Lady Elizabeth Noel, married Richard Norton Lady Juliana Noel, died unmarriedNoel had no issue by his second marriage to Mary, widow of Sir Robert Worsley, 3rd Baronet and daughter of James Herbert, he died in January 1689 and was succeeded by his son Wriothesley Baptist Noel, 2nd Earl of Gainsborough

Gaisa Enikeev

Gaisa Khamidullovich Enikeev was a teacher and deputy of the III and IV Imperial Duma from the Kazan and Orenburg Governorates in 1907-1917. He paid special attention to the protection of the interests of the Muslim population of Russian Empire. Prior to his election to the state position, he was the director of the cloth factory in Simbirsk Governorate and the chief administrator of all the charitable and educational institutions of Kazan, he was a member of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma in the period of the February Revolution and the organizer of the First All-Russian Muslim Congress in May 1917. During the Soviet era, he was a member of the board of the Vyatka Commissariat of Education and an inspector of Bashselkhozkredit. Еникеев Гайса Хамидуллович // Государственная дума Российской империи: 1906—1917 / Б. Ю. Иванов, А. А. Комзолова, И. С. Ряховская. — Москва: РОССПЭН, 2008. — P. 184—185. — 735 p. — ISBN 978-5-8243-1031-3. Члены Государственной думы:: Четвертый созыв, 1912—1917 г. / сост.

М. М. Боиович. — Москва: Тип. Т-ва И. Д. Сытина, 1913. — P. 208. — LXIV, 454, p. Ихтисамов Х. С. Ямаева Л. А. Еникеев Гайса Хамидуллович // Башкирская энциклопедия. — Уфа: ГАУН «Башкирская энциклопедия», 2013. — ISBN 978-5-88185-306-8

Power brakes

Power brakes are a system of hydraulics used to slow down or stop most motor vehicles. It uses a combination of mechanical components to multiply the force applied to the brake pedal by the driver into enough force to actuate the brakes and stop a vehicle that can weigh several tons; the brake pedal is connected to the vacuum booster, the first step of the force multiplication. The booster passes the force to the master cylinder, which applies a compressive force to a liquid and forces it through the brake lines to the brake calipers; the liquid pushes the brake calipers, which in the case of disc brakes, push against the brake rotor causing friction that slows and stops the rotation of the vehicles wheels. In drum brakes, pistons push two shoes against the brake drum accomplishing the same effect; the vacuum booster was invented in 1927. Vacuum boosters provide brake assist for the driver by multiplying the force out of the booster creating more than the force, used to push on the brake pedal.

The booster works by pulling the air out of the booster chamber with a pump creating a low pressure system inside. When the driver steps on the brake pedal, the input rod on the booster is pushed in which lets atmospheric pressure into the booster. This, in turn, pushes the diaphragm toward the master cylinder; the master cylinder is located behind the driver’s side dashboard mounted on the vacuum booster. The pressure inside of the master cylinder is created by a secondary piston; these are pushed by the output rod of the vacuum booster to compress fluid within its primary and secondary chambers. The hydraulic pressure is translated through the brake lines to the brake calipers; when the brake fluid is pushed through the brake lines, the master cylinder chambers are replenished by the reservoir. Used in disc brakes, the brake calipers consists of one to two hollow aluminum or chrome-plated steel pistons. Brake calipers are one of the most important parts of a vehicle and are essential for your car's ability to stop.

The job of the caliper is to slow the car's wheels using the friction. They work by taking the pressure given by the master cylinder to force the pistons against the rotor; the development and use of disc-type brakes began in England in the 1890s. The first caliper-type automobile disc brake was patented by Frederick William Lanchester in his Birmingham factory in 1902. In a disc-braking system the rotors are spin together. Another type of power brake installed in automobiles is called the drum brake; this type of brake, in general, will create some friction. How this works is there is a brake cylinder that connects master cylinder to the drum brake via brake lines that transfer pressure from the master cylinder; when the driver pushes the brake pedal with his/her foot, the pistons inside the cylinder will activate. The activation of this piston will allow two brake shoes located within the drum of the brake to expand, thus generating friction to slow down and stop the wheel; this brake is located in the rear wheels of the vehicle, while the disk brake is located at the front of the vehicle.

A car may have only drum brakes or disc brakes both front and rear. Media related to Power brakes at Wikimedia Commons