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Ranunculus

Ranunculus is a large genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae. Members of the genus are known as buttercups and water crowfoots; the familiar and widespread buttercup of gardens throughout Northern Europe is the creeping buttercup Ranunculus repens, which has tough and tenacious roots. Two other species are widespread, the bulbous buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus and the much taller meadow buttercup Ranunculus acris. All three are regarded as invasive weeds. Buttercups flower in the spring, but flowers may be found throughout the summer where the plants are growing as opportunistic colonizers, as in the case of garden weeds; the water crowfoots, which grow in still or running water, are sometimes treated in a separate genus Batrachium. They have thread-like leaves underwater and broader floating leaves. In some species, such as R. aquatilis, a third, intermediate leaf type occurs. Ranunculus species are used as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Hebrew character and small angle shades.

Some species are popular ornamental flowers in horticulture, with many cultivars selected for large and brightly coloured flowers. Buttercups are perennial, but annual or biennial, aquatic or terrestrial plants with leaves in a rosette at the base of the stem. In many perennial species runners are sent out that will develop new plants with roots and rosettes at the distanced nodes; the leaves lack stipules, have stems, are palmately veined, more or less incised, or compound, leaflets or leaf segments may be fine and linear in aquatic species. The hermaphrodite flowers are single or in a cyme, have five green sepals and five yellow, greenish or white petals that are sometimes flushed with red, purple or pink. At the base of each petal is one nectary gland, naked or may be covered by a scale. Anthers may be few, but many are arranged in a spiral, are yellow or sometimes white, with yellow pollen; the sometimes few but many green or yellow carpels are not fused and are arranged in a spiral on a globe or dome-shaped receptacle.

The fruits may be smooth or hairy, nobby or have hooked spines. The petals of buttercups are highly lustrous in yellow species, owing to a special coloration mechanism: the petal's upper surface is smooth causing a mirror-like reflection; the flash aids in attracting pollinating insects and temperature regulation of the flower's reproductive organs. The name Ranunculus is Late Latin for the diminutive of rana; this refers to many species being found near water, like frogs. The name buttercup may derive from a false belief that the plants give butter its characteristic yellow hue. A popular children's game involves holding a buttercup up to the chin. In the interior of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the buttercup is called "Coyote's eyes"—ʔiceyéeyenm sílu in Nez Perce and spilyaynmí áčaš in Sahaptin. In the legend, Coyote was tossing his eyes up in the air and catching them again when Eagle snatched them. Unable to see, Coyote made eyes from the buttercup. Molecular investigation of the genus has revealed that Ranunculus is not monophyletic with respect to a number of other recognized genera in the family—e.g.

Ceratocephala, Hamadryas, Myosurus, Oxygraphis and Trautvetteria. A proposal to split Ranunculus into several genera has thus been published in a new classification for the tribe Ranunculeae; the split genera include Beckwithia Jeps. Callianthemoides Tamura, Coptidium Beurl. Ex Rydb. Cyrtorhyncha Nutt. Ex Torr. & A. Gray, Ficaria Guett. Krapfia DC. Kumlienia E. Greene and Peltocalathos Tamura. Not all taxonomists and users accept this splitting of the genus, it can alternatively be treated in the broad sense; the most common uses of Ranunculus species in traditional medicines are anti-rheumatism, intermittent fever and rubefacient. The findings in some Ranunculus species of, for example, anemonin, may justify the uses of these species against fever and rubefacient in Asian traditional medicines. All Ranunculus species are poisonous when eaten fresh, but their acrid taste and the blistering of the mouth caused by their poison means they are left uneaten. Poisoning in livestock can occur where buttercups are abundant in overgrazed fields where little other edible plant growth is left, the animals eat them out of desperation.

Symptoms of poisoning include bloody diarrhea, excessive salivation and severe blistering of the mouth, mucous membranes and gastrointestinal tract. When Ranunculus plants are handled occurring ranunculin is broken down to form protoanemonin, known to cause contact dermatitis in humans and care should therefore be exercised in extensive handling of the plants; the toxins are degraded by drying, so hay containing dried buttercups is safe. †Ranunculus gailensis and †Ranunculus tanaiticus seed fossils have been described from the Pliocene Borsoni Formation in the Rhön Mountains, central Germany. Ranunculus abortivus – littleleaf buttercup Ranunculus acaulis – dune, sand or shore buttercup Ranunculus aconitifolius – aconite-leaf buttercup Ranunculus acraeus – a newly described sp

Aubrey Aitken

William Aubrey Aitken was the second Bishop of Lynn from 1973 until 1985. Born into a family of Norfolk priests and educated at Norwich Grammar School and Trinity College, Oxford, he was ordained a deacon on 23 December 1934 and a priest on 22 December 1935, both times by Harold Bilbrough, Bishop of Newcastle, in Newcastle Cathedral. And in 1937, he married Margaret Cunningham. After curacies at Tynemouth and Kingston, Jamaica, he was successively the Vicar at Kessingland, Vicar of Sprowston and Rector of Beeston, Norfolk and St Margaret's King's Lynn before becoming Archdeacon of Norwich in 1961, a position he held until his appointment to the episcopate, he served as a Proctor in Convocation. He was ordained and consecrated a bishop on 2 February 1973, by Michael Ramsey, Archbishop of Canterbury, at St Paul's Cathedral. A keen yachtsman, his residence at his death was the Bishop's House, he died in post at the age of 73

1917 Wisbech by-election

The Wisbech by-election, 1917 was a by-election held on 14 December 1917 for the House of Commons constituency of Wisbech in Cambridgeshire. The election was caused by the death of sitting Liberal MP, the Hon. Neil Primrose MC, the son of the former Liberal prime minister Lord Rosebery on 15 November 1917. Primrose died of wounds received in battle at Gezer during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign; the Liberals selected Colin Coote, a serving officer in the Gloucestershire Regiment, granted leave to contest the election. Being their partners in the coalition government of David Lloyd George, the Unionists supported Coote’s nomination and no other candidates came forward. Accordingly, Coote was returned unopposed. At 24 years of age, he was one of the youngest members of the House. List of United Kingdom by-elections

Song of the Flame

Song of the Flame is a 1930 pre-Code musical film photographed in Technicolor. It was distributed by First National Pictures, it was the first color film to feature a widescreen sequence, using a process called Vitascope, the trademark name for Warner Bros.' widescreen process. The film, based on the 1925 Broadway musical of the same name, was nominated for an Academy Award for Sound Recording, it is part of the tradition of operetta films, popular at the time. Aniuta, known as The Flame, is a peasant girl who incites the people against the Czarist regime and the aristocracy through singing. Prince Volodya is the leader of a group of Cossack troops who falls in love with the girl though she is part of a revolution, opposed to his social class. Konstantin is a revolutionary who falls in love with Aniuta, much to the anger of his lover, Natasha; the revolutionaries succeed in overthrowing the regime, leaving the Prince and his aristocratic class in peril for their lives and fortunes. Konstantin becomes the new leader and his brutal treatment of the people make many regret having supported the revolution in the first place.

After he attempts to seduce her, Aniuta flees to a village in her native Poland. The Prince, fleeing from the new regime, happens to arrive at the same village; when he meets the girl again he decides to stay. They become romantically involved. Hearing from his spies that the Prince is at a Polish village, Konstantin goes there and arrests him, announcing that he attends to execute him. Aniuta attempts to free the Prince by agreeing to have sex with Konstantin; the Prince is released from prison through this ruse, but when is it discovered that she had no intention of keeping her side of the bargain, she is thrown into jail. The Prince disguises himself and attempts to free the girl, but he is discovered and imprisoned again. Before they can be executed, revealing the real reason behind Konstantin's execution order, tells the troops to release both the Prince and Aniuta. Konstantin is arrested by the troops soon after as a traitor to the revolution, is executed, leaving the Prince and the girl free to pursue their romance.

Alexander Gray as Prince Volodya Bernice Claire as Aniuta, The Flame Noah Beery as Konstantin Alice Gentle as Natasha Bert Roach as Count Boris Inez Courtney as Grusha Shep Camp as Officer Ivan Linow as Konstanin's Pal Janina Smolinska as Dancer Cast notes: Noah Beery was praised for his deep bass voice, which he first exhibited in this film in the song "One Little Drink." This song was satirized in the Bosko cartoon entitled: The Booze Hangs High. Based on the success of this song, Warner Bros. subsequently cast Beery in a number of musical films, most notably in Golden Dawn. The public was so enthralled by his singing abilities that Brunswick Records hired Beery to record songs from both of these films which were issued in their popular series. "Song of the Flame" – words by Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II, music by George Gershwin "Cossack Love Song" – words by Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II, music by Herbert Stothart and George Gershwin "One Little Drink" – words by Grant Clarke, music by Harry Akst "When Love Calls" – words by Grant Clarke, music by Eddie WardSource: The film is believed to be lost.

Only the soundtrack, recorded separately on Vitaphone disks, survives. All nine songs are preserved in the sound disc performances. There were four choruses as well, three of traditional Russian folk tunes and one drawn from Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker; the stage musical the film is based on opened on Broadway at the 44th Street Theatre on December 30, 1925 and closed on July 10, 1926 after 219 performances. The music was by Herbert P. Stothart and George Gershwin, with lyrics by Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II, book by Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II; the musical was directed by Frank Reicher and ensemble pictures were arranged by Jack Haskell, the scenic design was by Joseph Urban. The cast included Phoebe Brune as Natasha, Greek Evans as Konstantin, Tessa Kosta as Aniuta, the 52-member Russian Art Choir. Song Of The Flame is notable as the film, accompanied in its initial release by Warner Bros.' First Looney Tunes cartoon short, Sinkin' in the Bathtub. List of lost films List of incomplete or lost films List of early color feature films Notes Further reading Coles, David Magnified Grandeur: The Big Screen, 1926-31 Song of the Flame at the American Film Institute Catalog Song of the Flame on IMDb Song of the Flame at the TCM Movie Database Song of the Flame at the Internet Broadway Database

Protection from Harassment Act (Singapore)

The Protection from Harassment Act 2014 is a statute of the Parliament of Singapore that criminalizes harassment and other anti-social behaviour. The law is designed to make acts of cyberbullying and online harassment a criminal offence; the Act abolished the common law tort of harassment, replaced by its statutory provisions. It replaced sections 13A to 13D of the Miscellaneous Offences Act, expanded the scope to cover acts conducted online and increased the penalties to include imprisonment sentences; the Act is intended to cover both intentional and unintentional harassment, has extra-territorial jurisdiction for certain offences which include online acts by the defendant if the complainant was in Singapore at the time of the offence and the defendant knew or should have known of that fact. The new law is to be accessible for the public than previously: for instance, provisions are now made for alleged complainants to apply a protection order against an accused, in more extreme cases a separate expedited protection order can be applied for and issued immediately.

In addition, anyone who abuses public servant and public service worker, including service staff from the public transport service, can be prosecuted under this Act and the maximum penalty of jail for up to a year and/or a fine. For uncomplicated and minor cases private in nature, the offences may be compoundable by the alleged complainant for an out-of-court settlement, but subject to the consent of the DPP. For civil law and relational cases, they may be referred for mediation at the State Courts Centre for Dispute Resolution, including Magistrate's Complaints or applications under the Protection from Harassment Act. Mediation is a way of resolving a dispute without going for a trial in court, it is known as an alternative dispute resolution method. As at March 2019, there are more than 500 Protection Order applications made since Nov 2014; the Ministry of Manpower, National Trades Union Congress and Singapore National Employers Federation are at present the primary institutions in deterring workplace harassment.

In August 2015, a former SCDF senior officer was charged in court under a POHA complaint filed by a woman complainant. The maximum penalty for the offence is up to 12 months' jail. In December 2016 the defendant engaged a defence counsel and managed to compound the court charge by making an open court apology and a monetary compensation to the alleged complainant as a composition; the alleged complainant was agreeable to the composition after the consequences of accepting and rejecting the offer of composition were explained to her. Having considered the facts and in the light of further developments arising after he was first charged, the Deputy Public Prosecutor has consented to composition. Hence, he was granted a discharge amounting to an acquittal by the court judge. In May 2015, the Ministry of Defence obtained a protection order against The Online Citizen, it was after legal arguments made by lawyers Choo Zhengxi and Eugene Thuraisingam, overturned by the Court of Appeal in January 2017, which ruled in a 2-1 judgment that the Government of Singapore is ineligible as a'person' to apply for a protection order against any individual.

In July 2019, a senior policeman was interdicted from service, charged in court and fined for harassment to a female colleague. Thereafter, a SPF spokesperson said that its officers are not only expected to uphold the law but maintain the highest standards of conduct and integrity, he added that SPF deals with officers who break the law, including charging them in court. Moreover, SPF has since commenced disciplinary proceedings against him after the court verdict. In 2019, a few people were charged in court for using foul language to vehemently abuse public servants and public service workers. In December 2019, a freelance actress-model was charged and fined under POHA for abusive language and hurling vulgarities towards public servants. In March 2020, 5 men were charged in court for abusing public servants. Protection from Harassment Act 1997, United Kingdom Protection from Harassment Act 2014 - Singapore Statutes Online

Hartford, New York

Hartford is a town centrally located in Washington County, New York, United States. It is part of the Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town population was 2,279 at the 2000 census. The Provincial Patent was granted to officer veterans of the French and Indian War; the patent included, within the "Town of Westfield," the present towns of Putnam, Fort Ann, Dresden part of Kingsbury, Hartford. The Town of Hartford was set off from Westfield in 1793; the Town of Westfield represents the Vermont claim for part of this region, settled by the eastern part of Charlotte County being transferred from New York. Many of the early settlers came from parts of New England; the land granted by the original patent was sold to the new settlers. The Hartford Baptist Church and Cemetery and Elisha Straight House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.5 square miles, of which, 43.4 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water.

NY 40 intersects NY 149 at the community of Hartford. NY 40 intersects NY 196 at South Hartford; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,279 people, 813 households, 639 families residing in the town. The population density was 52.5 people per square mile. There were 885 housing units at an average density of 20.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.76% White, 0.57% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.04% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 813 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were non-families. 16.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.11. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,684, the median income for a family was $46,600. Males had a median income of $30,734 versus $19,906 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,969. About 3.5% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.4% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Adamsville – A hamlet at the west town line on NY-196. Big Creek – A small stream flowing out of the town at the west town line. East Hartford – A hamlet south of Hartford hamlet on County Route 30. Hartford – A hamlet on NY 40 and NY 149. South Hartford – A hamlet south of Hartford hamlet on NY 40. Sarah Bates, Shaker artist Hartford web page Settlement of Hartford