Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and statesman. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname Mad Anthony, he led the Legion of the United States. Wayne was born in Chester County, he worked as a tanner and surveyor after attending the College of Philadelphia, he won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly and helped raise a Pennsylvania militia unit in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, he served in the Invasion of Quebec, the Philadelphia campaign, the Yorktown campaign, his reputation suffered due to his defeat in the Battle of Paoli, but he won wide praise for his leadership in the 1779 Battle of Stony Point. After the war, Wayne settled in Georgia on land, granted to him for his military service, he represented Georgia in the United States House of Representatives returned to the Army to accept command of the Northwest Indian War.
His forces defeated several Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the subsequent Treaty of Greenville ended the war. Wayne died in 1796 while on active duty. Various places and things have been named after him, including the cities of Fort Wayne, Waynesburg, Waynesboro and Waynesboro, Georgia, as well as Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, his father was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1745 on his family's Waynesborough estate, he was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia as well as at the College of Philadelphia, although he did not earn a degree. In 1765, Benjamin Franklin sent him and some associates to work for a year surveying land granted in Nova Scotia, he assisted with starting a settlement the following year at The Township of Monckton. In 1767, he returned to work in while continuing work as a surveyor.
He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774 to 1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children, their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne was born in 1772 and became a Representative from Pennsylvania. Wayne raised a militia unit in 1775 and became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1776, he and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières and led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. On September 11, 1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at the Battle of Brandywine where they held off General Wilhelm von Knyphausen to protect the American right flank; the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew and Wayne was ordered to retreat.
He was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howe's advance towards Pennsylvania. Wayne's camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21 in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret; the attack earned General Grey the nickname "No Flint," but the Americans pointed to the tactics and casualties as examples of British brutality. General Wayne's own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, he demanded a formal inquiry in order to clear his name. On October 4, 1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown, his soldiers pushed ahead of other units, the British "pushed on with their Bayonets—and took Ample Vengeance" as they retreated, according to Wayne's report. Generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too however, became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units. General Wayne was again ordered to cover the rear of the retreating body.
After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth where his forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out; the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, a legend grew that he had died fighting Wayne. In July 1779, Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army, his successful attack on British positions in the Battle of Stony Point was the highlight of his Revolutionary War service. On July 16, 1779, he replicated the bold attack used against him at Paoli and led a nighttime bayonet attack lasting 30 minutes, his three columns of about 1,500 light infantry stormed and captured British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliff-side redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The battle lasted 25 minutes and ended with around 550 prisoners taken, with fewer than 100 casualties for Wayne's forces.
The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of the army, which had suffered a series of military defeats, the Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory. It was after this battle that he earned the name Mad Anthony for what his fellow sold
D. W. Griffith
David Wark Griffith was an American director and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques. He is remembered for The Birth of a Intolerance; the Birth of a Nation made use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, its popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States. The film has sparked significant controversy surrounding racism in the United States, focusing on its negative depiction of black people and the glorification of the Ku Klux Klan. Today, it is both acclaimed for its radical technique and condemned for its inherently racist philosophy; the film was subject to boycotts by the NAACP. Intolerance was an answer to his critics. Several of Griffith's films were successful, including Broken Blossoms, Way Down East, Orphans of the Storm, but his high costs for production and roadshow made his ventures commercial failures, he made 500 films by the time of his final feature The Struggle. Griffith is one of the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and among the most important figures in the history of film.
He popularized the use of the close-up shot. Griffith was born on a farm in Oldham County, the son of Mary Perkins and Jacob Wark "Roaring Jake" Griffith a Confederate Army colonel in the American Civil War, elected as a Kentucky state legislator. Griffith was raised a Methodist, he attended a one-room schoolhouse where he was taught by his older sister Mattie, his father died when he was ten, the family struggled with poverty. When Griffith was 14, his mother abandoned the farm and moved the family to Louisville, where she opened a boarding house, it failed shortly after. Griffith left high school to help support the family, taking a job in a dry goods store and in a bookstore, he began his creative career as an actor in touring companies. Meanwhile, he was learning how to become a playwright, but had little success—only one of his plays was accepted for a performance, he traveled to New York City in 1907 in an attempt to sell a script to Edison Studios producer Edwin Porter. He decided to become an actor and appeared in many films as an extra.
In 1908, Griffith accepted a role as a stage extra in Professional Jealousy for the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, where he met cameraman Billy Bitzer, his career in the film industry changed forever. In 1908, Biograph's main director Wallace McCutcheon, Sr. grew ill, his son Wallace McCutcheon, Jr. took his place. McCutcheon, Jr. did not bring the studio success. He directed a total of 48 shorts for the company that year, his short In Old California was the first film shot in California. Four years he produced and directed his first feature film Judith of Bethulia, one of the earliest to be produced in the US. Biograph believed. According to Lillian Gish, the company thought that "a movie that long would hurt eyes". Griffith left Biograph because of company resistance to his cost overruns on the film, he joined the Mutual Film Corporation. There, he co-produced The Life of General Villa, a biographical action–drama film starring Pancho Villa as himself, shot on location in México during a civil war.
He formed a studio with Majestic Studio manager Harry Aitken which became known as Reliance-Majestic Studios and was renamed Fine Arts Studio. His new production company became an autonomous production unit partner in Triangle Film Corporation along with Thomas H. Ince and Keystone Studios' Mack Sennett; the Triangle Film Corporation was headed by Aitken, released from the Mutual Film Corporation, his brother Roy. Griffith directed and produced The Clansman through Reliance-Majestic Studios in 1915, which became known as The Birth of a Nation and is considered one of the first feature length American films; the film was a success, but it aroused much controversy due to its depiction of slavery, the Ku Klux Klan, race relations in the American Civil War and the reconstruction era of the United States. It was based on Jr.'s 1905 novel The Clansman. This view of the era was popular at the time and was endorsed for decades by historians of the Dunning School, although it met with strong criticism from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and other groups.
The NAACP attempted to stop showings of the film. They were successful in some cities, but it was shown and became the most successful box office attraction of its time, it is considered among the first "blockbuster" motion pictures and broke all box office records, established until then. "They lost track of the money it made", Lillian Gish remarked in a Kevin Brownlow interview. Audiences in some major northern cities rioted over the film's racial content, filled with action and violence. Griffith's indignation at efforts to censor or ban the film motivated him to produce Intolerance the following year, in which he portrayed the effects of intolerance in four different historical periods: the Fall of Babylon.
Humphrey DeForest Bogart was an American film and theater actor. His performances in numerous films from the Classical Hollywood era made him a cultural icon. In 1999, the American Film Institute selected him as the greatest male star of classic American cinema. Bogart began acting in Broadway shows after World War I. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, he began his movie career in Up the River, a comedy directed by John Ford; the film starred Spencer Tracy. Bogart appeared in various supporting parts, struggling for several years, sometimes portraying gangsters due to his resemblance to John Dillinger, he was praised for his work in The Petrified Forest, his big break into the Warner Bros. gangster pantheon. Bogart had originated the role of Duke Mantee in the 1935 Broadway production, but Warner Bros. wanted to cast the much better-known actor Edward G. Robinson for the film adaptation—however Leslie Howard, who played the protagonist in both the play and the film, insisted on Bogart being given the part.
Bogart's breakthrough from supporting roles to A-list stardom came in 1941 with his performances in High Sierra and The Maltese Falcon. His first true romantic lead role came when he appeared alongside Ingrid Bergman in 1942's Casablanca, breaking his being typecast as a gangster, he and Lauren Bacall starred together in To Have and Have Not. After they married, she played his love interest in The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, Key Largo. Bogart starred in The African Queen with Katharine Hepburn, The Caine Mutiny with Fred MacMurray, Sabrina with Audrey Hepburn, The Barefoot Contessa with Ava Gardner, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for Casablanca and The Caine Mutiny, won for The African Queen. Bogart was born on Christmas Day 1899 in New York City, the eldest child of Belmont DeForest Bogart and Maud Humphrey. Belmont was the only child of the unhappy marriage of Adam Watkins Bogart, a Canandaigua, New York innkeeper, his wife, Julia, a wealthy heiress; the name "Bogart" derives from the Dutch surname "Bogaert".
Belmont and Maud married in June 1898. Young Humphrey was non-practicing for most of his adult life; the precise date of Bogart's birth has been cleared up. Warner Bros. listed his birthdate, throughout his career, but Clifford McCarty maintained that the studio publicity department had altered it from January 23, 1900 "to foster the view that a man born on Christmas Day couldn't be as villainous as he appeared to be on screen". The "corrected" January birthdate subsequently appeared—and in some cases, remains—in many otherwise authoritative sources. Biographers Ann M. Sperber and Eric Lax documented, that Bogart always celebrated his birthday on December 25, listed it as such on official records, such as his marriage license. Lauren Bacall confirmed in her autobiography that his birthday was always celebrated on Christmas Day, adding that he joked that he was cheated out of a present every year because of it. Sperber and Lax noted that a birth announcement, printed in the Ontario County Times on January 10, 1900 rules out the possibility of a January 23 birthdate.
Bogart's father, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. His mother, was a commercial illustrator who received her art training in New York and France, including study with James Abbott McNeill Whistler, she became art director of the fashion magazine The Delineator and a militant suffragette. She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a well-known advertising campaign for Mellins Baby Food. In her prime, she made over $50,000 a year a vast sum and far more than her husband's $20,000; the Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper West Side apartment, had an elegant cottage on a 55-acre estate on Canandaigua Lake in upstate New York. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang of friends at the lake would put on theatricals. Bogart had two younger sisters and Catherine Elizabeth, his parents were busy in their careers and fought. Formal, they showed little emotion towards their children. Maud told her offspring to call her "Maud" not "Mother", showed little if any physical affection for them; when pleased she "lapped you on the shoulder the way a man does", Bogart recalled.
"I was brought up unsentimentally but straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me."As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in, for the name "Humphrey". From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency to needle, fondness for fishing, lifelong love of boating, an attraction to strong-willed women. Bogart attended the private Delancey School until fifth grade the prestigious Trinity School, he was an sullen student who showed no interest in after-school activities. He went to the elite boarding school Phillips Academy, where he was admitted based on family connections, his parents hoped he would go on to Yale. Several reasons have been given: one claims that it was for throwing the headmaster into Rabbit Pond on campus. Another cites smoking, poor academic performance, a
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Kyle Martin Chandler is an American actor. He has held roles such as Gary Hobson on Early Edition and as Coach Eric Taylor in the drama series Friday Night Lights, for which he won a Primetime Emmy Award in 2011, he has starred in the films King Kong, The Day the Earth Stood Still, Super 8, Zero Dark Thirty, The Wolf of Wall Street, Manchester by the Sea, Game Night. From 2015 to 2017, he starred in Netflix's drama series Bloodline, for which he received his fourth and fifth Primetime Emmy Award nominations. Chandler was born in Buffalo, New York, the fourth child of Edward Chandler, a pharmaceutical sales representative, his wife, Sally Jeanette, a dog breeder. Chandler has three siblings, his ancestry includes German and Irish. Chandler was raised Roman Catholic, he grew up in suburban Lake Forest, until he was 11 years old, when his family moved to a small farm in Loganville, Georgia. Chandler's mother raised Great Danes for show dogs. Chandler graduated from George Walton Academy in nearby Monroe, Georgia in 1983.
As a freshman at Walton, he was a member of the 1979 state championship football team. He left the team the following year, aged 14, he participated in the theatre program at Walton after quitting football. Chandler's widowed mother ran the business, Sheenwater Kennels, to support Chandler and his siblings, she "was active with the Great Dane Club of America as a breeder and championship prize winner."After graduating from high school, Chandler attended the University of Georgia, where he was a drama major and member of the class of 1984 Sigma Nu fraternity. In 1988, seven credits short of a bachelor's degree in drama, Chandler dropped out of college to pursue a television deal. In 1988, Chandler was signed by the American Broadcasting Company and brought to Hollywood as part of ABC's new talent program, he made his television film debut that same year as a supporting hero actor in Quiet Victory. In 1988, Chandler studied with acting teacher, Milton Katselas, his first major acting experience was a supporting role on television as Army Private William Griner in Tour of Duty.
In eight episodes of the last season of the series, he played a member of a special operations squad fighting in Vietnam. Chandler made his film debut in one of the key roles in Pure Country. From 1991 to 1993, he had a series regular role as Cleveland Indians right fielder Jeff Metcalf in the ABC series Homefront, a drama set in the post-World War II era in the fictional town of River Run, Ohio. Homefront ran with Chandler appearing in all 42 episodes. In 1994, he made his Broadway debut, co-starring with Ashley Judd, in a revival of William Inge's Picnic at the Roundabout Theatre Company. From 1996 to 2000, Chandler starred as the lead character in the CBS series Early Edition, starring as a man who had the ability to change future disasters, he portrayed bar owner Gary Hobson, a stockbroker turned hero who received "tomorrow's newspaper today", delivered to his door by a mysterious cat. In 1996, he received the Saturn Award for Best Actor on Television for his portrayal of Hobson. Chandler was featured in all 90 episodes of the series.
In 2001, he appeared opposite Joan Cusack as investment banker Jake Evans in one season of the ABC comedy series What About Joan. In 2003, Chandler played scheming lawyer Grant Rashton in six episodes of the short-lived NBC series The Lyon's Den, opposite Rob Lowe. Working again in film, Chandler played the 1930s film star Bruce Baxter in the 2005 film King Kong. Coincidentally, Chandler played John Driscoll in The Day the Earth Stood Still. In February 2006, Chandler returned to television to guest star as the ill-fated bomb squad leader Dylan Young in two episodes of the ABC series Grey's Anatomy; the episodes, titled "It's The End of The World" and "As We Know It", followed the Super Bowl XL. He received substantial praise for his performance and was nominated for the Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series category at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards, he appeared again on Grey's Anatomy, in the February 15, 2007 episode "Drowning On Dry Land", the February 22, 2007 episode "Some Kind of Miracle".
While working on his Primetime Emmy Award-nominated guest role in Grey's Anatomy, Chandler met Peter Berg, developing a drama series Friday Night Lights, which followed the lives of a high school football coach, his family, the players in a small Texas town. The series was inspired by the film of the same name. Chandler learned that he had been cast as high school football coach Eric Taylor when he was on Christmas vacation in 2005 with his family; the show's pilot aired on NBC in 2006. While critically acclaimed, the series was at risk of cancellation each year. Starting with the third season in 2008, first-run episodes of the show were broadcast on DirecTV satellite channel The 101 Network before being repeated on NBC; the final season ended in 2011. Chandler said, and "while Chandler changed his mind and decided he would be perfect for the role, Berg didn't see things his way:'To this day he still says, I still didn't want you.'" Chandler won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series for his role in the final season of Friday Night Lights.
While shooting the series, Chandler als
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches; the roster of the Academy's 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world; the Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards and popularly known as "The Oscars". In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; the Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019. The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image.
He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time, they established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, writers and producers. After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927; that evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".
Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed. That night, the Academy bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison; the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Directors and Technicians; the initial concerns of the group had to do with labor." However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations." One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony.
By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented. During July the voting system for the Awards was established, the nomination and selection process began; this "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is. The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel; the screening room was not completed until April 1929. With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers. In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures.
The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks, D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl F. Zanuck.1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff, by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence." They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street. In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database; this is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Her