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Bevagna

Bevagna is a town and comune in the central part of the Italian province of Perugia, in the flood plain of the Topino river. Bevagna is 25 km SE of Perugia, 8 km west of Foligno, 7 km north-north-west of Montefalco, 16 km south of Assisi and 15 km north-west of Trevi, it has a population of c. 5,000, with the town of Bevagna proper accounting for about half of that. The city was an Etrusco-Oscan settlement. Around 80-90 BC it became a Roman municipium, called Mevania, in the Augustan Regio VI, it lay on the western branch of the Via Flaminia, 13 km WSW of Forum Flaminii, where the branches rejoin. It is mentioned on several ancient itineraries, following the Vicus Martis Tudertium on the way out of Rome. In 310 BC the consul Fabius broke the Umbrian forces here. In 69 the army of Vitellius awaited here the advance of Vespasian. Pastures near the Tinia river and the white oxen of the Clitumnus River are mentioned by Propertius, whose family was from the area: they may refer to Mevania. Mevania is mentioned by the writers Silius Italicus and Statius.

There are important remains of a temple near the north gate, of a theatre built into modern houses in the via dell'Anfiteatro, lesser remains of a second temple in the church of San Vincenzo near the east gate, mosaics belonging to midsized baths in the via Porta Guelfa, scanty remains of an amphitheatre at some distance from the modern town. The original walls, which have disappeared, according to Pliny, built of unbaked bricks; the town now has a complete circuit of medieval stone walls that are said to be near, if not identical with, the Roman walls. After the Lombard conquest, it became the seat of a gastald in the Duchy of Spoleto, after the year 1000 it was a free comune. In 1152 Frederick Barbarossa set it on fire. In 1249 it was again destroyed by the Count of Aquino; the Trinci family ruled it from 1371 to 1439. It was part of the Papal States until the unification of Italy; the legendary account of Francis of Assisi preaching to the birds took place in a field outside Bevagna. The stone on which he stood when preaching to the birds is now in the Ciccoli Chapel of the Church of San Francesco.

Palazzo dei Consoli, known from 1187, with Teatro F. Torti Romanesque church of S. Michele Arcangelo Romanesque church of S. Silvestro. Church of Sant'Agostino. Church of San Francesco Church of San Nicolò. Church of Santa Maria in Laurenzia, built in the 13th century and enlarged. Church of San Vincenzo; the medieval walls. Ruins of a Roman temple. Ruins of a Roman theatre. Roman thermae with mosaics of marine life. Castle of Cantalupo. Castle of Castelbuono. Church of Limigiano. Castle of Torre del Colle; the main events held in Bevagna include: Primavera medievale: exposition of local culinary and artistic products held by the Associazione Mercato delle Gaitte. Arte in Tavola: Spring festival with exhibitions by local artists, exhibitions of local products and dishes with tastings. Mercato delle Gaite: big summer festival with medieval banquets, challenges between the four gaite and taverns; the painter Andrea Camassei was born in Bevagna. The singer and composer Odoardo Ceccarelli was born in Bevagna.

Official website Pro Loco Bevagna Bevagna. Net Mercato del Gaite - all about the festivals Mercato del Gaite English Video Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mevania". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Mevania at LacusCurtius

Pierre B├ęzier

Pierre Étienne Bézier was a French engineer and one of the founders of the fields of solid and physical modelling as well as in the field of representing curves in computer-aided design and manufacturing systems. As an engineer at Renault, he became a leader in the transformation of design and manufacturing, through mathematics and computing tools, into computer-aided design and three-dimensional modeling. Bézier patented and popularized the Bézier curves and Bézier surfaces that are now used in most computer-aided design and computer graphics systems. Born in Paris, Bézier was the grandson of engineers, he obtained a degree in mechanical engineering from the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers in 1930. He earned a second degree in electrical engineering in 1931 at the École supérieure d'électricité, a doctorate in 1977 in mathematics from the Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University where he contributed to the study of parametric polynomial curves and their vector coefficients. From 1968 to 1979 Bézier was Professor of Production Engineering at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers.

He wrote four books and numerous papers, received several distinctions including the Steven Anson Coons Award from the Association for Computing Machinery and an honorary doctorate from the Technical University Berlin. He was an honorary member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and of the Société Belge des Mécaniciens, president of the Société des Ingénieurs et Scientifiques de France, Société des Ingénieurs Arts et Metiers, one of the first Advisory Editors of Computer-Aided Design magazine. With his family's consent, the Solid Modeling Association established The Pierre Bézier Award for Solid and Physical Modeling and Applications in 2007. Bézier popularized but did not create the Bézier curve — using such curves to design automobile bodies; the curves were first developed in 1959 by Paul de Casteljau using de Casteljau's algorithm, a numerically stable method to evaluate Bézier curves. The curves remain used in computer graphics to model smooth curves. Bézier developed the notation, consisting of nodes with attached control handles, with which the curves are represented in computer software.

The control handles define the shape of the curve on either side of the common node, can be manipulated by the user, via the software. Bézier curves were adopted as the standard curve of the PostScript language and subsequently were adopted by vector programs such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW and Inkscape. Most outline fonts, including PostScript Type 1, are defined with Bézier curves. From 1933 to 1975 Bézier worked for Renault, where he would develop his UNISURF CAD CAM system, he began his 42-year tenure at Renault as a Tool Setter. In 1934, Bézier in 1945 became Head of the Tool Design Office; as Director of Production Engineering in 1949, he designed the "transfer machines" that produced most of the mechanical parts for the Renault 4CV. The transfer machines were high-performance work tools designed to machine engine blocks. While imprisoned during WWII, Bézier developed and improved on the "automatic machine principle" introduced before the war by General Motors; the new "transfer station", with multiple workstations and electromagnetic heads, enabled different operations on a single part to be consecutively performed by transferring the part from one station to another.

In 1957, Bézier became Director of the Machine Tool Division, responsible for the automatic assembly of mechanical components and for the design and production of numerical control drilling and milling machines. Bézier began managing technical development at Renault in 1960, he retired from Renault in 1975. Bézier began researching CAD/CAM in 1960 while at Renault, focusing on the UNISURF system he developed for use with drawing machines, computer control, interactive free-form curves, surface design and 3D milling for manufacturing clay models and masters. UNISURF debuted in 1968 and has been in full use since 1975. In 1985 he was recognized by ACM SIGGRAPH with a Steven A. Coons Award for his lifetime contribution to computer graphics and interactive techniques