The Bangladesh Army is the land forces branch and the largest of the three defence service of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. The primary mission of the Army is to provide necessary forces and capabilities in support of Bangladesh's security and defence strategies including defence of the nation's territorial integrity against external attack. Control and operations are administered by the Department of the Army of the Armed Forces Division. In addition to its primary mission the Bangladesh Army is constitutionally obligated to assist the civilian government during times of national emergency; this role is referred to as "aid to civil administration". The martial tradition of Bengal has its roots in the army of Kings and their chiefs who were called Senapati or Mahasenapati. Armies were composed of infantry, war elephants and war boats; the arrival of Muslims and the establishment of the Bengal Sultanate further strengthened the military. The sultanate had well organised disciplined armies. During Mughal rule Cannons and artillery were introduced to Bengal.
During the Colonial Rule of the British, Bengal was principally a bulwark of British power and trade in the South Asian region. The British under Robert Clive defeated a 50,000 strong Bengal Army of Nawab Siraj-ud-daullah in the Polashey in 1757 and the forces of Nawab Mir Qasim at the Battle of Buxar in 1764; the Army of Bengal was formed, which became part of a united Indian Army from 1895 to 1947. The eastern part of the British India was a prominent place for military and police recruitment, with entire horse-mounted cavalry and lancer units being recruited there prior to the Bengal Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Post-mutiny, units with the epithet "Bengal" in their name, such as Bengal Sappers and Bengal Cavalry, were recruited from non-Bengali peoples from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh which were technically still part of Bengal Presidency at that time. During the First World War, the Bangali Paltan was formed to recruit soldiers from Bengal. In 1916, the British Government created Bengali Double Company.
They soldiers were shipped to the Bagdad. They fought in the war and after the war helped crush a rebellion by Kurds in 1919. During the Second World War, British Armed Forces Eastern Command created an auxiliary force who were part engineers and part infantry named as Indian Pioneer Corps. Most of the soldiers were recruited from both East Bengal; this force assisted the main war effort by building roads, fortifications and, when needed, fought the Japanese in an infantry role. These force was organised in company groups attached to various regiments of Indian Army in direct support role. Captain Abdul Gani led his troops in battle. After the war these Pioneer Troops were concentrated in Jalna, waiting to be demobilised and return home. In 1946 Captain Ghani the Adjutant and Quartermaster of Indian Pioneer Corps Centre at Jalna envisioned and generated the idea of forming an Infantry regiment out of the Pioneer soldiers from East Bengal who would be returning home demobilised, to the Centre Commander.
After receiving permission from the Chief of Staff of Pakistan Army General Sir Frank Messervy, he organised his men to form the nucleus of an Infantry Regiment, the Bangali Paltan. At the time of the creation of Pakistan Captain Ghani got the approval of the newly appointed Commander in Chief to Pakistan Army General Messervey to form the East Bengal Regiment composed of youths from East Bengal, would be East Pakistan. On 17 August 1947 General Messervey while bidding farewell to the Pioneer Corps soldiers from Bombay the General endorsed the views of Captain Ghani and said' you will prove to the world that Bengali soldiers are competent as other nations of the world.' With these inspiring words Captain Ghani moved to Dhaka in September 1947 with two Pioneer Companies and was temporarily located in Pilkhana now the Headquarters of Border Guards Bangladesh. He was told by the administration to find a suitable place to accommodate the soldiers, he found Kurmitola as the perfect place for a cantonment.
Toiling day in and day out the barracks were constructed and jungles cleared, parade ground prepared. On 15 February 1948 the flag of First East Bengal Regiment the pioneer of Bangladesh Army was raised with Captain Ghani on the lead of all the affairs though the first commanding officer was British Lt Col V J E Patterson. After the raising of the first battalion the second battalion was approved Captain Gani began to recruit the personnel for the regiment. On 7 February 1949 the flag of the Second East Bengal was raised with the newly recruited soldiers and from personnel from First East Bengal. Before the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, a total of 8 battalions of the East Bengal Regiment were formed. In 1970 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman lead Bangladesh Awami League to win the General Elections of Pakistan; the Pakistan Army, in power refused to handover power and unrest broke out. On 25 March 1971 Pakistan Armed Forces cracked down on the civilian population of East Pakistan through the start of Operation Searchlight and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh.
The Pakistan Army and allied paramilitaries killed hundreds of thousands of civilians and uniformed personnel. As a result, in March 1971, Bengali soldiers in East Pakistan revolted and the Bangladesh Liberation War started. There was a Bangladesh Army Sector Commanders Conference during 11–17 July 1971; the conference was held three months after the oath of the newly formed Bangladesh Government at Meherpur, Kushtia. During this conference the structure and formation as w
Barisal known as Barishal, is a major city that lies on the bank of Kirtankhola river in south-central Bangladesh. It is the largest city and the administrative headquarter of both Barisal district and Barisal Division, it is one of the oldest municipalities and river ports of the country. Barisal municipality was established in the year 1876 during the British Raj and upgraded to City Corporation on 25 July 2002; the city consists of 30 wards and 50 mahallas with a population of 328,278 according to the 2011 national census. The area of the city is 58 km². Barisal was a semi-independent area in the Mughal period because of heavy fighting between them and Hindu chiefs. In course of time, it fell under the Bengal Nawabs, the last being Raja Ramranjan Chakravarty and colonial British India passed to East Pakistan at independence and Bangladesh; the ancient city of Barisal was known as Bacola in Europe. Ralph Fitch, the first Englishman, a leather merchant, known to have visited Bengal in the mid 1580s, described Barisal in his journal as, “From Chatigan in Bengal, I came to Bacola.
His country is great and fruitful, hath store of rice, much cotton cloth, cloth of silk. The houses are fair and high built, the streets large, people naked, except a little cloth about their waist; the women wear a great store of silver hoops about their necks and arms, their legs are ringed with silver and copper, rings made from elephants’ teeth.”The central city of this region is the city of Barisal. It is one of the biggest river ports in Bangladesh, it is a city with nearly 0.38 million people and a divisional headquarters, medical college, cadet college, some pharmaceutical industries, textile industries and the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority's head office. Barisal is fast growing city of the country stands on the Kirtankhola River. Country's first short landing and take off airport has been completed in Barisal and a private Airlines named Air Bengal has begun its regular air flight between Dhaka Hazrat Shahjalal Airport and Barisal; the city is called the "Venice of the East" or the "Venice of Bengal" and the "Paradise of Bengal".
"Barisal guns" is a natural phenomenon named after Barisal. According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, the population of Barisal stands at 328,278. By gender, the population was 48.37 percent female. The literacy rate among the urban people of Barisal is 75.3%. Which is higher than the national average of 56.5%. Most of the people in Barisal are the Bengali people; the long-standing inhabitants of the city are known as Barisaliya and they have a distinctive dialect. Apart from them; the city population is composed of people from neighboring districts. There are four major languages spoken in Barisal Standard Bengali, the administrative language and thus used in academia and offices. Barisali dialect, spoken by all the native peoples of Greater Barisal region, is considered as a dialect of Bengali which does not have a written form. English, held in high esteem and is used by the educated elite. Marginalised Bengali, a cocktail language of Northern Bengali dialects spoken by migrant workers such as service holders, domestic servants, rickshaw peddlers and other menial labourers from different parts of Bangladesh living and working in Barisal.
The majority of Barisal's people are Muslims Sunni Islam Hanafi. Other religious groups include Hindus, few numbers of other religions Christians and Buddhists. Since end 2015, the Catholic minority has its own Roman Catholic Diocese of Barisal. Barisal city occupies an area of 58 km2. Barisal District, with an area of 2790.51 km2, is bounded by Madaripur, Shariatpur and Lakshmipur districts on the north, Patuakhali and Jhalokati districts on the south and Lakshmipur districts on the east, Jhalokati and Gopalganj districts on the west. Several rivers flow across Barisal including the Kirtankhola, Arial Khan, Khoyrabad and Sandha. Barisal has a tropical dry climate. Barisal is a rice producing center of Bangladesh. Balam is the most popular rice in Barisal, it is famous for Betel Leaf, a typical south Asian chewing item. As Barisal is surrounded by river so fish is plenty in there. A Bengali saying states, "Dhan, khal ai tin e Barisal" which translates to "paddy and canal are these three things that make Barisal".
Coconut is a common fruit. Barisal is known for its hog plum. Exports: Agricultural products, Hilsha fish, Empty Gelatine Capsules, Anchor Cement etc. Durgasagar: with an area of about 2,500 hectare, is the largest pond or dighi of southern Bangladesh, it is located at Madhabpasa village of babuganj upazila, about 11 km away from Barisal town. Locally it is known as Madhabpasha Dighi. According to a desire of Rani Durgavati, mother of Raja Joynarayan, the dighi was dug in 1780. There are coconut trees around the dighi. In the middle of the dighi, there is an island with bushes. Migratory birds come here during winter; the surrounding areas of the dighi has now been turned into a picnic spot. Madhabpasha was a c
The Bangladesh Police is the main law enforcement agency of Bangladesh. It is administered under the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of Bangladesh, it plays a crucial role in maintaining peace, enforcement of law and order within Bangladesh. Though the police are concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security of persons and property of individuals, they play a big role in the criminal justice system. Details of policing activities during the middle age are challenging to find. However, during the periods of the great sultans, an official holding the position of Muhtasib used to perform the duties of policing; this person was the chief of police, in charge of public works, the inspector of public ethics simultaneously. In urban areas, Kotwals were responsible for performing police duties; the policing system introduced by Sher Shah Suri was further organised during the period of Emperor Akbar: the Emperor organised his administrative structure introducing Fouzdari, Mir Adal and Kazi, Kotwal.
This system was effective in maintaining the law and order in cities, was implemented in Dhaka. Many district sadar police stations are still called Kotwali police stations. In the Mughal period, Kotwal emerged as an institution. A Fouzdar was appointed to every administrative unit of the government, under whom there were some artillery and cavalry forces. There was a disciplined police system during the Mughal period, though there was no professional police force like that in the British period. In the early stage of the Industrial Revolution, when England was facing grave crisis due to socio-economic transformation, the necessity of an effective organised police service was keenly felt. Sir Robert Peel the Prime Minister, introduced a bill in the British Parliament in 1829 which created an organised civil police in London; the success of the London police in controlling social disorder and crime was admired by not only the people of England but of European and American countries: New York city copied the London model with some modifications when it organised the first Municipal Police Force, in 1833.
In 1858, full control of the Indian Territory was taken over from the East India Company by the British government. The success of the London police organised under Peel's Act of 1829 prompted the British government to reform the police system in the sub-continent in a similar way to British constabularies. With this end in view, a police commissioner was set up 1840, on the recommendation of the commission of the Police Act, was passed by the British Parliament. Under this Act a police force was created in each province of British India, placed under the control of the provincial government; the administration of the police force of a province was vested upon an officer styled as the Inspector-general of police. The administration of the police in a district was placed under the Superintendent of Police; the Act is still in force throughout the sub-continent, regulates the function of police in Bangladesh, as well as the other countries of the sub-continent. After partition of the sub-continent in 1947, the police force in Bangladesh was first named as the East Bengal Police, as the East Pakistan Police.
In the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali-speaking police officers participated with the citizens, leading to deaths from most ranks, fighting with.303 rifles against the Pakistani. The resistance by the Bengali members of police at Rajarbagh is considered the first chapter of armed struggles during the Bangladesh Liberation war. Bangladesh Police founded a Liberation War Museum at the Rajarbagh police line in January 2017. After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country on 16 December 1971, the police force was recognised and assumed the role of a national police force. At present, Bangladesh Police is responsible for the preservation of peace and order, protection of life and property of the people and prevention and detection of crime; the traditional role of police in Bangladesh has undergone change after the liberation: the role of police is no longer confined to maintenance of law and order and prevention and detection of crime, to meet the need of an independent and developing country, the police are now required to assist in developing the state and such kinds of activities by providing the basic security required for sustained economic growth of the country.
It is further playing a vital role in dealing with insurgency in some areas of the country which impedes development activities and threatens the security of the state. Bangladesh Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police, under whose command, Bangladesh Police is divided into different branches, they are- Police Headquarters Tourist Police Range Police and Range Reserve Force District Police Metropolitan Police Special Branch Criminal Investigation Department Railway Police Highway Police Industrial Police Police Bureau of Investigation Special Security and Protection Battalion Armed Police Battalion Airport Armed Police Rapid Action Battalion Police Internal Oversight River Police Telecommunication and Information Management Detective Branch Counter Terrorism and Transnational Crime Police Staff College, Bangladesh Bangladesh Police Academy, Sarda Police Training Centers Specialized Training Center like DTS/TDS/FTC/SBTS/IPTC/ITTS/Telecom TS/MDTS/PSTS etc. Industrial Police RanksDirector General Additional Director General Director
The Bangladesh Navy is the naval warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces, responsible for Bangladesh's 118,813 square kilometres of maritime territorial area, the defence of important harbours, military bases and economic zones. The primary role of the Bangladesh Navy is to protect the country's economic and military interests at home and abroad; the Bangladesh navy is a front line disaster management force in Bangladesh, participates in humanitarian missions abroad. It is a key regional player in counter terrorism efforts, engages in global peacekeeping with the United Nations; the Bangladesh Navy was created as part of Bangladesh Forces during Bangladesh's 1971 liberation war against Pakistan. Its official creation date is July 1971 during the Bangladesh Sector Commanders Conference 1971. In 1971, with West Pakistan imposing a brutal military crackdown in East Pakistan, the Bangladesh Liberation War was underway. Many Bengali sailors and officers in the Pakistan Navy defected to form the nascent Bangladesh Navy.
There were two ships, PADMA and PALASH, 45 navy personnel. On 9 November 1971, the first naval fleet, consisting of six small patrol vessels, was inaugurated; these ships tried to carry out raids on the Pakistani fleet, but were mistakenly hit and sunk by the Indian Air Force on 10 December 1971. The next major attack was launched on Mongla seaport. According to official figures from the Bangladesh Navy, a total of 334 sailors were involved with the newly created navy, with 22 being killed in action; the navy carried out around 45 operations during the war: traditional naval operations and unconventional commando operations including guerrilla warfare. In the first leg of the war, defecting Bengali sailors joined the guerrilla forces, it was the eight sailors who defected from the Pakistan Navy submarine PNS Mangro, under construction in France, that pioneered the formation of the naval element during the Liberation War. Many other naval personnel participated. During the Liberation War, East Pakistan was divided into 11 sectors.
Each sector had a Commander and a demarcated area of responsibility except sector 10. Sector 10 was nominally responsible for the coastal belt but operated over the entire country. In 1971, it was imperative for the occupation force to keep ports and harbours operative and the sea lines of communication open; the Bangladesh Navy fought to block the sea lines of communication, to make the sea and river ports inoperative. They attacked all the seaports including many river ports. Operation Jackpot is one of the most successful operations, they carried out mining in the Pasur River Channel by patrol craft. With other fighters they carried out attacks against the Pakistan Army; as a result, Bangladesh became an independent state within the shortest possible time. After independence in the 1970s, additional naval infrastructure was required. Two ex-Royal Navy frigates joined the Bangladesh Navy as BNS Umar Farooq and BNS Ali Haider in 1976 and 1978 respectively. In 1982 a third ex-Royal Navy frigate joined the BN as BNS Abu Bakar.
The acquisition of these three frigates is considered the principal foundation of the Bangladesh Navy. Bangladesh Navy is the first force among Bangladeshi military services to induct female members. First batch of 14 female officers joined the navy in 2000. In 2016, 44 female soldiers were added to the force for the first time. In 2011, the Bangladesh Navy's rescue and medical team, along with the Bangladesh Army was deployed to Japan after Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Bangladesh Navy have been an active disaster recovery force abroad. In 2013, the navy deployed BNS Somudra Joy carrying humanitarian assistance worth of $1 million. Navy's medical team were deployed to Philippines; the Bangladesh Navy joined in the search operation of missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 with BNS Bangabandhu, BNS Umar Farooq and a Dornier Do-228NG MPA in March 2014. The aircraft was a Boeing 777-200ER which gone missing with 12 Malaysian crew members and 227 passengers from 14 nations during the flight from Malaysia to China.
BNS Umar Farooq was replaced by BNS Somudra Joy. The search was renewed in May 2014 when an Australian exploration company claimed to have traced aircraft debris in the Bay of Bengal. In 2014, during the Water Crisis in Maldives, the Bangladesh Navy was the first to launch humanitarian aid relief by deploying BNS Somudra Joy with 100 tonnes of bottled water. In 2009, the Bangladesh government adopted a long-term modernisation plan for its armed forces called Forces Goal 2030; as of 2013, about a third of the military hardware procured under the plan has been for the navy. It procured two refurbished Type 053H2 frigates from China in 2014. Two United States Coast Guard High Endurance Cutters joined the BN in 2013 and 2015 which are being used as patrol frigates. Navy bought an ex-Royal Navy Roebuck-class survey vessel and two ex-Royal Navy Castle-class offshore patrol vessels which were converted to guided missile corvettes in 2011. Two Type 056 corvettes joined the BN in 2016 while two more were ordered in July 2015 and they are under construction.
Two Durjoy-class large patrol craft were built in China and joined the BN in 2013. Two more ships of the same class with dedicated ASW capabilities were commissioned in 2017; the Bangladesh Navy opened its aviation wing on 14 July 2011 with the induction of two AgustaWestland AW109 helicopters. On, two Dornier Do-228NG MPA were introduced in 2013. To attain underwater operational capabilities, the Bangladesh Navy inducted two off-the-shelf Type 035G submarines from China on 12 March 2017. A new base for the Bangladesh Navy, named BNS Sher-e-Bangla, is be
Mirpur Model Thana
Mirpur is a thana of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. It is bounded by Pallabi Thana to the north, Mohammadpur Thana to the south, Kafrul to the east, Savar Upazila to the west. Mirpur thana was established in 1962; the thana consists of eight wards, 11 mouzas and 86 and 20 villages. Mirpur Thana area was included in Keraniganj Thana during the British period and in Tejgaon Thana during the Pakistan period. After the Liberation War following the victory day, Mirpur was independent on 31 January 1972. Mirpur is located at 23.8042°N 90.3667°E / 23.8042. It is situated in the north-east of Dhaka city. At the 2000 census of Bangladesh, Mirpur had a population of 1,074,232, of which males constituted 54.15% and females 45.85%. 610,270 were over the age of 18, the average literacy rate was 68.9%, compared to the national average of 48.6%. Mirpur Thana has been divided into the three thanas of Shah Ali and Kafrul. Mirpur Beribadh is a place in the capital of Bangladesh. Mirpur thana is part of the Dhaka District in Dhaka Division.
It is famous for various historical places in Dhaka city. The Dhaka Zoo, the National Botanical Garden of Bangladesh, Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium, the Nobel Prize-winning Grameen Bank’s head office, Mirpur Cantonment and educational institutions including Military Institute of Science and Technology, Bangladesh University of Professionals, SOS Hermann Gmeiner College, Dhaka Commerce College, Govt. Bangla College, Monipur High School, Kollyanpur Model Govt. Primary School, Ibn Sina Medical College, BCIC College are located here Monipur High School Model Academy Dhaka Commerce College Bangladesh University of Business and Technology BCIC College Bangladesh University of Professionals Mirpur Bangla High School and College For the cricket world cup of 2011, Mirpur's Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium was selected as a venue. For this, renovations were carried out within the thana; the opening match was held there on 19 February 2011. Upazilas of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Divisions of Bangladesh
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes such as political repression, torture, ethnic cleansing, or revolutionary terror. These killings are conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities. Death squads may have the support of foreign governments, they may comprise a secret police force, paramilitary militia groups, government soldiers, policemen, or combinations thereof. They may be organized as vigilantes; when death squads are not controlled by the state, they may consist of insurgent forces or organized crime, such as the ones used by cartels. Although the term "death squad" did not rise to notoriety until the activities of such groups became known in Central and South America during the 1970s and 80s, death squads have been employed under different guises throughout history; the term was first used by the fascist Iron Guard in Romania. It installed Iron guard death squads in 1936 in order to kill political enemies.
It was used during the Battle of Algiers by Paul Aussaresses. In Latin America, death squads first appeared in Brazil where a group called Esquadrão da Morte emerged in the 1960s. Argentina used extrajudicial killings as a way of crushing the liberal and communist opposition to the military junta during the'Dirty War' of the 1970s. For example, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina was a far-right death squad active during the "Dirty War"; the Chilean military regime of 1973–1990 committed such killings. See Operation Condor for examples. During the Salvadoran civil war, death squads achieved notoriety on March 24, 1980, when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero as he said Mass inside a convent chapel. In December 1980, three American nuns, Ita Ford, Dorothy Kazel, Maura Clarke, a lay worker, Jean Donovan, were gang raped and murdered by a military unit found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of suspected Communists. Priests who were spreading liberation theology, such as Father Rutilio Grande, were targeted as well.
The murderers were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran military, receiving U. S. funding and military advisors during the Carter administration. These events prompted outrage in the U. S. and led to a temporary cutoff in military aid at the end of his presidency. Death Squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years as well. Honduras had death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of, the army unit Battalion 316. Hundreds of people, teachers and union leaders were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion 316 received substantial training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency. In Southeast Asia, extrajudicial killings were conducted by both sides during the Vietnam War. For example, Viet Cong member Nguyễn Văn Lém, famous for being extrajudicially executed on camera by General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan on 1 February 1968 in Saigon, was himself claimed to have commanded a death squad targeting South Vietnamese policemen and their families during the Tet Offensive in Saigon.
As of 2010, death squads have continued to be active in several locations, including Chechnya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Colombia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Somalia, Tanzania, Pakistan, Myanmar, Philippines among others. Death squads are active in this country; this appears to be difficult to stop. Moreover, there is no proof as to whom is behind the killingsIn an interview with the panafrican magazine "Jeune Afrique", Laurent Gbagbo accused one of the opposition leaders, Alassane Ouattara, to be the main organizer of the media frenzy around his wife's involvement in the killing squads, he successfully sued and won, in French courts, in cases against the French newspapers that made the accusations. In December 2014, Kenyan Anti-Terrorism Police Unit officers confessed to Al-Jazeera that they were responsible for 500 of the extrajudicial killings; the murders totaled several hundred homicides every year. They included the assassination of Abubaker Shariff Ahmed "Makaburi", an Al-Shabaab associate from Kenya, among 21 Muslim radicals murdered by the Kenyan police since 2012.
According to the agents, they resorted to killing after the Kenyan police could not prosecute terror suspects. In doing so, the officers indicated that they were acting on the direct orders of Kenya's National Security Council, which consisted of the Kenyan President, Deputy President, Chief of the Defence Forces, Inspector General of Police, National Security Intelligence Service Director, Cabinet Secretary of Interior, Principal Secretary of Interior. Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and the National Security Council of Kenya members denied operating an extrajudicial assassination program. Additionally, the officers suggested that Western security agencies provided intelligence for the program, including the whereabouts and activities of government targets, they asserted that Britain supplied further logistics in the form of training. One Kenyan officer within the Council's General Service Unit indicated that Israeli instructors taught them how to kill; the head of the International Bar Association, Mark Ellis, cautioned that any such involvement by foreign nations would constitute a breach of international law.
The United Kingdom and Israel denie