Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern service on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.

The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Shenzhen Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR and the Singapore MRT.

Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; however the Boston Metro is known locally as "The T". In most of Southeast Asia, rapid transit systems are known as MRT or MTR.

The opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit. Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset.

Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity; the first rapid transit line in Australia was opened in Sydney in 2019, which will feed into a larger network known as the Sydney Metro upon completion of a second line in 2024. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructin

Loki – Wizja Dźwięku

Loki – Wizja Dźwięku is the debut solo album by Polish rock singer Piotr Rogucki, frontman of the band Coma. It was released on March 2011 through Polish label Mystic Production; the album peaked at number 2 on the official Polish sales chart OLiS. Piotr Rogucki has begun his career performing solo with a guitar, formed Coma several years later, he has said that he was always planning to release a solo album, to have an outlet for different kind of expression than the one presented while playing with Coma. Loki – Wizja Dźwięku was, according to Rogucki, a "soundtrack to a film, never created." The concept album tells a story of Loki – an eccentric rock musician and troublemaker, loved by companions and women – from the moment he decides to end his musical career, follows him through various stages of life, from erotic experiences to falls and tragedies. The album was promoted by the lead single "Szatany". A music video for the song was shot by Mateusz Winkiel in an Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Łódź.

Music videos were released for "Wizja Dźwięku", live performances of "Piegi w Locie" and "Mała". Loki – Wizja Dźwięku has received positive reviews from music critics. All tracks are written except where noted. Piotr Rogucki – lead and background vocals Marian Wróblewski – production, guitar, bass guitar, background vocals, harmonium, trombone, banjo Maciej Cieślak – drums, percussion Tomasz "Zed" Zalewski – vocals, background vocals, mastering Kuba Galiński – keyboards, arrangement Wojtek Traczyk – bass guitar, arrangement Marcin Ułanowski – drums, tambourine, arrangement Paweł Tomaszewski – recitation, dialogues

Journal of Comparative Psychology

The Journal of Comparative Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association. It covers research from a comparative perspective on the behavior, cognition and social relationships of diverse species; the journal was established in 1921 through the merger of Psychobiology and the Journal of Animal Behavior. It was renamed Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology in 1947, reestablished in 1983 when the journal was split into Behavioral Neuroscience and the Journal of Comparative Psychology. Past editors-in-chief include Jerry Hirsch, Gordon Gallup, Charles Snowdon, Meredith West, Gordon Burghardt, Josep Call; the current editor is Dorothy M. Fragaszy; the journal is indexed by MEDLINE/PubMed and the Social Science Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 1.771, ranking it 48th out of 135 journals in the category "Psychology, Multidisciplinary". Official website