Timpani or kettledrums are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a semispherical drum, they consist of a membrane called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper. Most modern timpani are pedal timpani and can be tuned and to specific pitches by skilled players through the use of a movable foot-pedal, they are played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of ensembles, including concert bands, marching bands, in some rock bands. Timpani is an Italian plural, the singular of, timpano. However, in English the term timpano is only in use by practitioners: several are more referred to collectively as kettledrums, temple drums, timp-toms, or timps, they are often incorrectly termed timpanis. A musician who plays timpani is a timpanist.
First attested in English in the late 19th century, the Italian word timpani derives from the Latin tympanum, the latinisation of the Greek word τύμπανον, "a hand drum", which in turn derives from the verb τύπτω, meaning "to strike, to hit". Alternative spellings with y in place of either or both i's—tympani, tympany, or timpany—are encountered in older English texts. Although the word timpani has been adopted in the English language, some English speakers choose to use the word kettledrums; the German word for timpani is Pauken. The Ashanti pair of talking drums are known as atumpan; the tympanum is defined in the Etymologiae of St. Isidore of Seville: Tympanum est pellis vel corium ligno ex una parte extentum. Est enim pars media symphoniae in similitudinem cribri. Tympanum autem dictum quod medium est. Unde, et margaritum ipsum ut symphonia ad virgulam percutitur; the tympanum is hide stretched over a hollow wooden vessel which extends out. It is said by the symphonias to resemble a sieve, but has been likened to half a pearl.
It is struck with beating time for the symphonia. The reference comparing the tympanum to half a pearl is borrowed from Pliny the Elder; the basic timpano consists of a drum head stretched across the opening of a bowl made of copper or, in less expensive models, fiberglass or aluminum. In the Sachs–Hornbostel classification, this makes timpani membranophones; the head is affixed to a hoop. The counter hoop is held in place with a number of tuning screws called tension rods placed around the circumference; the head's tension can be adjusted by tightening the rods. Most timpani have six to eight tension rods; the shape and material of the bowl's surface help to determine the drum's timbre. For example, hemispheric bowls produce brighter tones. Modern timpani are made with copper due to its efficient regulation of internal and external temperatures relative to aluminum and fiberglass. Timpani come in a variety of sizes from about 33 inches in diameter down to piccoli timpani of 12 inches or less. A 33-inch drum can produce C2, specialty piccoli timpani can play up into the treble clef.
In Darius Milhaud's 1923 ballet score La création du monde, the timpanist must play F♯4. Each drum has a range of a perfect fifth, or seven semitones. Changing the pitch of a timpani by turning each tension rod individually is a laborious process. In the late 19th century, mechanical systems to change the tension of the entire head at once were developed. Any timpani equipped with such a system may be considered machine timpani, although this term refers to drums that use a handle connected to a spider-type tuning mechanism. By far the most common type of timpani used today are pedal timpani, which allows the tension of the head to be adjusted using a pedal mechanism; the pedal is connected to the tension screws via an assembly of either cast metal or metal rods called the spider. There are three types of pedal mechanisms in common use today: The ratchet clutch system uses a ratchet and pawl to hold the pedal in place; the timpanist must first disengage the clutch before using the pedal to tune the drum.
When the desired pitch is achieved, the timpanist must reengage the clutch. Because the ratchet engages in only a fixed set of positions, the timpanist must fine-tune the drum by means of a fine-tuning handle. In the balanced action system, a spring or hydraulic cylinder is used to balance the tension on the head so the pedal will stay in position and the head will stay at pitch; the pedal on a balanced action drum is sometimes called a floating pedal since there is no clutch holding it in place. The friction clutch or post and clutch system uses a clutch. Disengaging the clutch frees it from the post, allowing the pedal to move without restraint. Professional-level timpani have copper bowls; these drums can have one of two styles of pedals. The Dresden pedal is operated by ankle motion. A Berlin-style pedal is attached by means of a long arm to th
The sarrusophones are a family of transposing woodwind musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. Designed as double-reed instruments, single-reed mouthpieces were developed, at least for some of the larger sizes, it was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus, credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music; the sarrusophone was manufactured in the following sizes and had the following theoretical ranges: E-flat Sopranino B♭-G B-flat Soprano B♭-G E-flat Alto B♭-G B-flat Tenor B♭-G E-flat Baritone A-G B-flat Bass B♭-G EE-flat Contrabass B♭-G CC Contrabass B♭-G BB-flat Contrabass B♭-G The non-transposed range of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone. The traditional conventional range of the saxophone is written B♭-F.
Gautrot advertised the range of the sarrusophone to high F as well, but fingering charts indicated a range to high G. Sometime after 1868, Gautrot released a fingering chart indicating fingerings higher still up to a top B-flat, giving a range of three full octaves. All members of the sarrusophone family are made of metal, with a conical bore, the larger members of the family resemble the ophicleide in shape. Like the oboe and bassoon, all sizes of sarrusophone were designed to be played with a double reed. Single reed mouthpieces were developed which resemble alto or soprano saxophone mouthpieces, it is unclear if these were available for all sizes of the sarrusophone family, the most common examples being for the E♭ contrabass. Approximate reed measurements for certain sarrusophones, expressed as, are as follows: Soprano Alto Tenor Baritone Bass Contrabass in Eb or C The fingering of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone; this similarity caused Adolphe Sax to file and lose at least one lawsuit against Gautrot, claiming infringement upon his patent for the saxophone.
Sax lost on the grounds that the tone produced by the two families of instruments is markedly different, despite their mechanical similarities. However, because the sarrusophone never gained wide acceptance, makers were not inclined to develop its mechanism to the same extent as that of the saxophone. Features of the sarrusophone's mechanism include: Non-automatic octave keys. From sopranino through bass, 2 octave keys; the contra basses have 3, the 3rd key being used for the notes D and E♭ directly above the octave break, only No articulated G♯, bis B♭, F♯ trill keys or 1/1 and 1/2 B♭ as found on the saxophone. The top and bottom key stacks are not linked. Though, a B to C trill key as found on the saxophone did more or less become standard The key for low B♭ is activated by the left thumb as opposed to the left little finger as on the saxophone A key for rapid alternation across the C-D break; this key can be used to play high D as well. This may be taken to be an equivalent of the high D palm key of a saxophone, although on the sarrusophone the location of the touchpiece varied.
No palm keys for playing the top range. Using the non-automatic register keys, 3rd harmonics are available, rendering palm keys unnecessary; the narrow bore of the sarrusophone aids in the rendering of these 3rd harmonicsOn earlier instruments, the use of rollers on the low E♭ and C natural keys seems to have been more common than having them on the G♯, low C♯ and B natural keys. Additionally on some instruments made by Buffet in the early 20th century, the G♯ key is "semi-articulated" so that a G natural to G♯ trill can be made by an additional touchpiece for the right hand. Saxophones of this time period have this mechanism. Additionally, there is no connection from G♯ to low C♯ or low B natural, identical to how saxophones were constructed at that time; the sarrusophone is called for in orchestral music. However, around the turn of the 20th century, the contrabass sarrusophones in EE♭ and CC enjoyed a vogue, the latter as a substitute for the contrabassoon so that it is called for in, for example, Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and Suite parnassienne.
Igor Stravinsky included a part for contrabass sarrusophone in Threni. The composer Paul Dukas used the contrabass sarrusophone to great effect in 1897 in his The Sorcerer's Apprentice, where the instrument begins the bassoon's macabre dance motif; these parts are nowadays all played on the contrabassoon, though recordings of at least some of these pieces using sarrusophones are extant. In general when the term "sarrusophone" is used, it refers to t
The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use; the term xylophone may be used to include all such instruments such as the marimba and the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, these two instruments should not be confused; the term is popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types. For example, the Pixiphone and many similar toys described by the makers as xylophones have bars of metal rather than of wood, so are in organology regarded as glockenspiels rather than as xylophones; the bars of metal sound more high-pitched than the wooden ones. The modern western xylophone has bars of rosewood, padauk, or various synthetic materials such as fiberglass or fiberglass-reinforced plastic which allows a louder sound.
Some can be as small a range as 2 1⁄2 octaves but concert xylophones are 3 1⁄2 or 4 octaves. The xylophone is a transposing instrument: its parts are written one octave below the sounding notes. Concert xylophones have tube resonators below the bars to sustain. Frames are made of wood or cheap steel tubing: more expensive xylophones feature height adjustment and more stability in the stand. In other music cultures some versions have gourds that act as Helmholtz resonators. Others are "trough" xylophones with a single hollow body. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout. Ancient mallets were made of willow wood with spoon-like bowls on the beaten ends. Xylophones should be played with hard rubber, polyball, or acrylic mallets. Sometimes medium to hard rubber mallets hard core, or yarn mallets are used for softer effects. Lighter tones can be created on xylophones by using wooden-headed mallets made from rosewood, birch, or other hard woods.
The instrument has obscure ancient origins. According to Nettl, it originated in southeast Asia and came to Africa c. AD 500 when a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking peoples migrated to Africa. One piece of evidence for this is the similarity between East African xylophone orchestras and Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestras. This, however has been questioned by ethnomusicologist and linguist Roger Blench who posits an independent origin in Africa; the earliest evidence of a true xylophone is from the 9th century in southeast Asia, while a similar hanging wood instrument, a type of harmonicon, is said by the Vienna Symphonic Library to have existed in 2000 BC in what is now part of China. The xylophone-like ranat was used in Hindu regions. In Indonesia, few regions have their own type of xylophones. In North Sumatra, The Toba Batak people use wooden xylophones known as the Garantung. Java and Bali use xylophones in gamelan ensembles, they still have traditional significance in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and regions of the Americas.
Myanmar xylophone is known as Pattala and is made of bamboo. The term marimba is applied to various traditional folk instruments such as the West Africa balafon. Early forms were constructed of bars atop a gourd; the wood is first roasted around a fire before shaping the key to achieve the desired tone. The resonator is tuned to the key through careful choice of size of resonator, adjustment of the diameter of the mouth of the resonator using wasp wax and adjustment of the height of the key above the resonator. A skilled maker can produce startling amplification; the mallets used to play dibinda and mbila have heads made from natural rubber taken from a wild creeping plant. "Interlocking" or alternating rhythm features in Eastern African xylophone music such as that of the Makonde dimbila, the Yao mangolongondo or the Shirima mangwilo in which the opachera, the initial caller, is responded to by another player, the wakulela. This doubles an rapid rhythmic pulse that may co-exist with a counter-rhythm.
The mbila is associated in southern Mozambique. It is not to be confused with the mbira; the style of music played on it is believed to be the most sophisticated method of composition yet found among preliterate peoples. The gourd-resonated, equal-ratio heptatonic-tuned mbila of Mozambique is played in large ensembles in a choreographed dance depicting a historical drama. Ensembles consist of around ten xylophones of four sizes. A full orchestra would have two bass instruments called gulu with three or four wooden keys played standing up using heavy mallets with solid rubber heads, three tenor dibinda, with ten keys and played seated, the mbila itself, which has up to nineteen keys of which up to eight may be played simultaneously; the gulu uses dibinda Masala apple shells as resonators. They accompany the dance with long compositions called ngomi or mgodo and consist of about 10 pieces of music grouped into 4 separate movements, with an overture, in different tempos and styles; the ensemble leader serves as poet, composer and performer, creating a text, improvising a melody based on the features of the Chopi tone language and composin
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC; the instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use strings of catgut, metal, or some combination. While all harps have a neck and strings, frame harps have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while open harps, such as arch harps and bow harps, do not.
Modern harps vary in techniques used to extend the range and chromaticism of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note mid-performance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch. The pedal harp is a standard instrument in the orchestra of the Romantic music era and the contemporary music era; the earliest harps and lyres were found in Sumer, 3500 BC, several harps were found in burial pits and royal tombs in Ur. The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar can be seen adjacent to the Near East, in the wall paintings of ancient Egyptian tombs in the Nile Valley, which date from as early as 3000 BC; these murals show an instrument that resembles the hunter's bow, without the pillar that we find in modern harps. The chang flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 4000 BC, until the 17th century. Around 1900 BC arched harps in the Iraq–Iran region were replaced by angular harps with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the start of the Common Era, "robust, angular harps", which had become predominant in the Hellenistic world, were cherished in the Sasanian court.
In the last century of the Sasanian period, angular harps were redesigned to make them as light as possible. At the height of the Persian tradition of illustrated book production, such light harps were still depicted, although their use as musical instruments was reaching its end; the works of the Tamil Sangam literature describe the harp and its variants, as early as 200 BC. Variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment. Iconographic evidence in of the yaal appears in temple statues dated as early as 500 BC One of the Sangam works, the Kallaadam recounts how the first yaaḻ harp was inspired by an archer's bow, when he heard the musical sound of its twang. Another early South Asian harp was the ancient veena; some Samudragupta gold coins show of the mid-4th century AD show the king Samudragupta himself playing the instrument. The ancient veena survives today in the form of the saung harp still played there; the harp was popular in ancient China and neighboring regions, though harps are extinct in East Asia in the modern day.
The Chinese konghou harp is documented as early as the Spring and Autumn period, became extinct during the Ming Dynasty. A similar harp, the gonghu was played in ancient Korea, documented as early as the Goguryeo period. Harps are triangular and made of wood. Strings are made of gut or wire replaced in the modern day by nylon, or metal; the top end of each string is secured on the crossbar or neck, where each will have a tuning peg or similar device to adjust the pitch. From the crossbar, the string runs down to the sounding board on the resonating body, where it is secured with a knot, it is the distance between the tuning peg and the soundboard, as well as tension and weight of the string, which decide the pitch of the string. The body is hollow, when a taut string is plucked, the body resonates, projecting sound; the longest side of the harp is called the column or pillar, though some earlier harps, such as a "bow harp", lack a pillar. On most harps the sole purpose of the pillar is to hold up the neck against the great strain of the strings.
On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument. On harps of earlier design, a given string can play only a single note without retuning. In many cases this means such a harp can only play in one key at a time and must be manually retuned to play in another key. Various remedies to this limitation evolved: the addition of extra strings to cover chromatic notes, addition of small levers on the crossbar which when actuated raise the pitch of a string by a set interval, or use of pedals at the base of the instrument which change the pitch of a string when pressed with the foot; these solutions increase the versatility of a harp at the cost of adding complexity and expense. While the angle and bow harps held popularity
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin round plates of various alloys; the majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note. Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, marching groups. Drum kits incorporate at least a crash, ride, or crash/ride, a pair of hi-hat cymbals. A player of cymbals is known as a cymbalist; the word cymbal is derived from the Latin cymbalum, the latinisation of the Greek word κύμβαλον kymbalon, "cymbal", which in turn derives from κύμβη kymbē, "cup, bowl". In orchestral scores, cymbals may be indicated by the French cymbales. Many of these derive from the word for plates. Cymbals have existed since ancient times. Representations of cymbals may be found in reliefs and paintings from Armenian Highlands, Babylon, ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. References to cymbals appear throughout the Bible, through many Psalms and songs of praise to God.
Cymbals may have been introduced to China from Central Asia in the 3rd or 4th century AD. In India, Cymbals have been in use since the ancient times and are still used across all major temples and Buddhist sites. Gigantic Aartis along Ganges which are revered by Hindus all over the world, are incomplete without large cymbals. Cymbals were employed by Turkish janissaries in the 14th century or earlier. By the 17th century, such cymbals were used in European music, more played in military bands and orchestras by the mid 18th century. Since the 19th century, some composers have called for larger roles for cymbals in musical works, a variety of cymbal shapes and hardware have been developed in response; the anatomy of the cymbal plays a large part in the sound. A hole is drilled in the center of the cymbal, used to either mount the cymbal on a stand or for tying straps through; the bell, dome, or cup is the raised section surrounding the hole. The bell produces a higher "pinging" pitch than the rest of the cymbal.
The bow is the rest of the surface surrounding the bell. The bow is sometimes described in two areas: the crash area; the ride area is the thicker section closer to the bell while the crash area is the thinner tapering section near the edge. The edge or rim is the immediate circumference of the cymbal. Cymbals are measured in inches or centimeters; the size of the cymbal affects its sound, larger cymbals being louder and having longer sustain. The weight describes. Cymbal weights are important to the sound how they play. Heavier cymbals have a louder volume, more cut, better stick articulation. Thin cymbals have a fuller sound, lower pitch, faster response; the profile of the cymbal is the vertical distance of the bow from the bottom of the bell to the cymbal edge. The profile affects the pitch of the cymbal: higher profile cymbals have higher pitch. Cymbals offer a composer nearly endless amounts of effect, their unique timbre allows them to project against a full orchestra and through the heaviest of orchestrations and enhance articulation and nearly any dynamic.
Cymbals have been utilized to suggest frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as seen in the Venus music in Wagner's Tannhäuser, Grieg's Peer Gynt suite, Osmin's aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Orchestral crash cymbals are traditionally used in pairs, each one having a strap set in the bell of the cymbal by which they are held; such a pair is always known as crash plates. The sound can be obtained by rubbing their edges together in a sliding movement for a "sizzle", striking them against each other in what is called a "crash", tapping the edge of one against the body of the other in what is called a "tap-crash", scraping the edge of one from the inside of the bell to the edge for a "scrape" or "zischen," or shutting the cymbals together and choking the sound in what is called a "hi-hat chick" or crush. A skilled percussionist can obtain an enormous dynamic range from such cymbals. For example, in Beethoven's ninth symphony, the percussionist is employed to first play cymbals pianissimo, adding a touch of colour rather than loud crash.
Crash cymbals are damped by pressing them against the percussionist's body. A composer may write "Let vibrate", secco, or equivalent indications on the score. Crash cymbals have traditionally been accompanied by the bass drum playing an identical part; this combination, played loudly, is an effective way to accentuate a note since it contributes to both low and high frequency ranges and provides a satisfying "crash-bang-wallop". In older music the composer sometimes provided one part for this pair of instruments, writing senza piatti or piatti soli if only one is needed; this came from the common practice of having one percussionist play using one cymbal mounted to the shell of the bass drum. The percussionist would crash the cymbals with the left hand and use a mallet to strike the bass drum with the right; this method is nowadays employed in pit orchestras and called for by composers who desire a certain effect. Stravinsky calls for
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia and Murcia. In a wider sense, it refers to these musical traditions and more modern musical styles which have themselves been influenced by and become blurred with the development of flamenco over the past two centuries, it includes cante, baile, jaleo and pitos. The oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. Flamenco has been associated with the Romani people in Spain; the origin of flamenco is a subject of disagreement. The Diccionario de la lengua española attributes the creation of the style to the Spanish Romani. Of the hypotheses regarding its origin, the most widespread states that flamenco was developed through the cross-cultural interchange between native Andalusians, Castilians and Sephardi Jews that occurred in Andalusia; the early 20th century poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca wrote that the presence of flamenco in Andalusia predates the arrival of Romani people to the region.
Flamenco has become popular all over the world and is taught in many non-Hispanic countries the United States and Japan. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies. On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term but no solid evidence for any of them; the word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century. One theory, proposed by Andalusian historian and nationalist Blas Infante in his 1933 book Orígenes de lo Flamenco y Secreto del Cante Jondo suggested that the word flamenco comes in fact from the Hispano-Arabic term fellah mengu, meaning "expelled peasant"; this term referred to the many Andalusians of the Islamic faith, the Moriscos who remained, in order to avoid religious persecution, joined with the Roma newcomers. Another theory is that the Spanish word flamenco could have been a derivative of the Spanish word flama, meaning "fire" or "flame".
The word flamenco may have come to be used for fiery behaviour, which could have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers. Palos are flamenco styles, classified by criteria such as rhythmic pattern, chord progression, stanzaic form and geographic origin. There are over 50 different palos, some are sung unaccompanied while others have guitar or other accompaniment; some forms are danced. Some are reserved for men and others for women while some may be performed by either, though these traditional distinctions are breaking down: the Farruca, for example, once a male dance, is now performed by women too. There are many ways to categorize Palos but they traditionally fall into three classes: the most serious is known as cante jondo, while lighter, frivolous forms are called cante chico. Forms that do not fit either category are classed as cante intermedio; these are the best known palos: Alegrías Bulerías Bulerías por soleá Caracoles Cartageneras Fandango Fandango de Huelva Fandango Malagueño Farruca Granaínas Guajiras Malagueñas Martinete Mineras Peteneras Rondeñas Saeta Seguiriyas Soleá Tangos Tanguillos Tarantos Tientos Villancicos A typical flamenco recital with voice and guitar accompaniment, comprises a series of pieces in different palos.
Each song of a set of verses, which are punctuated by guitar interludes called falsetas. The guitarist provides a short introduction which sets the tonality, compás and tempo of the cante. In some palos, these falsetas are played with certain structures too. Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode, in addition to the major and minor scales used in modern Western music; the Phrygian mode occurs in palos such as soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas and tientos. A typical chord sequence called the "Andalusian cadence" may be viewed as in a modified Phrygian: in E the sequence is Am–G–F–E. According to Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic function of dominant while Am and G assume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively. Guitarists tend to use only two basic inversions or "chord shapes" for the tonic chord, the open 1st inversion E and the open 3rd inversion A, though they transpose these by using a capo. Modern guitarists such as Ramón Montoya, have introduced other positions: Montoya himself started to use other chords for the tonic in the modern Dorian sections of several palos.
Montoya created a new palo as a solo for guitar, the rondeña in C♯ with scordatura. Guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura. There are palos in major mode; the minor mode is restricted to the Farruca, the milongas, some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general traditional palos in major and
A gong is an East and Southeast Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc, hit with a mallet. The gong traces its roots back to the Bronze Age around 3500 BC; the term'gong' traces its origins in Java and scientific and archaeological research has established that Burma, China and Annam were the four main gong manufacturing centres of the ancient world. The gong found its way into the Western World in the 18th century when it was used in the percussion section of a Western-style symphony orchestra. A form of bronze cauldron gong known as a resting bell was used in ancient Greece and Rome, for instance in the famous Oracle of Dodona, where disc gongs were used. Gongs broadly fall into one of three types: Suspended gongs are more or less flat, circular discs of metal suspended vertically by means of a cord passed through holes near to the top rim. Bossed or nipple gongs have a raised centre boss and are suspended and played horizontally. Bowl gongs rest on cushions.
They may be considered a member of the bell category. Gongs are made from bronze or brass but there are many other alloys in use. Gongs produce two distinct types of sound. A gong with a flat surface vibrates in multiple modes, giving a "crash" rather than a tuned note; this category of gong is sometimes called a tam-tam to distinguish it from the bossed gongs that give a tuned note. In Indonesian gamelan ensembles, some bossed gongs are deliberately made to generate in addition a beat note in the range from about 1 to 5 Hz; the use of the term "gong" for both these types of instrument is common. Suspended gongs are played with hammers and are of two main types: flat faced discs either with or without a turned edge, gongs with a raised centre boss. In general, the larger the gong, the larger and softer the hammer. In Western symphonic music, the flat faced gongs are referred to as tam-tams to distinguish them from their bossed counterparts. Here, the term "gong" is reserved for the bossed type only.
The gong has been a Chinese instrument for millennia. Its first use may have been to signal peasant workers in from the fields, because some gongs are loud enough to be heard from up to 5 miles away. In Japan, they are traditionally used to start the beginning of sumo wrestling contests. Large flat gongs may be'primed' by hitting them before the main stroke enhancing the sound and causing the instrument to "speak" sooner, with a shorter delay for the sound to "bloom". Keeping this priming stroke inaudible calls for a great deal of skill; the smallest suspended gongs are played with bamboo sticks or western-style drumsticks. Contemporary and avant-garde music, where different sounds are sought, will use friction mallets, bass bows, various striking implements to produce the desired tones. Rock gongs are large stones struck with smaller stones to create a metallic resonating sound. By far the most familiar to most Westerners is the chau bullseye gong. Large chau gongs, called tam-tams have become part of the symphony orchestra.
Sometimes a chau gong is referred to as a Chinese gong, but in fact, it is only one of many types of suspended gongs that are associated with China. A chau gong is made of bronze, or brass, it is flat except for the rim, turned up to make a shallow cylinder. On a 10-inch gong, for example, the rim extends about 1⁄2 inch perpendicular to the surface; the main surface is concave when viewed from the direction to which the rim is turned. The centre spot and rim of a chau gong are left coated on both sides with the black copper oxide that forms during manufacture. Chau gongs range in size from 7 to 80 inches in diameter; the earliest Chau gong is from a tomb discovered at the Guixian site in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. It dates from the early Western Han Dynasty, they were known for their intense and spiritual drumming in rituals and tribal meetings. Traditionally, chau gongs were used to clear the way for important officials and processions, much like a police siren today. Sometimes the number of strokes was used to indicate the seniority of the official.
In this way, two officials meeting unexpectedly on the road would know before the meeting which of them should bow down before the other. The tam-tam was first introduced as an orchestral instrument by François-Joseph Gossec in 1790, it was taken up by Gaspare Spontini and Jean-François Le Sueur. Hector Berlioz deployed the instrument throughout his compositional career, in his Treatise on Instrumentation he recommended its use "for scenes of mourning or for the dramatic depiction of extreme horror." Other composers who adopted the tam-tam in the opera house included Gioachino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, Richard Wagner. Within a few decades the tam-tam became an important member of the percussion section of a modern symphony orchestra, it figures prominently in the symphonies of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Gustav Mahler, Dmitri Shostakovich and, to a lesser extent, Sergei Rachmaninov and Sergei Prokofiev. Giacomo Puccini used tam-tams in his operas. Igor Stravinsky expanded the playing techniques of the tam-tam in his The Rite Of Spring to include short damped notes, quick crescendos, a triangle beater scra