The Aldene Connection is a connection between two railroad lines in Roselle Park, New Jersey, United States, one belonging to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the other of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The connections allow trains on the New Jersey Transit Raritan Valley Line to travel from Cranford through stations in Roselle Park and Union to the Hunter Connection in Newark, which in turn allows access to the Northeast Corridor and Newark Penn Station; the CNJ in the mid-1960s was losing money, in a permanent downward spiral that would lead to the railroad's filing for bankruptcy early in 1967. Desperate to cut costs, the CNJ turned to the state who created a "railroad transportation division" within the highway commission headed up by Dwight R. G. Palmer, placed in charge of preserving rail commuter services as a cheaper alternative to a new highway building program. Palmer's office produced a report called "The Rail Transportation Problem" stating that the state should partiality subsidize service until more fundamental changes could be made.
One of these "fundamental changes" became known as the "Aldene Plan". It would involve the building of a ramp to connect the CNJ and the Lehigh Valley Railroad at the site of the abandoned Aldene Station to reroute trains bound for Jersey City to follow the LV to the Pennsylvania Railroad mainline and on to Newark Penn Station where passengers could transfer to PRR trains into New York Penn Station; this would allow the CNJ to abandon its labor-intensive ferry service and much of its Communipaw Terminal in Jersey City, all local trains operating east of Cranford, all totaling up to about $1.5 million in annual savings. As a concession to a few hundred factory workers that worked along the CNJ east of Aldene, Budd Rail Diesel Cars continued to run between Cranford and Bayonne until August 6, 1978. Opening day for the Aldene Plan was announced for Monday, May 1, 1967, but a full-service rehearsal occurred the day prior; the CNJ operated. Until 2014, operations remained the same: passengers for New York would disembark at Newark and change to a Northeast Corridor or North Jersey Coast Line train operated by New Jersey Transit to New York Penn Station or PATH trains to the World Trade Center.
However, in 2014 NJ Transit began offering a one-seat ride to New York making use of their purchased dual mode locomotives, which can change between diesel power and electric power. The trains operate under diesel power on the Raritan Valley Line. At Newark, the diesel motors are shut down and a pantograph is raised, since only electric trains can operate into New York Penn Station; the dual-mode service is only run during off-peak hours as Penn Station cannot accommodate any more trains during rush hours. Affected by the change was the Reading Company's Crusader service from Philadelphia, which operated over the CNJ via trackage rights. After the Aldene Plan went into effect, it began to operate into Newark Penn Station, continuing until 1981 as a through service, as a connecting train from West Trenton through 1982. New Jersey Transit has explored reactivating this service as the West Trenton Line; the Aldene Connection is single track. 1959 study Aldene Junction, Part I, Functions at the Junction on YouTube Aldene Junction, Part II, Functions at the Junction on YouTube CSX, Norfolk Southern & New Jersey Transit – Roselle Park, N.
J. on YouTube
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Metro-North Commuter Railroad, trading as MTA Metro-North Railroad or Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service run by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, a public authority of the U. S. state of New York. Metro-North runs service between New York City and its northern suburbs in New York and Connecticut, including Port Jervis, Spring Valley, White Plains, Wassaic in New York and Stamford, New Canaan, Danbury and New Haven in Connecticut. Metro-North provides local rail service within the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Metro-North is the descendant of commuter rail services dating back as early as 1832. By the 1960s, they had all been acquired by the New York Central Railroad, which became part of Penn Central in 1968. MTA acquired all three lines by 1972. Penn Central spun off its commuter operations to Conrail in 1976; the system took its current form in 1983, when MTA took over Conrail's commuter operations in the northern portion of the New York metropolitan area and merged them into Metro-North.
There are 124 stations on Metro-North Railroad's five active lines, which operate on more than 787 miles of track, with the passenger railroad system totaling 385 miles of route. With an average weekday ridership of 298,300 in 2017, it is the third busiest commuter railroad in North America in terms of annual ridership, behind Long Island Rail Road and NJ Transit; as of 2018, Metro-North's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.3 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The MTA has jurisdiction, through Metro-North, over railroad lines on the western and eastern portions of the Hudson River in New York. Service on the western side of the Hudson is operated by New Jersey Transit under contract with the MTA. Three lines provide passenger service on the east side of the Hudson River to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan: the Hudson and New Haven Lines; the Beacon Line is not in service. The Hudson and Harlem Lines terminate in New York, respectively; the New Haven Line is operated through a partnership between Metro-North and the State of Connecticut.
The Connecticut Department of Transportation owns the tracks and stations within Connecticut, finances and performs capital improvements. MTA handles capital improvements within New York State. MTA performs routine maintenance and provides police services for the entire line, its branches and stations. New cars and locomotives are purchased in a joint agreement between MTA and ConnDOT, with the agencies paying for 33.3% and 66.7% of costs respectively. ConnDOT pays more; the New Haven Line has three branches in Connecticut: the New Canaan Branch, Danbury Branch and Waterbury Branch. At New Haven, ConnDOT runs two connecting services, the Shore Line East connecting service continues east to New London, the Hartford Line service continues north to Hartford, Springfield, Massachusetts. Amtrak operates inter-city rail service along the New Hudson Lines; the New Haven Line is part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, high-speed Acela Express trains run from New Rochelle to New Haven Union Station. At New Haven, the New Haven Line connects to the Amtrak New Haven–Springfield Line.
The Hudson Line is part of the Empire Corridor, Yonkers, Croton-on-Hudson, Poughkeepsie stations are all served by Amtrak as well as Metro-North. Freight trains run on Metro-North; the Hudson Line connects with the Oak Point Link and is the main route for freight to and from the Bronx and Long Island. Freight railroads CSX, CP Rail, P&W, Housatonic Railroad have trackage rights on sections of the system. See Rail freight transportation in New York City and Long Island Metro-North provides service west of the Hudson River on trains from Hoboken Terminal, New Jersey, jointly run with New Jersey Transit under contract. There are two branches: the Pascack Valley Line; the Port Jervis Line is accessed from two New Jersey Transit lines, the Main Line and the Bergen County Line. The Port Jervis Line terminates in Port Jervis, New York, the Pascack Valley line in Spring Valley, New York, in Orange and Rockland Counties, respectively. Trackage on the Port Jervis Line north of the Suffern Yard is leased from the Norfolk Southern Railway by the MTA, but New Jersey Transit owns all of the Pascack Valley Line, including the portion in Rockland County, New York.
Most stops for the Port Jervis and Pascack Valley Lines are in New Jersey, so New Jersey Transit provides most of the rolling stock and all the staff. Metro-North equipment has been used on other New Jersey Transit lines on the Hoboken division. All stations west of the Hudson River in New York are owned and operated by Metro-North, except Suffern, owned and operated by New Jersey Transit. Most of the trackage east of the Hudson River and in New York State was under the control of the New York Central Railroad; the NYC operated three commuter lines, two of which ran into Grand Central Depot. Metro-North's Harlem Line was a combination of trackage from the New York and Harlem Railroad and the Boston and Albany Railroad, running from Manhattan to Chatham, New York in Columbia County. At Chatham, passengers could transfer to long distance trains on the Boston and Albany to Albany, Boston and Canada. On April 1, 1873, the New York and Harlem Railroad was leased by Cornelius Vanderbilt, who added the railroad to his complex empire of railroads, which we
Secaucus Junction is a major commuter rail hub in Secaucus, New Jersey. It serves trains from all New Jersey Transit Rail lines except the Princeton Branch and Atlantic City Line, serves the Metro-North Railroad Port Jervis Line and Pascack Valley Line, it was dedicated as the Frank R. Lautenberg Rail Station at Secaucus Junction and opened on December 15, 2003. U. S. Senator Frank Lautenberg, who died in 2013, was a transit advocate who had worked to allocate federal funds for the project; the $450 million, 321,000-square-foot station sits where the Main Line tracks pass under the Northeast Corridor allowing passengers to transfer between trains to and from Hoboken Terminal and trains to and from New York Penn Station. In March 2016, a new bus station with 14 bus berths opened at the terminal, it is used for transferring passengers but was conceived to add redundancy to the transportation network. The station does not serve Amtrak trains running along the Northeast Corridor, which pass through the station on the upper level without stopping.
However, Amtrak is considering servicing Secaucus after the nearby American Dream Meadowlands mall opens in 2019. Unlike other New Jersey Transit rail stations, Secaucus Junction was built as a transfer point. Before Secaucus Junction was built, commuters on non-electrified lines to Hoboken Terminal used PATH trains or ferries to reach Manhattan and other points in New York City. Commuters whose trains terminated at New York Penn Station could connect to subway services, but except for Morristown Line riders, all commuters on lines entering New York Penn Station had to go to a PATH station to reach Hoboken; the two-track Northeast Corridor mainline embankment was expanded to three tracks for a mile on each side of the station and to four tracks through the station itself, allowing Amtrak and nonstop NJT trains to pass stopped trains. The two-track Bergen County Line was re-aligned southwestward to join the two-track Main Line to pass through the station on the four-track lower level; the construction required the bodies from the Hudson County Burial Grounds to be disinterred and moved to another cemetery.
The station was built with little public parking, as NJT believed few passenger trips would originate at the transfer point. In 2005, Exit 15X on the adjacent New Jersey Turnpike opened to provide easier access to the station from the surrounding area. Two years 15X was the least-used interchange on the turnpike, due in part to the lack of parking at the station. On June 1, 2009, Edison Parkfast, a private company, opened the first parking lot near the station, with space for 1,094 cars. Bicycle parking is available. On July 26, 2009, NJ Transit began frequent shuttle service to the Meadowlands station at the Meadowlands Sports Complex, with the Secaucus station being a transfer point for passengers from New York City and other areas in New Jersey. Since 2009, Secaucus Junction serves trains coming from Metro-North's New Haven Line for connecting trains to football games at the Meadowlands; the service runs one train in each direction for New York Giants and New York Jets games with 1:00 p.m. kickoffs on Sundays.
On February 2, 2014, a limited number of Amtrak trains made stops at Secaucus for passengers going to Super Bowl XLVIII. Local officials have indicated a desire to have regular Amtrak service stop at Secaucus Junction after American Dream Meadowlands opens in March 2019. Despite its name, Secaucus Junction is not a true junction, in which trains can be switched between lines; the station has two platform levels connected by a third level on top. Such a loop, however, is proposed as part of the Gateway Project to improve commuter access to Manhattan; the bottom level lacks electrification and has four tracks and two island platforms serving the Bergen County Line, Main Line, Pascack Valley Line, Port Jervis Line, Meadowlands Line trains, which originate and terminate at Hoboken Terminal. The upper level of tracks is electrified and serves trains to and from New York Penn Station with four tracks and three platforms: two side platforms serving Tracks 2 and 3 and one island platform serving Tracks A and B.
The upper concourse of the station serves passengers switching trains. To transfer between trains on different levels, passengers climb up to the concourse, pass through faregates, descend back down to their destination platforms. At the center of this level is a 30-foot-high steel and titanium sculpture of a cattail by San Francisco artist Louis "Cork" Marcheschi; the tops of the cattails are lit from within in the purple and orange colors of NJ Transit. On November 16, 2010, The New York Times reported that Mayor Michael Bloomberg's administration was working on a plan to bring the 7 and <7> trains of the New York City Subway under the Hudson River to Secaucus Junction. An extension of that service, from its then-terminus at Times Square – 42nd Street to a new terminus at Eleventh Avenue and 34th Street, has been constructed. If built, the extension would take the New York City Subway outside the city's and the state' borders and under the Hudson River for the first time; the plan would alleviate pressure on the NJ Transit/Amtrak route under the Hudson River, after the cancellation of the Access to the Region's Core tunnel project by New J
New York City Subway
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, the metro system with the most stations, it offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the MTA operates the Staten Island Railway and MTA Bus, with free transfers to and from the subway. The PATH in Manhattan and New Jersey and the AirTrain JFK in Queens both accept the subway's MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. However, the Roosevelt Island Tramway does allow free transfers to the MTA and bus systems though it is not operated by the MTA.
The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the eighth busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend. On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. Of the system's 27 services, 24 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is above ground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks.
The outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments. Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under Broadway.) The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line; the fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line; the oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. By the time the first subway opened in 1904, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932; this required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.
In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority, a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –