The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries. The original model became far more popular than anticipated, selling outside its target market for uses such as robotics, it does not include cases. However, some accessories have been included in unofficial bundles; the organisation behind the Raspberry Pi consists of two arms. The first two models were developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. After the Pi Model B was released, the Foundation set up Raspberry Pi Trading, with Eben Upton as CEO, to develop the third model, the B+. Raspberry Pi Trading is responsible for developing the technology while the Foundation is an educational charity to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries. According to the Raspberry Pi Foundation, more than 5 million Raspberry Pis were sold by February 2015, making it the best-selling British computer.
By November 2016 they had sold 11 million units, 12.5 million by March 2017, making it the third best-selling "general purpose computer". In July 2017, sales reached nearly 15 million. In March 2018, sales reached 19 million.. In December 2019, sales reached 30 Million. Most Pis are made in a Sony factory in Pencoed, while others are made in China and Japan. Several generations of Raspberry Pis have been released. All models feature a Broadcom system on a chip with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit and on-chip graphics processing unit. Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.4 GHz for the Pi 3 Model B+ or 1.5 GHz for the Pi 4. Secure Digital cards in MicroSDHC form factor are used to store the operating system and program memory; the boards have one to five USB ports. For video output, HDMI and composite video are supported, with a standard 3.5 mm tip-ring-sleeve jack for audio output. Lower-level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins, which support common protocols like I²C.
The B-models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3, Pi 4 and Pi Zero W have on-board Wi-Fi 802.11n and Bluetooth. Prices range from US$5 to $55; the first generation was released in February 2012, followed by the simpler and cheaper Model A. In 2014, the Foundation released a board with an improved design, Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+; these boards are credit-card sized and represent the standard mainline form-factor. Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year later. A "Compute Module" was released in April 2014 for embedded applications; the Raspberry Pi 2, which added more RAM, was released in February 2015. A Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and reduced input/output and general-purpose input/output capabilities was released in November 2015 for US$5. On 28 February 2017, the Raspberry Pi Zero W was launched, a version of the Zero with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities, for US$10. On 12 January 2018, the Raspberry Pi Zero WH was launched, a version of the Zero W with pre-soldered GPIO headers.
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B was released in February 2016 with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad core processor, on-board 802.11n Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB boot capabilities. On Pi Day 2018 the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ was launched with a faster 1.4 GHz processor and a three-times faster gigabit Ethernet or 2.4 / 5 GHz dual-band 802.11ac Wi-Fi. Other features are Power over USB boot and network boot. Raspberry Pi 4 Model B was released in June 2019 with a 1.5 GHz 64-bit quad core ARM Cortex-A72 processor, on-board 802.11ac Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 5, full gigabit Ethernet, two USB 2.0 ports, two USB 3.0 ports, dual-monitor support via a pair of micro HDMI ports for up to 4K resolution. The Pi 4 is powered via a USB-C port, enabling additional power to be provided to downstream peripherals, when used with an appropriate PSU; the Raspberry Pi 4 has a design flaw where third-party e-marked USB cables, such as those used on Apple MacBooks, incorrectly identify it and refuse to provide power. This is expected to be corrected in a future board revision.
Tom's Hardware tested 14 different cables and found that 11 of them turned on and powered the Pi without issue. The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that feature variations in memory capacity and peripheral-device support; this block diagram describes Model B and B+. The Ethernet adapter is internally connected to an additional USB port. In Model A, A+, the Pi Zero, the USB port is connected directly to the system on a chip. On the Pi 1 Model B+ and models the USB/Ethernet chip contains a five-port USB hub, of which four ports are available, while the Pi 1 Model B only provides two. On the Pi Zero, the USB port is connected directly to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB port. Unlike all other Pi models, the 40 pin GPIO connector is omitted on the Pi Zero with solderable through holes only in the pin locations; the Pi Zero WH remedies this. All SoCs used in Raspberry Pis are custom-developed under collaboration of Broadcom and Raspberry Pi Foundation; the Broadcom BCM2835 SoC used in the first generation Raspberry Pi includes a 700 MHz ARM1176JZF-S processor, VideoCore IV graphics processing unit, RAM.
It has a level 1 cache of 16 KB and a level 2 cache of 128 KB. The level 2 cache is
Major-General Sir Geoffrey Taunton Raikes CB DSO was a British Army General who achieved high office in the 1930s. Educated at Radley College and the Royal Military College, Raikes was commissioned into the South Wales Borderers in 1903, he was seconded to the Egyptian Army from 1913 to 1915. He served in the First World War and in April 1918 found himself as Commanding Officer of the 2nd Battalion, South Wales Borderers at Armentières where the battalion suffered heavy losses. After the War he became an Instructor at the Senior Officers School in 1922 before attending the Staff College, Camberley from 1924 to 1925 and moving on to be Chief Instructor to the Royal Marine Artillery in 1928, he was appointed Commanding Officer of the 1st Battalion, South Wales Borderers in 1931 and reverted to being an Instructor at the Senior Officers School. He was made Commander of the 9th Infantry Brigade in 1935 and retired in 1938. During the Second World War he was recalled to be General Officer Commanding 38th Infantry Division of the Territorial Army.
He was keen on scouting. He was Lord Lieutenant of Brecknockshire from 1948 to 1959. Smart, Nick. Biographical Dictionary of British Generals of the Second World War. Barnesley: Pen & Sword. ISBN 1844150496
Jérémy Louis Perbet is a French professional footballer who plays as a striker for OH Leuven, on loan from Charleroi. Perbet was born in Haute-Loire, he finished his youth graduation with hometown's Le Puy Foot 43 Auvergne, joining Ligue 2 side Clermont Foot in the summer of 2003. On 2 August 2003, he made his professional debut, playing the last ten minutes in a 0–0 home draw against FC Rouen. Perbet finished his first season with 4 goals. In the 2004–05 season, Clermont finished 18th, only one point above relegation, despite the club reaching the quarter-finals in both Coupe de la Ligue and Coupe de France, Perbet's contribution was limited, only finding the net five times in 32 matches being a starter. In August 2005, after appearing two times for Clermont during the season, Perbet joined Championnat National side AS Moulins, he found a goalscoring touch during his one-season spell at the Auvergne side, scoring 23 goals in only 31 appearances, finishing the season as a topscorer alongside Jawad El Hajri of US Boulogne.
Despite Perbet's contribution, Moulins finished the season 19th, was subsequently relegated. On 30 May 2006, Perbet joined RC Strasbourg in a three-year deal, he made his debut in a pre-season friendly against FC Bayern Munich, netting the last of a 2–0 success. However, he was sparingly used during the campaign, was assigned to the reserves in the fourth division. On 5 January 2007, Perbet moved to Charleroi on loan until the end of the season. After helping the Belgian side finish 5th by scoring six goals in 13 matches, he returned to his parent club, freshly promoted to Ligue 1. On 14 July, Perbet joined Angers SCO in a temporary deal. After only appearing 11 times and without scoring, he returned to Strasbourg. In January 2008, due to Perbet's limited playing time, he was linked with a move to Austrian Bundesliga team SK Rapid Wien. On 8 July 2008, Perbet moved to Belgian Pro League side Tubize. In his first season he scored 13 goals in 31 appearances, but could not prevent his side's relegation.
On 7 January 2010, Perbet moved back to the top level, signing a two and a half-year deal with Lokeren for a rumoured €350,000 fee. He appeared ten times in scoring against Mechelen on 17 April. In late July, Perbet suffered a knee injury -- 11 season. On 5 January 2011, Perbet joined Mons on loan until the end of the season, he was a key offensive unit during the promotion campaign, scoring 14 goals in 14 matches. On 3 August, he signed a three-year permanent deal with Mons, netting a career-best 28 goals during the season. On 25 January 2013, Perbet moved teams and countries again, joining Villarreal CF on loan until the end of the season, he made his debut on 9 February and scoring twice in a 3–0 home win over SD Ponferradina. He finished the season with 11 goals in 18 matches, as the Amarillos returned to La Liga at first attempt. On 7 July, Villarreal exercised the buyout option and signed Perbet until 2016, for a rumoured €1.4 million fee. He made his debut in the Spanish top flight on 24 August, playing the entire second half in a 2–1 home success over Real Valladolid.