Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Rastatt is a town with a baroque core, District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located in the Upper Rhine Plain on the Murg river, 6 km above its junction with the Rhine and has a population of around 50,000. Rastatt was an important place of the War of the Spanish Succession and the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states; until the end of the 17th century, Rastatt held little influence, but after its destruction by the French in 1689, it was rebuilt on a larger scale by Louis William, margrave of Baden, the imperial general in the Habsburg-Ottoman War known popularly as Türkenlouis. It remained the residence of the margraves of Baden-Baden until 1771, it was the location of the First and Second Congress of Rastatt, the former giving rise to the Treaty of Rastatt while the second ended in failure in 1799. In the 1840s, Rastatt was surrounded by fortifications to form the fortress of Rastatt. For about 20 years previous to 1866, it was occupied by the troops of the German Confederation.
The Baden revolution of 1849 began with a mutiny of soldiers at Rastatt in May 1849 under Ludwik Mieroslawski and Gustav Struve, ended there a few weeks with the capture of the town by the Prussians. For some years, Rastatt was one of the strongest fortresses of the German empire, but its fortifications were dismantled in 1890. In 1997, a new Mercedes-Benz car factory started production in Rastatt. Rastatt and the surrounding area is home to a variety of historical buildings, includes palaces and castles such as Schloss Rastatt and Schloss Favorite, it lies in the vicinity of the French border. Rastatt is twinned with: Fano, Italy. Guarapuava, Brazil. Woking, United Kingdom. New Britain, United States Ostrov, Czech Republic. Herman Fortunatus, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern, Margrave of Baden Charles William, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern and canon in Cologne Augustus George, Margrave of Baden-Baden, Margrave of Baden-Baden Heinz Goll, parliamentary deputy Max Müller, handball player Michael Stahl, ancient historian Johann Gruber, head of the Baden office Luise Adolpha Le Beau and composer Bodo Uhse, writer Oliver Hassencamp, cabaret artist and author Ricky King, musician Philipp Laux, footballer This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Rastatt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Official site Rastatt: pictures "Rastatt". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. The last half of Chapter 7 in Volume One of The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz describes Carl Schurz's recollections as an involuntary inhabitant of Rastatt before its surrender to the Prussians in 1849, his escape through a sewer after the surrender
Calw is a Landkreis in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Karlsruhe, the district-free city Pforzheim, Böblingen and Rastatt; the district was created in 1938, when the Oberamt Calw together with the neighboring Neuenbürg und Nagold were merged into a district. During the communal reform in 1973 the district at first was planned to be dissolved and its municipalities split to neighboring district; however it had the right size and population, planned for the newly created districts, thus this plan was abandoned. But some changes in the outline of the districts happened - 15 municipalities of the district changed to the neighboring districts Enz, Rastatt and Böblingen, in return it gained 6 municipalities from the districts Freudenstadt and the dissolved district Horb; the district belongs to the northern part of the Black Forest mountains. The main river is the Enz. Since 1991 the district has partnership with the district Freiberg in Saxony. Official website
Bietigheim is a village in the district of Rastatt in Baden-Württemberg in Southwestern Germany. It is located east of the Rhine river and thus the border to France, west of the Black Forest, south of the city of Karlsruhe and north of the city of Rastatt. Bietigheim is located in the 30km wide Upper Rhine Plain, limited by the Black Forest on the east side and the french Vosges / german Palatinate Forest on the west side; the village itself extends from the fluvial terrace to the actual rhine valley. On the southern part of Bietigheim's Gemarkung is the southern end of the forest Hardtwald; the closest cities to Bietigheim are: Rastatt and Baden-Baden. Bietigheim borders on the following towns, clockwise beginning from the north: Durmersheim, Muggensturm, Ötigheim, Elchesheim-Illingen. Bietigheim is predominantly a village in which people live as commuter to the cities Karlsruhe and for the valley of the river Murg; the village maintains the stop Bietigheim of the Rhine Railway. The light rail lines S7 and S8 of the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft both stop in Bietigheim.
The Bundesstraße 3, the Bundesstraße 36 as well as the Bundesautobahn 5 running through the Gemarkung of Bietigheim. Furthermore two rest areas: Schleifweg and Silbergrund are stationed on Bietigheim's part of the BAB5. In october 2006 the Bundesstraße 36 was moved to the east side and thus out of the city center. Further one out of eleven colza oil-fuel stations of the state Baden-Württemberg are located in Bietigheim. With an approximate distance of 20km the Airport Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden and the second most important airport of Baden-Württemberg is the closest airport. Other airports are reachable by car via train; the next further airport is Stuttgart ~ 92 km away. Frankfurt Airport is ~ 141km away. 1945 - 1946: Ludwig Hammer 1948 - 1975: Wilhelm Heck 1976 - 1992: Rüdiger Schäfer 1992 - 2016: Ernst Kopp since 2016: Constantin Braun August Klingler, soccer player Kurt Bürger, short time Minister President of Land Mecklenburg
Lichtenau is a small town in Rastatt district in southwestern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Lichtenau is located in the Upper Rhine River Plains on the right bank of the Rhine between Rastatt and Kehl; the city shares borders with the following communities, listed clockwise from the north: Rheinmünster, Ottersweier and Rheinau. West of the city is the Rhine and with it the French border; the city of Lichtenau consists of Lichtenau, Ulm and Grauelsbaum. Lichtenau developed from a water castle that the Bishop of Strasbourg had built in the years 1293 to 1296, complete with defensive wall and parapet. In 1300 Lichtenau received its city charter and until its Slighting in 1686 it remained a fortress. After the line of the Counts of Hanau-Lichtenau ended the city became part of Hesse in 1736 and was made part of Baden together with the Hanauerland in 1803. In Lichtenau the Baden-Württemberg district reform of the 1970s took place in stages; the city is part of the administrative district of "Rheinmünster-Lichtenau" with seat in Rheinmünster.
In addition to the mayor and city council president the council is made up of 20 members. The councilmen and councilwomen belong to political parties as follows: Gabriele Frechen, politician. Lichtenberg, Bas-Rhin, France This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia
Karlsruhe is a Landkreis in the northwest of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Rhein-Neckar, Enz, Rastatt, Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis and the district-free city Speyer; the urban district Karlsruhe, which contains the City of Karlsruhe, is located in the middle of the district, cuts it into a northern and a southern part. The historic origin of the district is the Oberamt Karlsruhe. In 1809 it was split into one part responsible for the city Karlsruhe, one for the surrounding municipalities. In 1865 however both parts were merged again to the Bezirksamt Karlsruhe. 1938 it was split again, this time with the district of Karlsruhe for the surrounding part, the urban district of Karlsruhe for the urban area. In 1973 the district was enlarged by adding the complete district of Bruchsal and parts of the districts Sinsheim, Vaihingen and Rastatt. Since the founding of the Federal Republic, Karlsruhe has been the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, Germany's highest; the western part of the district is located in the Rhine valley.
The area in the east belongs to the landscape of the Kraichgau, it is to the north of the foothills of the Black Forest. The Karlsruhe district partners with the following sister regions outside of Germany: Gwent, United Kingdom, since 1978. In 1996, due to an administrative reform, Gwent was abolished and divided into five districts, of which Karlsruhe continues the partnership with the new districts of Monmouthshire and Torfaen. Sha’ar Hanegev, since 1992 Brusque, since 2011Within Germany, the Karlsruhe district has a partnership with the Saxon district Mittelsachsen, formed in 2008 through a merger of the former districts Döbeln, Freiberg und Mittweida. Official city website Official municipalities website