Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents. Species of rats are found throughout the order Rodentia, but stereotypical rats are found in the genus Rattus. Other rat genera include Neotoma and Dipodomys. Rats are distinguished from mice by their size; when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, its name includes the term mouse. The common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific; the best-known rat species are the brown rat. This group known as the Old World rats or true rats, originated in Asia. Rats are bigger than most Old World mice, which are their relatives, but weigh over 500 grams in the wild; the term rat is used in the names of other small mammals that are not true rats. Examples include the North American pack rats and a number of species loosely called kangaroo rats. Rats such as the bandicoot rat are murine rodents related to true rats but are not members of the genus Rattus. Male rats are called bucks. A group of rats is referred to as a mischief.

The common species are opportunistic survivors and live with and near humans. They may cause substantial food losses in developing countries. However, the distributed and problematic commensal species of rats are a minority in this diverse genus. Many species of rats are island endemics, some of which have become endangered due to habitat loss or competition with the brown, black, or Polynesian rat. Wild rodents, including rats, can carry many different zoonotic pathogens, such as Leptospira, Toxoplasma gondii, Campylobacter; the Black Death is traditionally believed to have been caused by the microorganism Yersinia pestis, carried by the tropical rat flea, which preyed on black rats living in European cities during the epidemic outbreaks of the Middle Ages. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is foot-and-mouth disease. Rats become sexually reach social maturity at about 5 to 6 months of age; the average lifespan of rats varies by species. The rat's larynx has been used in experimentations that involve inhalation toxicity, allograft rejection, irradiation responses.

One experiment described four features of the rat's larynx. The first being the location and attachments of the thyroarytenoid muscle, the alar cricoarytenoid muscle, the superior cricoarytenoid muscle, the other of the newly named muscle that ran from the arytenoid to a midline tubercle on the cricoid; the newly named muscles were not seen in the human larynx. In addition, the location and configuration of the laryngeal alar cartilage was described; the second feature was that the way the newly named muscles appear to be familiar to those in the human larynx. The third feature was that a clear understanding of how MEPs are distributed in each of the laryngeal muscles was helpful in understanding the effects of botulinum toxin injection; the MEPs in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, cricothyroid muscle, superior cricoarytenoid muscle were focused at the midbelly. In addition, the medial thyroarytenoid muscle were focused at the midbelly while the lateral thyroarytenoid muscle MEPs were focused at the anterior third of the belly.

The fourth and final feature, cleared up was how the MEPs were distributed in the thyroarytenoid muscle. The black and brown rats diverged from other Old World rats in the forests of Asia during the beginning of the Pleistocene; the characteristic long tail of most rodents is a feature, extensively studied in various rat species models, which suggest three primary functions of this structure: thermoregulation, minor proprioception, a nocifensive-mediated degloving response. Rodent tails—particularly in rat models—have been implicated with a thermoregulation function that follows from its anatomical construction; this particular tail morphology is evident across the family Muridae, in contrast to the bushier tails of Sciuridae, the squirrel family. The tail is hairless and thin skinned but vascularized, thus allowing for efficient countercurrent heat exchange with the environment; the high muscular and connective tissue densities of the tail, along with ample muscle attachment sites along its plentiful caudal vertebrae, facilitate specific proprioceptive senses to help orient the rodent in a three-dimensional environment.

Lastly, murids have evolved a unique defense mechanism termed degloving that allows for escape from predation through the loss of the outermost integumentary layer on the tail. However, this mechanism is associated with multiple pathologies that have been the subject of investigation. Multiple studies have explored the thermoregulatory capacity of rodent tails by subjecting test organisms to varying levels of physical activity and quantifying heat conduction via the animals' tails. One study demonstrated a significant disparity in heat dissipation from a rat's tail relative to its abdomen; this observation was attributed to the higher proportion of vascularity in the tail, as well as its higher surface-area-to-volume ratio, which directly relates to heat's ability to dissipate via the skin. These findings were confirmed in a separate study analyzing the relationships of heat storage and mechanical efficiency in rodents that exercise in warm environments. In this study, the tail was a focal point in measuring heat modulation.

On the other hand, the tail's

Fording River

The Fording River is a tributary of the Elk River in the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is part of the Columbia River basin, as the Elk River is a tributary of the Kootenay River, a tributary of the Columbia River; the Fording River originates in the Rocky Mountains near Fording River Pass on the Continental Divide. It flows south, collecting numerous tributaries before joining the Elk River some distance north of Sparwood. List of British Columbia rivers Tributaries of the Columbia River "Fording River". BC Geographical Names

David Banks (cricketer, born 1961)

David Andrew Banks is a former English cricketer who played first-class and List A cricket for Worcestershire and Warwickshire. He played minor counties cricket for Staffordshire and for the Worcestershire Cricket Board team, he made his Worcestershire debut in mid-August 1982 in a John Player League match against Hampshire at Southampton, holding a catch to dismiss Hampshire captain Nick Pocock. Banks did not bat, owing to a first-wicket partnership of 224 between Alan Ormrod and Dipak Patel which as of 2008 remained a record opening stand for Worcestershire in List A cricket; that proved to be his only first-team appearance of the season. In 1983 Banks hit a century on his first-class debut, though it was to remain the only one he made, he scored 100 and 53 against Oxford University in June, which led to his being given a run in the team during the middle part of the summer, but he was unable to repeat this success and scored only 210 more runs in 11 first-class innings. He fared no better in the one-day game.

Banks remained at Worcestershire for a couple more years, but scored only two more half-centuries and when 1986 came around he was playing in the Minor Counties Championship for Staffordshire. Although more of his matches were minor, the NatWest Trophy afforded him the chance of List A games occasionally. In June 1988 Staffordshire played Surrey at Burton upon Trent, although they lost the game they put in a creditable performance thanks to Banks, he scored 62*, his only List A half-century, took the wickets of Alec Stewart and Monte Lynch. Banks' all-round performance won him the man-of-the-match awardBanks returned to the first-class game, with Warwickshire, halfway through the 1988 season, he remained at Edgbaston in 1989 as well, he scored one first-class half-century in each season, but did not produce consistent scores and was relegated to the Second XI by the middle of June 1989. For 1990 he was back for whom he continued to play until the mid-nineties, his final List A game was for the recreational Worcestershire Cricket Board against Buckinghamshire in the C&G Trophy in late August 2001.

He had some significant appearances in club cricket. In 1986 he was part of the Stourbridge side which beat Weston-super-Mare to lift the William Younger Cup, while he turned out for Old Hill, in 1993 playing as they beat West Bromwich Dartmouth to win the National Club Championship; as of November 2012, David was appointed club coach of Halesowen Cricket Club with responsibility for overseeing youth cricket development as well as senior sides coaching. David Banks is renowned for making hand made custom cricket bats. Examples of his work can be found at his company website David Banks at CricketArchive David Banks at ESPNcricinfo