Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Ostrogoths, ruler of Italy, regent of the Visigoths, a patrician of the Roman Empire. As ruler of the combined Gothic realms, Theoderic controlled an empire stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea, he kept good relations between Ostrogoths and Romans, maintained a Roman legal administration and oversaw a flourishing scholarly culture and the largest building program in Italy in 100 years. Theoderic was born in Pannonia in 454 as the son of king Theodemir, a Germanic Amali nobleman, his concubine Ereleuva. From 461 to 471, Theoderic grew up as a hostage in Constantinople, received a privileged education under imperial direction, succeeded his father as leader of the Pannonian Ostrogoths in 473. Settling his people in lower Moesia, Theoderic came into conflict with Thracian Ostrogoths led by Theodoric Strabo, whom he supplanted, uniting the peoples in 484. Emperor Zeno subsequently gave him the title of Patrician, Vir gloriosus, the office of magister militum, appointed him as consul.
Seeking further gains, Theoderic ravaged the provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire threatening Constantinople itself. In 488, Emperor Zeno ordered Theoderic to overthrow the Germanic foederatus and King of Italy, Odoacer. After a victorious four-year war, Theoderic killed Odoacer with his own hands while they shared a meal, settled his 200,000 to 250,000 people in Italy, founded an Ostrogothic Kingdom based in Ravenna. Theoderic extended his hegemony over the Vandal Kingdoms through marriage alliances. In 511, the Visigothic Kingdom was brought under Theoderic's direct control, forming a Gothic empire that extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea. Theoderic's achievements began to unravel in his years; the Burgundians and Vandals threw off Ostrogothic hegemony by 523, Theoderic's presumptive heir to both Gothic realms and son-in-law Eutharic died in 522, throwing his succession into doubt. Theoderic's good relations with the Roman Senate deteriorated due to a presumed senatorial conspiracy in 522, and, in 523, Theoderic had the philosopher and court official Boethius and Boethius' father-in-law Symmachus executed on charges of treason related to the alleged plot.
Theoderic died in Ravenna on 30 August 526, was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric, with Theoderic's daughter Amalasuntha serving as regent. The Visigothic Kingdom re-acquired its independence on Theoderic's death. Seeking to restore the glory of ancient Rome, he ruled Italy in its most peaceful and prosperous period since Valentinian I. Memories of his reign made him a hero of German legends, as Dietrich von Bern; the man who would rule under the name of Theoderic was born in AD 454, on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum. This was just a year, his Gothic name, reconstructed by linguists as *Þiudareiks, translates into "people-king" or "ruler of the people". The son of King Theodemir and Ereleuva, Theoderic went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo the Thracian, he was Leo's hostage at the Great Palace of Constantinople from 461 to 471 and was well-educated by Constantinople's best teachers.
Theoderic was treated with favor by Zeno. He settled his people in Epirus in 479 with the help of his relative Sidimund. Theoderic became magister militum in 483, one year he became consul in a ceremony in the presence of Emperor Zeno. Afterwards, he returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 31 years old and became their king in 488; the legend that he was illiterate arose from the fact that he used a stamp to affix his approval of laws. At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati of the Romans, but were becoming restless and difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theoderic became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides; the Ostrogoths needed a place to live, Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the King of Italy who had come to power in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theoderic invaded Odoacer's kingdom.
In this endeavor he received the support of the Rugian king Frideric, the son of Theoderic's cousin Giso. Theoderic moved with his people towards Italy in the autumn of 488. On the way he was opposed by the Gepids, whom he defeated at Sirmium in August 489. Arriving in Italy, Theoderic won the battles of Isonzo and Verona in 489, he was defeated by Odoacer at Faenza in 490, but regained the upper hand after securing victory in the Battle of the Adda River on August 11, 490. In 493 he took Ravenna. On February 2, 493, Theoderic and Odoacer signed a treaty that assured both parties would rule over Italy. A banquet was organised on 15 March 493. At this banquet, after making a toast, killed Odoacer. Theoderic struck him on the collarbone. Like Odoacer, Theoderic was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, dealings between the empero
Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529, it was for the community of Monte Cassino. The first monastery on Monte Cassino was abandoned. Of the first monastery nothing is known; the second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was abandoned again; the community of monks resided first at Teano and from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949. During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community; the 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age.
It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti, which it fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors, it encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX, Victor III and Gelasius II. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367; the buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding.
In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars; the abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing, it was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey; the former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino, first settled in the fifth century B. C. by the Volsci people who held much of central and southern Italy. It was the Volsci; the Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B. C; the Romans built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A. D. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill; the biography records that the area was still pagan at the time. He reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's seizure of Monte Cassino: "Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench, it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices; when the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood, and he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching." Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims. In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and collapses a wall on a young monk, br
Totila, original name Baduila, was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552 AD. A skilled military and political leader, Totila reversed the tide of the Gothic War, recovering by 543 all the territories in Italy that the Eastern Roman Empire had captured from his Kingdom in 540. A relative of Theudis, sword-bearer of Theodoric the Great and king of the Visigoths, Totila was elected king by Ostrogothic nobles in the autumn of 541 after King Witigis had been carried off prisoner to Constantinople. Totila proved himself both as a military and political leader, winning the support of the lower classes by liberating slaves and distributing land to the peasants. After a successful defence at Verona, Totila pursued and defeated a numerically superior army at the Battle of Faventia in 542 AD. Totila followed these victories by capturing Naples. By 543, fighting on land and sea, he had reconqured the bulk of the lost territory. Rome held out, Totila appealed unsuccessfully to the Senate in a letter reminding them of the loyalty of the Romans to his predecessor Theodoric the Great.
In the spring of 544 the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I sent his general Belisarius to Italy to counterattack, but Totila captured Rome in 546 from Belisarius and depopulated the city after a yearlong siege. When Totila left to fight the Byzantines in Lucania, south of Naples, Belisarius retook Rome and rebuilt its fortifications. After Belisarius retreated to Constantinople in 549, Totila recaptured Rome, going on to complete the reconquest of Italy and Sicily. By the end of 550, Totila had recaptured all but four coastal towns; the following year Justinian sent his general Narses with a force of 35,000 Lombards and Heruli to Italy in a march around the Adriatic to approach Ravenna from the north. In the Battle of Taginae, a decisive engagement during the summer of 552, in the Apennines near present-day Fabriano, the Gothic army was defeated, Totila was mortally wounded. Totila was succeeded by his relative, who died at the Battle of Mons Lactarius. Pockets of resistance, reinforced by Franks and Alemanni who had invaded Italy in 553, continued until 562, when the Byzantines were in control of the whole of the country.
The country was so ravaged by war that any return to normal life proved impossible, only three years after Justinian's death in 565, most of the country was conquered by Alboin of the Lombards, who absorbed the remaining Ostrogothic population. "Totila" was the nom de guerre of a man whose real name was Baduila, as can be seen from the coinage he issued. "Totila" is the name used by the Byzantine historian Procopius, who accompanied the Byzantine general Belisarius during the Gothic War, whose chronicles are the main source of our information for Totila. According to Henry Bradley,'Totila' and'Baduila' are diminutives of'Totabadws'. Born in Treviso, Totila was a relative of king of the Visigoths. Elected king of the Ostrogoths in 541 after the assassination of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibad's short-lived successor, his cousin Eraric, in 541; the official Byzantine position, adopted by Procopius and by the Romanized Goth Jordanes, writing just before the conclusion of the Gothic Wars, was that Totila was a usurper: Jordanes' Getica overlooks the then-recent successes of Totila.
His life's work was the restoration of the Gothic kingdom in Italy, he entered upon the task from the beginning of his reign, collecting together and inspiring the Goths, defeating a poorly led Byzantine attack on the Gothic stronghold of Verona in the winter of 541, scattering the stronger Byzantine army at Faenza in the spring of 542. Having gained another victory in 542, Totila avoided the stoutly-defended Florence, in the Mugello valley. Totila treated his prisoners so well, some served under his banner, he left well-defended Tuscany with his enlarged forces, while three Byzantine generals withdrew from Florence, dividing their forces to Perugia and Rome, cities which Totila would have to take by siege. In the meantime, instead of pursuing the conquest of central Italy, where the Imperial forces were too formidable for his small army, he decided to transfer his operations to the south of the peninsula, he captured Beneventum and received the submission of the provinces of Lucania and Bruttium and Calabria the whole of the Greek south.
Totila's strategy was to move fast and take control of the countryside, leaving the Byzantine forces in control of well-defended cities, the ports. When Belisarius returned to Italy, Procopius relates that "during a space of five years he did not succeed once in setting foot on any part of the land … except where some fortress was, but during this whole period he kept sailing about visiting one port after another." Totila circumvented those cities where a drawn-out siege would have been required, razing the walls of cities that capitulated to him, such as Beneventum. Totila's conquest of Italy was marked not only by celerity but by mercy, Gibbon says "none were deceived, either friends or enemies, who depended on his faith or his clemency." After a successful siege of a resisting city, such as at Perugia, Totila could be merciless, as Procopius recounts. Procopius left a written portrayal of Totila before his troops were drawn up for battle: The armor in which he was clad was abundantly plated with gold and the ample adornments which hung from his cheek plates as well as his helmet and spear were not only purple, but in other respects befitting a king … And he himself, sitting upon a large horse, began to dance under arms skillfully be
History of the Lombards
The History of the Lombards or the History of the Langobards is the chief work by Paul the Deacon, written in the late 8th century. This incomplete history in six books was written after 787 and at any rate no than 796, maybe at Montecassino; the history covers the story of the Lombards from their mythical origins to the death of King Liutprand in 743, contains much information about the Eastern Roman empire, the Franks, others. The story is told from the point of view of a Lombard patriot and is valuable for its treatment of the relations between the Franks and the Lombards; as his primary sources, Paul used the document called the Origo gentis Langobardorum, the Liber pontificalis, the lost history of Secundus of Trent, the lost annals of Benevento. According to a study made by Laura Pani in 2000, there are 115 surviving codices of Paul's history. A popular work in the Middle Ages, as indicated by the number of copies and their dissemination throughout Western Europe, more than twenty of these manuscripts predate the 11th century while another eighty or more were copied later.
The relations between these manuscripts were studied by Georg Waitz, who in 1876 identified 11 different families of the Historia Langobardorum. The oldest manuscript is the Palimpsest of Assisi, written in the uncial script towards the end of the 8th century immediately after Paul's work was completed; this palimpsest is, far from complete, as it contains only parts of books II and V of Paul's history. The earliest complete manuscript is the Codex Sangallensis 635 written sometime between the 8th and the 10th centuries and designated by Waitz as F1. According to Waitz, F1's age makes it the most reliable of the Historia's codices, a view, challenged by Antonio Zanella and Dante Bianchi, both of whom hold that the F1 does not reflect Paul's original. Paul's account was accepted by subsequent writers, was continued, was first printed in Paris in 1514. Among the printed editions of the Latin text, the most authoritative is that edited by Ludwig Konrad Bethmann and Georg Waitz and published in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica.
Scriptores rerum langobardicarum et Italicarum. It has been translated into English, French, Spanish, Italian and Croatian, the English translation being by W. D. Foulke, the German by O. Abel and R. Jacobi, the Polish by Ignacy Lewandowski, Henryk Pietruszczak, the Spanish by P. Herrera, the Swedish by Helge Weimarck. Several versions of the English translation are available. L. Domenichi, Paulo Diacono della Chiesa d'Aquileia della Origine e Fatti dé Re Longobardi A. Viviani, Dell' origine e de' fatti de' Longobardi, 2 vols. G. S. Uberti, De' fatti de' Longobardi, reprinted in the Biblioteca Popolare Sonzogno M. Felisatti, Storia dei Longobardi F. Roncoroni, Storia dei Longobardi E. Bartolini, Historia Langobardorum with Latin text and translation by A. Giacomini A. Zanella, Storia dei Longobardi L. Capo, Storia dei Longobardi Osmont, Jean Baptiste Louis. Dictionnaire typographique, historique et critique. Paris. Pp. 244–245. McKitterick, Rosamond. History and Memory in the Carolingian World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Doi:10.1017/CBO9780511617003. Bibliography in «Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters» repertory. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Paulus Diaconus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 964–965. Paul the Deacon. Peters, Edward, ed. History of the Lombards. Translated by Foulke, William Dudley. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812210794. Paul the Deacon. History of the Lombards. Translated by Foulke, William Dudley. University of Pennsylvania. — A facsimile published online by the Internet Archive Paul the Deacon. History of the Lombards. Translated by Foulke, William Dudley. University of Pennsylvania. — A machine readable version published online by the New Northvegr Center Paul the Deacon. History of the Lombards. Translated by Foulke, William Dudley. University of Pennsylvania. — Machine readable online Latin-English facing text, published by germanicmythology.com "Resources for Researchers into Germanic Mythology, Norse Mythology, Northern European Folklore" Schlager, Patricius.
"Paulus Diaconus". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Works of Paulus Diaconus at Bibliotheca Augustana Paul's Historia Langobardorum at the Institut für Mittelalterforschung
Mirăslău is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. It has a population of 2334; the commune is composed of six villages: Cicău, Lopadea Veche, Mirăslău, Ormeniș and Rachiș. The commune is the site of a battle in 1600 between the Wallachian army led by Michael the Brave and the Hungarian noblemen supported by the Austrian general Giorgio Basta. At the 2011 census, 67.5% of inhabitants were Romanians, 27.8% Hungarians and 4.5% Roma. At the 2002 census, 66.4% were Romanian Orthodox, 25% Reformed and 4% Greek-Catholic
Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of 148 km southeast of Florence, it covers a high part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany and Marche; the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. The city is known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, other institutes. Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy; the city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g. the Eurochocolate Festival, the Umbria Jazz Festival, the International Journalism Festival, is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.
The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia and one fresco. Another famous painter, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia; the city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon. In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, its senators sent to their death.
A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose, it must have been rebuilt at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr Perusia restituta. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, it is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be beheaded. St. Herculanus became the city's patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes.
In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city. On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those that elected Honorius III, Clement IV, Celestine V, Clement V, but Perugia had no mind to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines; however this dominant tendency was rather an Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei P
Desiderius was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774. He is chiefly known for his connection to Charlemagne, who married his daughter and conquered his realm. Born in Brescia, Desiderius was a royal officer, the dux Langobardorum et comes stabuli, "constable and duke of the Lombards," an office similar to the contemporaneous Frankish office of dux Francorum. King Aistulf made him duke of Istria and Tuscany and he became king after the death of Aistulf in 756. At that time, Aistulf's predecessor, left his monastic retreat of Montecassino and tried to seize the kingdom, but Desiderius put his revolt down with the support of Pope Stephen II. At his coronation, Desiderius promised to restore many lost papal towns to the Holy See, in return for the papacy's endorsement of his claim. Conflict with the Holy See under Pope Stephen III arose, for Stephen opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter. Desiderius ceased delivery of the towns after only a few. Seeking, like his predecessors, to extend the Lombard power in Italy, he came into collision with the papacy and the southern duchies.
In the same year Desiderius associated to his kingdom his son Adelchis. Alboin, the duchy of Benevento and Liutprand, that of Spoleto were coaxed by Pope Stephen to commend themselves to the Franks and thus separate themselves again from monarchy, they placed themselves under the protection of Pippin, the king of Franks. In 758, Duke Liutprand of Benevento rebelled. Desiderius defeated him and granted his duchy to one Arechis, tying the duchy more to Pavia than it had been since Grimoald's time. In that same year, Desiderius deposed Alboin of Spoleto and exercised himself the ducal powers there. Intervening in the crisis that ensued after the death of Pope Paul I in 767, Desiderius seized a priest named Philip from the Monastery of St. Vitus on the Esquiline Hill in Rome on Sunday, July 31, 768, summarily appointed him pope. Antipope Philip was never recognized nor gained a significant following, so he left the same day and returned to his monastery where he was never heard from or seen again.
Stephen III opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter, Desiderata, in 768, but by Stephen III death in 772, he had made peace with the Lombards. The new pope, Adrian I, implored the aid of Charlemagne against him, for the marriage of dynasties was dissolved by Charlemagne's repudiation of Desiderata in 771. Charles sent her back to her father. Moreover, the widow of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, sought the protection of the Lombard king after her husband's death in 771; the embassies of Adrian and Desiderius met at Thionville and Charlemagne favored the pope's case. Such was the position when Charlemagne and his uncle Bernard led troops across the Alps in 773; the Lombards were defeated at Mortara and soon besieged in their capital of Ticinum, the modern Pavia. Desiderius' son Adelchis was raising an army at Verona, but the young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and fled to Constantinople when Charlemagne approached; the siege lasted until June 774, when, in return for the lives of his soldiers and subjects, Desiderius surrendered and opened the gates.
Desiderius was exiled to Corbie Abbey, where he died, his son Adelchis spent his entire life in futile attempts to recover his father's kingdom. Some sources state that his family were banished to a monastery at Liège, Belgium. Desiderius died sometime around 786; the name Desiderius appears in the romances of the Carolingian period. Charlemagne took the title rex Langobardorum, the first time a Germanic king adopted the title of a kingdom he had conquered; as stated by Paul the Deacon in the Historia Langobardorum, Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short was formally adopted by Lombard king Liutprand, thanks to the alliance, personal friendship, between the latter and Pepin's father Charles Martel. This fact would have legitimized both the ascent of Pepin to the throne of the Franks, as he was the son of a king, the claim of his son Charlemagne to be the King of the Lombards, he married Ansa and, as well as a son, had four daughters: Anselperga, abbess of San Salvatore monastery of Brescia Adelperga, married Arechis II of Benevento Liutperga, married Tassilo III of Bavaria Desiderata, married Charlemagne in 770, was repudiated in 771 Adelchis, patrician in Constantinople Davis, Jennifer R..
Charlemagne's Practice of Empire. Cambridge University Press