Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Union Canal (Scotland)
The Union Canal, full name the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal, is a canal in Scotland, running from Falkirk to Edinburgh, constructed to bring minerals coal, to the capital. It was opened in 1822 and was successful, but the construction of railways the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, which opened in 1842, diminished its value as a transport medium, it fell into slow commercial decline and was closed to commercial traffic in 1933. It was closed in 1965; the canal is listed as three individual Scheduled monuments by Historic Scotland according to the three former counties, West Lothian and Stirlingshire, through which it flows. It has benefited from a general revival of interest in canals and, as a result of the Millennium Link, was re-opened in 2001 and reconnected to the Forth and Clyde Canal in 2002 by the Falkirk Wheel, it is now in popular use for leisure purposes. The canal was conceived with the purpose of moving minerals from the mines and quarries in Lanarkshire to Edinburgh. In 1817, the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal Company obtained a Private Act of Parliament to start construction.
Joseph Priestley described the purpose of the canal in his 1831 book Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers and Railways of Great Britain: The primary object of this navigation was to effect an inland communication between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. This undertaking was designed by Mr. Thomas Telford and Mr. Baird, who estimated the cost at £240,468, 17s. 2d.. The first act of parliament... is entitled,'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Lothian Road, near the city of Edinburgh, to join the Forth and Clyde Navigation near Falkirk, in the county of Stirling.' The company of proprietors consisted, at the time the first act was obtained, of three hundred and eighty-four persons, amongst whom were the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, Sir William Forbes, Sir John Hay, Sir John Marjoribanks, who were incorporated by the name of "The Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal Company," with power to raise £240,500, in four thousand eight hundred and ten shares, of £50 each, a further sum of £50,000, either among themselves, by the admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the undertaking.
The estimate of cost was evidently inadequate, because a second Act authorised borrowing of £48,100, a third Act of 1821 authorised an increase in share capital of a further £50,000 and a fourth authorised a further £60,000. However, when the Union Canal got its Act, the town of Linlithgow, along with Edinburgh, mounted a legal petition for compensation for any losses they would incur from the turnpike that ran between Glasgow and Edinburgh, their writ read: The Company are directed to indemnify the Magistrates and Town Council of the Royal Burgh of Linlithgow for any Diminution of the Customs upon Cattle, Carriages, or Goods carried over the Avon at Torphichan Mill. The Company are therefore directed to pay the same on all Goods which may be imported by this Navigation, they are bound to indemnify the Edinburgh Road Trustees, the Bathgate, another Trust, in any Diminution of Tolls arising from these Turnpike Roads, which may be affected by their Canal. The Union Canal, which has a length of 31 mi today, was built as a contour canal.
This avoided building costs and future operational delays caused by the provision of locks but necessitated large aqueducts to cross river valleys. The canal operated between a junction with the Forth and Clyde Canal at Falkirk and Port Hopetoun basin in the centre of Edinburgh; the waterway, 32 mi, follows a contour of 73 m above sea level throughout its entire length. Port Hopetoun was a basin between Semple Street and Lothian Road, Morrison Street and Fountainbridge. However, the final mile has been filled in and the Edinburgh terminal is now at Lochrin Basin in Tollcross, adjacent to Fountainbridge; the canal has several navigable aqueducts, including the Slateford Aqueduct that takes the canal over the Water of Leith in Edinburgh, the Almond Aqueduct near Ratho and the 810-foot-long Avon Aqueduct near Linlithgow, the second longest in the United Kingdom. Priestley describes the route and structures in some detail: Canal commences from the sixteenth lock of the Forth and Clyde Navigation, about two miles west of Falkirk, in the county of Sterling, whence it takes an eastwardly course on the south side of the above-mentioned town, by some collieries.
Its line hence is by Brighton Freestone Quarries, about a mile north from Park Hill Colliery, to the Avon River, over which there is an aqueduct conveying the canal at an elevation of 80 feet above the surface of the river. The canal here enters the county of Linlithgow, passes within a mile and a half on the south side of its capital, to C
Edinburgh West (UK Parliament constituency)
Edinburgh West is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, first used at the 1885 general election. Before the 2005 general election, the boundaries were the same as the Scottish Parliament constituency with the same name, created in 1999. See Edinburgh West; this commuter belt seat, distinctively in the city, was safely Unionist/Conservative for over 65 years, from the 1931 general election until the 1997 general election, after which the seat was held by the Liberal Democrats until the 2015 general election. The MP between the 2015 and 2017 general elections was Michelle Thomson, elected for the SNP in May 2015. In September 2015, she sat as an Independent. At the 2017 general election, Christine Jardine of the Liberal Democrats gained the seat with a majority of 2,988 votes. Thomson chose to neither seek re-election for the SNP, or as an Independent candidate and stood down; the seat has been relative to others a marginal seat since 2005, as the winner's majority has not exceeded 8.2% of the vote since the 30% majority won in that year.
The seat has changed hands twice electorally since that year and once through resigning the party whip. The seat was created when the Edinburgh constituency was abolished, in 1885, replaced by four seats: Edinburgh East, Edinburgh Central, Edinburgh South and Edinburgh West; the Central constituency was abolished in 2005. The East constituency was abolished in 1997, but a new Edinburgh East was created in 2005; the South and West constituencies have been in continuous use since 1885. The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 provided that the seat was to consist of the Municipal Wards of St. Andrew, St. Stephen, St. Bernard, St. Luke. In 1918 the seat consisted of the Dalry, Haymarket and St. Bernard's Municipal Wards of Edinburgh. Before the 2005 general election, the seat was one of six covering the City of Edinburgh council area. Five were within the city council area. One, Edinburgh East and Musselburgh, straddled the boundary with the East Lothian council area to take in Musselburgh. Constituency boundaries were revised for the 2005 election: Edinburgh West was enlarged, to include an area within Edinburgh Central, became one of five seats covering the city area.
The seat now covers a north western portion of the city area. It is suburban, but takes in rural areas within the city area, to the west of central Edinburgh. In terms of wards used in elections to the City of Edinburgh Council, 1999 to 2007, the seat comprises:- Cramond and Kirkliston, Davidson's Mains, East Craigs, Gyle and Drylaw, North East Corstorphine, South East Corstorphine and Stenhouse; these wards were replaced with new wards in 2007, as a result of the Local Governance Act 2004, none of the new wards were wholly within the constituency. Almond and Constorphine/Murrayfield are entirely within it except for a small corner of each one; the constituency includes a majority of Drum Brae/Gyle, a minority of Pentland Hills and small sections of Forth, City Centre and Sighthill/Gorgie. Caused by Buchanan's resignation to seek re-election as a Liberal candidate. Politics of Edinburgh References Notes
Newbridge is a village within the parish of Kirkliston, to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland. It lay on the western edge of the county of Midlothian. Newbridge had a total population of 1,074 at the 2011 Census based on the 2010 definition of the locality. Newbridge has an industrial estate, two car dealerships, a Royal Bank of Scotland branch, a pub with a large beer garden, a bowling club, a McDonald's restaurant, a petrol station, a Premier Inn, a cafe and a fish and chip shop. There is a Scotmid nearby at Ratho Station. Larger supermarkets can be found in Broxburn. A doctor's surgery and a chemist are located in Ratho; the Newbridge roundabout was built in 1970 as a flat roundabout serving the M8 Edinburgh to Glasgow motorway, the M9 Edinburgh to Stirling motorway, the A8 and the A89. One of the busiest roundabouts in Scotland, traffic congestion became intolerable and it was converted to a grade-separated roundabout interchange in 1997, becoming Junction 1 of the M9; the A8 runs from the Newbridge Roundabout into Edinburgh City Centre.
The A89 road runs from Newbridge roundabout to Broxburn. Newbridge is served by several bus services. First Scotland East operate these bus services, 20 24 25 N25 38 600 Lothian Buses operate route 63 Stagecoach Bus operate route X51 from Dunfermline Bus Station - Glasgow Buchanan Bus Station Via LivingstonLothian Buses services 20 serve the eastern fringes of the village at the first bus stop eastbound on the A8 road towards Edinburgh City Centre. Newbridge is about a mile from Edinburgh Airport's Terminal Building, the runway ends just before the M9 motorway and planes fly low over Newbridge. Newbridge will be the western terminus of Tram Line 2 Newbridge shares Hillwood Primary School with Ratho Station. Newbridge is in the catchment area for Craigmount High School. Newbridge chariot
Kirkliston is a small town and parish to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland within the county of West Lothian. It lies on high ground north of a northward loop of the Almond, on the old road between Edinburgh and Linlithgow, having a crossroads with the road from Newbridge to Queensferry and beyond to Fife; the B800 is variously named Path Brae, High Street, Station Road, Queensferry Road as it passes through the town. The B9080 is named Stirling Road as it passes through; the ancient name of the town was Liston, derived from the British llys meaning court or manor, the Old English tun meaning town or farmstead. Britons would have been the earliest inhabitants of the area, with Angles arriving from Northumberland. In the 13th century the name was recorded as Temple Liston, referring to the Knights Templar, who possessed the Barony of Liston at the heart of the parish; the prefix Kirk first appears in the 14th century, after the Knights Templar had been disbanded and their lands given to the Knights Hospitaller.
The Hospitallers are commemorated by the Maltese Cross in the arms of the community council, which were granted in 1991. Kirkliston was the location of the first recorded parliament in Scottish history. In June 1298 Edward Longshanks made camp at the town on his way to fight Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Tradition states that he planted his standard at Greig's Hill, now within the Gateside housing estate. A violent quarrel broke out in the camp between Edward's English and Welsh forces, eighteen ecclesiastics were killed. Clerics' Hill is named in commemoration of them; when the Welshmen announced their intention to defect to the Scots, Edward replied "let my enemies go and join my enemies. The barony of Kirkliston, including the village, mill and demesne, was acquired by the Archbishop of St Andrews in the 15th century. Kirkliston became the site of the court from which the archbishop's lands south of the Forth were administrated, a fact commemorated by the mitre and crozier in the council arms.
The Setons of Niddry, whose symbol, a red crescent on gold, is represented, were hereditary bailies of the barony. The court hall, situated at the head of The Square, became the village school before being demolished in the 1930s; the oldest house in the town is Castle House, which has a marriage stone dated 1683. Robert Burns stayed there in the summer of 1787 and inscribed this verse on a window pane, now in a Vancouver museum: The eastern section of the Main Street was added as a toll road to Linlithgow around 1800 and buildings developed along it from that time; the memorial on the northeast corner of the crossroads was built in 1920 to the memory of the men who died in the war. Until May 1975 Kirkliston was within the old county of West Lothian. Under the Local Government Act 1973 it became part of the Lothian Region and the City of Edinburgh District. Further local government reorganisation in 1996 saw the town become part of the City of Edinburgh Council area. Edinburgh Council has a small office in the local library, as well as running the library, primary school, leisure centre.
From 1959 to 2001, Kirkliston was the site of the Drambuie liqueur factory. There had been a whisky distillery in the south of the town since 1795, which in years this became a malt factory. Both factories have been demolished; the oldest surviving building in Kirkliston is the kirk. Its elevated position raises it to a position of great prominence in the local topography; the mound it sits upon is natural and a burial mound upon which the church has been superimposed. The church's "Norman Transitional" architecture indicates that it was built around 1200, it was dedicated on 11 September 1244 by David de Bernham, Bishop of St Andrews, but the patron saint is not recorded. It may be one of the saints commemorated in the names of two ancient local fairs, St Symon & St Jude's and St Margaret's; these were discontinued in the 19th century, but there is now an annual "gala day", a festival in which a local girl is crowned as the "gala queen". The south doorway is the most significant part of the building, being an excellent example of a Romanesque style arched entrance, typical of the late 12th century, with multiple concentric geometric and sculpted forms in each curve.
It was bricked up in the 1822 remodelling carried out by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson, the old north doorway, more restrained in design, was moved to the eastern wall to become the main entrance. The projecting wing on the church's southeast, the Stair Aisle, in which the lairds of Newliston and their families are interred, was added in the early 17th century. A lintel above its door bears the Latin for "it is proper to trust in virtue, not in lineage" with the date 1629 and the initials of John Dundas of Newliston and his wife Margaret Crichton; the church contains a copy of the 1648 Solemn League and Covenant, signed by the minister and 310 parishioners. It is displayed on the east wall of the nave. Kirkliston Parish Church is a congregation of the Church of Scotland. Kirkliston parish includes the neighbouring community of Newbridge; the Reverend Margaret Lane became its minister in 2008. The oldest stone in the graveyard is dated 1545. A curious gravestone features two carved heads wearing spectacles.
The original graveyard lies to the south of the church, but was extended as a more formal cemetery on sloping ground to the west. Unusually
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Ratho Station is a commuter village of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, located in Edinburgh council area. It is located south of Edinburgh Airport. About 300 houses are within the village limit; the name derives from the closed railway station of the same name, which in 1917 was the site of a rail crash which killed 12 people. The local primary school is Hillwood Primary School, which replaced the now closed Newbridge Primary School in 1972. Catchment areas include Ratho Station, Newbridge and Ingliston; the village is served by one primary shop, Scotmid or Co-op Foodhall as it was called when first opened. When first created Ratho Station had its own post office and police station. Both have now closed, with Newbridge being the location for the nearest post office. A large amount of warehousing and industry is located along the Queen Anne Drive, with notable businesses such as the BenRiach Distillery Company's Newbridge Bond; the village lies under the flight path of planes close to Edinburgh Airport and there is a strict height restriction on building.
Two modern office buildings on the main road to the south-west do, stretch this height restriction to its limit