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Rational choice theory

Rational choice theory known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and formally modeling social and economic behavior. The basic premise of rational choice theory is that aggregate social behavior results from the behavior of individual actors, each of whom is making their individual decisions; the theory focuses on the determinants of the individual choices. Rational choice theory assumes that an individual has preferences among the available choice alternatives that allow them to state which option they prefer; these preferences are assumed to be transitive. The rational agent is assumed to take account of available information, probabilities of events, potential costs and benefits in determining preferences, to act in choosing the self-determined best choice of action. In simpler terms, this theory dictates that every person when carrying out the most mundane of tasks, perform their own personal cost and benefit analysis in order to determine whether the action is worth perusing for the best possible outcome.

And following this, a person will choose the optimum venture in every case. This could culminate in a student deciding on whether to attend a lecture or stay in bed, a shopper deciding to provide their own bag to avoid the five pence charge or a voter deciding which candidate or party based on who will fulfil their needs the best on issues that have an impact themselves especially. Rationality is used as an assumption of the behavior of individuals in microeconomic models and analyses and appears in all economics textbook treatments of human decision-making, it is used in political science and philosophy. Gary Becker was an early proponent of applying rational actor models more widely. Becker won the 1992 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his studies of discrimination and human capital. A particular version of rationality is instrumental rationality, which involves seeking the most cost-effective means to achieve a specific goal without reflecting on the worthiness of that goal. Rational choice theorists do not claim that the theory describes the choice process, but rather that it predicts the outcome and pattern of choices.

An assumption added to the rational choice paradigm is that individual preferences are self-interested, in which case the individual can be referred to as a homo economicus. Such an individual acts as if balancing costs against benefits to arrive at action that maximizes personal advantage. Proponents of such models those associated with the Chicago school of economics, do not claim that a model's assumptions are an accurate description of reality, only that they help formulate clear and falsifiable hypotheses. In this view, the only way to judge the success of a hypothesis is empirical tests. To use an example from Milton Friedman, if a theory that says that the behavior of the leaves of a tree is explained by their rationality passes the empirical test, it is seen as successful. Without specifying the individual's goal or preferences it may not be possible to empirically test, or falsify, the rationality assumption. However, the predictions made by a specific version of the theory are testable.

In recent years, the most prevalent version of rational choice theory, expected utility theory, has been challenged by the experimental results of behavioral economics. Economists are learning from other fields, such as psychology, are enriching their theories of choice in order to get a more accurate view of human decision-making. For example, the behavioral economist and experimental psychologist Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2002 for his work in this field. Rational choice theory has become employed in social sciences other than economics, such as sociology, evolutionary theory and political science in recent decades, it has had far-reaching impacts on the study of political science in fields like the study of interest groups, behaviour in legislatures and bureaucracy. In these fields, the use of the rational choice paradigm to explain broad social phenomena is the subject of controversy; the concept of rationality used in rational choice theory is different from the colloquial and most philosophical use of the word.

Colloquially, "rational" behaviour means "sensible", "predictable", or "in a thoughtful, clear-headed manner." Rational choice theory uses a narrower definition of rationality. At its most basic level, behavior is rational if it is goal-oriented and consistent; this contrasts with behavior, random, conditioned, or adopted by imitation. Early neoclassical economists writing about rational choice, including William Stanley Jevons, assumed that agents make consumption choices so as to maximize their happiness, or utility. Contemporary theory bases rational choice on a set of choice axioms that need to be satisfied, does not specify where the goal comes from, it mandates just a consistent ranking of the alternatives. Individuals choose the best action according to their personal preferences and the constraints facing them. E.g. There is nothing irrational in preferring fish to meat the first time, but there is something irrational in preferring fish to meat in one instant and preferring meat to fish in another, without anything else having changed.

The premise of rational choice the

Milton Keynes wind farm

Milton Keynes wind farm is located 2 miles east of Emberton in the Borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK. It is owned by Mistral Windfarms; the wind farm comprises seven turbines 125 m to the blade tip, has a total installed capacity of 14 MW. They were expected to produce 38 GWh of electricity per year. A planning application was submitted in August 2006 to Milton Keynes Council by Your Energy Ltd, was granted planning permission in January 2008; the decision was upheld three separate times during 2008 by objectors to the project. It was the first wind farm challenge; the main contractor for civil and electrical works was Morrison Construction, part of the Galliford Try Group. Danish company Vestas supplied Vestas V90-2MW machines. Engineering Renewables Ltd were Project Managers for construction and operations; the turbines were delivered to the Port of Hull, where they continued their journey to Milton Keynes by road. Construction commenced in November 2009 and was completed by September 2010.

£190,000 will be contributed towards community projects over the life of the wind farm. An additional £50,000 is being directed toward improving the biodiversity of the surrounding area and local footpath networks over the first five years. A similar fund is in place at Burton Wold Wind Farm developed by Your Energy Ltd. List of onshore wind farms in the United Kingdom No risk wind farm is on the way Milton Keynes Citizen, 19 November 2009 Milton Keynes District Council website Variable Pitch website - actual generation figures

The Incident (album)

The Incident is the tenth and final studio album by British progressive rock band Porcupine Tree. It was released on 14 September 2009 by Roadrunner Records; the album was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Surround Sound Album and reached the Top 25 on both the US and UK album charts. The band started recording the album in February 2009; this was confirmed by the band, posting this message on their official website: "Writing for the next PT studio record is well underway, with the band spending 2 weeks scheduled in the English countryside working on new tracks. Recording of these pieces and a new 35-minute song cycle were due to start in February..." A tour has been announced on the band's website and MySpace, along with dates, following release of the new album. Around March and April, Wilson commented the 35-minute song kept evolving, becoming a 55-minute song occupying the entire disc. On 12 June 2009 details of The Incident were revealed on the Porcupine Tree website: "the record is set to be released via Roadrunner Records worldwide on 22 September as a double CD: the centre-piece is the title track, which takes up the whole of the first disc.

The 55-minute work is described as a surreal song cycle about beginnings and endings and the sense that ‘after this, things will never be the same again’. The self-produced album is completed by four standalone compositions that developed out of band writing sessions last December - Flicker, Bonnie the Cat, Black Dahlia, Remember Me Lover feature on a separate EP length disc to stress their independence from the song cycle." On 13 July the first preview of the album was posted at band's MySpace pages. The track Time Flies, described by Steven Wilson as "sentimental" and the "centerpiece" of the album, became a music video directed by usual Porcupine Tree collaborator Lasse Hoile, along with an edited single. A DVD-A edition was released on the Transmission Label as Transmission 11.1 through Burning Shed. On 12 April 2010 an acoustic version of "I Drive the Hearse" was released through the Roadrunner website. On 9 July 2010 a music video for "Bonnie the Cat" was released; the chord progression in several songs on the record parts of "The Blind House" and "The Séance," is reused from the No-Man song "The Break-Up For Real".

The concept of The Incident emerged as Wilson was caught in a motorway traffic jam whilst driving past a road accident: "There was a sign saying ‘POLICE – INCIDENT’ and everyone was slowing down to see what had happened... Afterwards, it struck me that ‘incident’ is a detached word for something so destructive and traumatic for the people involved, and I had the sensation that the spirit of someone that had died in the accident entered into my car and was sitting next to me. The irony of such a cold expression for such seismic events appealed to me, I began to pick out other ‘incidents’ reported in the media and news, I wrote about the evacuation of teenage girls from a religious cult in Texas, a family terrorizing its neighbours, a body found floating in a river by some people on a fishing trip, more; each song is written in the first person and tries to humanize the detached media reportage.” In January, 2010, Eclipsed magazine critics named The Incident their "Album of the Year", gave some credits to the band for "Best Concert of The Year" while "Time Flies" achieved #5 in the "Best Song of The Year" category.

Readers of the Teraz Rock Polish magazine voted Steven Wilson as the "Best Foreign Instrumentalist/Musician of 2009" surpassing other known artists, in the likes of The Edge, Jerry Cantrell, Jack White, Kerry King, Kirk Hammett, Tom Morello, Mark Knopfler, Omar Rodríguez-López. Classic Rock magazine critics voted Porcupine Tree #1 "Best Band", The Incident as #1 "Album of the Year". Once again, a Porcupine Tree song was chosen "Song Of The Day" by NPR. "Drawing the Line" is the second NPR's pick on the band since "Sentimental" from Fear of a Blank Planet in 2007. Indian newspaper The Hindu commented on "Time Flies" by asserting, "The epic 11-minute track is one of Porcupine Tree's best. Embodied in melodic simplicity with a rhythmic strumming pattern the piece undulates with cascading crescendos, a rumbling mid-section and a propulsive finish."Gorguts's leader, Luc Lemay, Between the Buried and Me's drummer Blake Richardson, both have shown appreciation for the album. The first disc of the album was intended to be a single 55-minute song, but it is segmented into 14 sequential tracks.

All lyrics written by Steven Wilson. Disc 2 contains tracks recorded outside the song cycle. All lyrics written by Steven Wilson; these two bonus tracks were recorded in Tilburg, The Netherlands, in 2008 for the live DVD Anesthetize. Steven Wilson - vocals, keyboards Richard Barbieri - synthesizers, keyboards Colin Edwin - bass guitar, double bass Gavin Harrison - drums, percussion Arranged and produced by Porcupine Tree Engineers: Steve Orchard, John Wesley Mixing: Steven Wilson Mastering: Jon Astley, Darcy Proper

Ventral body cavity

The ventral body cavity is a human body cavity, in the anterior aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, the abdominopelvic cavity; the abdominopelvic cavity is further divided into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity, but there is no physical barrier between the two. The abdominal cavity contains digestive organs, the pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, rectum. There are two methods for dividing the abdominopelvic cavity; the clinical method, used by physicians and nurses, utilizes four sections called quadrants. They are the right upper quadrant, the left upper quadrant, the right lower quadrant, the left lower quadrant; the directional terms refer to the model's right and left, not the viewer's. Clinicians use the quadrant method because in reality, organs are mobile and move around when the patient is in different positions; the second method for dividing the abdominopelvic cavity is preferred by anatomists. This method divides the cavity into nine regions.

The regions are the left and right hypochondriac regions, so named. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm; the thoracic cavity is further separated into the pleural cavity which contains the lungs and the superior mediastinum which includes the pericardial cavity. The organs within the ventral body cavity are called the viscera. Dorsal body cavity SEER's Web-based Training Modules, for a picture of the ventral body cavity


Akiyi is an autonomous community in Umulokpa, Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. It has Seven villages namely: Enugwu, Enugwu-Uwani, Nkwelle, Ukpali and Uwenu. Christianity and neutralist; the churches in Akiyi-Umulokpa are namely: Holy Cross Parish St. Stephen's Church Deeper Life Bible Church Watchman Catholic Charismatic Renewal Movemen The Lord's Chosen Charismatic Movemen etc. Akiyi shares cultural traits with its neighbouring communities which are consistent with general Igbo culture. Other festivals include; the royal highness of Akiyi-Umulokpa is Chief Engr. Vincent Ekwedigwe. Akiyi practices Republican method of governance; each age grade consists of people within three years age bracket. Hon. Cornell Chijioke Onwubuya. Hon. Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi Hon. Charles Anumudu.

1964 Eisenhower Trophy

The 1964 Eisenhower Trophy took place 7–10 October at the Olgiata Golf Club in Olgiata, north of Rome, Italy. It was the fourth World Amateur Team Championship for the Eisenhower Trophy; the tournament was a 72-hole stroke play team event with 33 four-man teams. The best three scores for each round counted towards the team total. Great Britain and Ireland won the Eisenhower Trophy. Canada took the silver medal; the defending champions, the United States, finished fourth. 33 teams contested the event. Each team had four players; the following table lists the players on the leading teams. Source: There was no official recognition for the lowest individual scores. Source: Record Book on International Golf Federation website