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Raul Roco

Raul Sagarbarria Roco was a political figure in the Philippines. He was the standard-bearer of Aksyon Demokratiko, which he founded in 1997 as a vehicle for his presidential bids in 1998 and 2004, he was a former senator and Secretary of the Department of Education under the presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He had a strong following among young voters in the Philippines due to his efforts to promote honesty and good governance. Roco was married to Sonia Cubillo Malasarte, from Bohol, they have seven grandchildren. Raul Roco was born in Naga City in the Philippine province of Camarines Sur, the son of farmer Sulpicio Azuela Roco and public school teacher Rosario Orlanda Sagarbarria. Roco finished elementary school at age 10 from Naga Parochial School, high school at age 14 from Ateneo de Naga, he graduated magna cum laude from San Beda College in Manila with a degree in English at the age of 18. He was the Editor-in-Chief of The Bedan working with the likes of Rene Saguisag and Jaime Licauco.

Roco received a Bachelor of Laws degree and was the college's Abbott Awardee for Over-All Excellence. In the United States, he obtained his Master of Laws at the University of Pennsylvania, while enrolled at the Wharton School, he was the president of the National Union of Students of the Philippines in 1961 and was named one of the Ten Outstanding Students of the Philippines in 1964. His wife Sonia was the Most Outstanding Student that same year; as a result of his various other achievements, he had been awarded seven honorary doctorates. After he passed the bar in 1965, Roco lobbied for the holding of a Constitutional Convention that aimed to amend the 1935 Philippine Constitution, he campaigned for a seat to represent his district in Camarines Sur. He thus became convention's youngest Bicolano delegate. From 1983 to 1985, he served as president of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines. While there, he was on the legal staff of the late Philippine Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, he drafted the Study Now, Pay Later law.

Alongside his work in law, he has served as a film producer. In 1974, he was the executive producer of the late film director Lino Brocka's movie Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang. Among all legislators of the Eighth Congress of the Philippines, he was adjudged by the Ford Foundation and the University of the Philippines Institute of Strategic and Development Studies as first in over-all performance. Roco was elected to the Senate in 1992 and 1995 serving until 2001, making many contributions that led many to recognize him as an "outstanding senator", he wrote the law. Some other laws that he wrote resulted in the liberalization of the banking industry and the strengthening of the thrift banks. In addition, he wrote the Securities Regulation Code. Roco has made several contributions to education in the Philippines, he helped fund the teachers' cooperatives as well as the increment mandated by the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers for retiring public school teachers. On the students' side, he helped bring computers into Philippine universities and public schools.

In addition, he devised a plan for meal scholarships for poor students at the Philippine Normal University. Roco wrote several bills targeted at prioritizing women in the Philippines, he wrote the Women in Nation Building Law, the Nursing Act, the Anti-Sexual Harassment Law, the Anti-Rape Law, the Child and Family Courts Act. He let women play major roles in the Department of Education’s literacy program. Out of thanks to his services for women, many women's groups named him an "Honorary Woman", he drafted a bill that abolished double taxation on Filipinos working abroad. He was given the Bantay Katarungan award by Kilosbayan for playing an integral role in the Senate impeachment trial of then-president Joseph Estrada, impeached by the House of Representatives on 2000 for graft and corruption. Bribery, betrayal of public trust and culpable violation of the Philippine Constitution; the impeachment trial was not concluded and on 2001, Estrada was ousted from power by another People Power uprising.

Roco took over as education secretary of the Philippines in 2001, at a time when the Philippines had not only one of the ten most corrupt governments in the world, but its Department of Education was the fourth-most corrupt of its agencies. To combat this corruption, Roco imposed a department-wide transparency policy which held employees accountable for the purchase of textbooks, a major source of the department's corruption; this allowed the department to purchase textbooks for a much lower price, after just eight months under Roco's leadership, the Department of Education gained a 73% public approval rating and became the most trusted government agency in the Philippines. During his tenure in that position, Roco allowed free public education as required by the Philippine Constitution, he enacted a reform of basic education curriculum in order that children would focus their studies on reading, arithmetic and Makabayan. In addition, he made sure that teachers were paid promptly and ended the 3% "service fee" that the department had long

Robert Wright (musical writer)

For the television writer, see Rob Wright. Robert Craig Wright known as Bob Wright, was an American composer-lyricist for Hollywood and the musical theatre, best known for the Broadway musical and musical film Kismet, for which he and his professional partner George Forrest adapted themes by Alexander Borodin and added lyrics. Kismet was one of several Wright and Forrest creations, commissioned by impresario Edwin Lester for the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera. Song of Norway, Gypsy Lady and their adaptation of The Great Waltz were commissioned by Lester for the LACLO; the LACLO exported most of these productions to Broadway. Wright was born in Daytona Beach, United States. Wright and Forrest had an affinity for adapting classical music themes and adding lyrics to these themes for Hollywood and the Broadway musical stage. Wright said that the music was a 50-50 "collaboration" between Wright and Forrest and the composer. While both men were credited as composer-lyricists, it was Forrest who worked with the music.

Forrest and Wright won a Tony Award for their work on Kismet and, in 1995, they were awarded the ASCAP Foundation Richard Rodgers Award. He was cremated at Cofer-Kolski-Combs mortuary and his ashes given to his executor. New Shoes, After the Thin Man, The Longest Night, Libeled Lady, Sinner Take All Bad Man of Brimstone, The Firefly, The Good Old Soak, London by Night, Madame X, Mama Steps Out, Man of the People, Navy Blue and Gold, Saratoga, You're Only Young Once Broadway Serenade, The First Hundred Years, The Girl Downstairs, Happily Buried, The Hardys Ride High, Let Freedom Ring, Lord Jeff, The Magician's Daughter, Marie Antoinette and Bolts, Our Gang Follies, Paradise for Three, Snow Gets in Your Eyes, Three Comrades, The Toy Wife, Vacation from Love Balalaika, Music in My Heart, The New Moon, Strange Cargo, These Glamour Girls, The Women "Blondie Goes Latin", "Dance, Dance", "Kit Carson", "South of Pago-Pago" "Cubana", "Fiesta", "Playing with Music", "I Married an Angel", "Rio Rita" "Kismet", "Make Believe Ballroom", "Rainbow'Round My Shoulder" Song of Norway The Great WaltzHit songs of their day include "The Donkey Serenade" from "The Firefly", "Always and Always" from Mannequin and "It's a Blue World" from Music in My Heart.

Song of Norway. New York Times Obituary Music Theatre International Biography

Interconnects (integrated circuits)

In integrated circuits, interconnects are structures that connect two or more circuit elements together electrically. The design and layout of interconnects on an IC is vital to its proper function, power efficiency and fabrication yield; the material interconnects are made from depends on many factors. Chemical and mechanical compatibility with the semiconductor substrate, the dielectric in between the levels of interconnect is necessary, otherwise barrier layers are needed. Suitability for fabrication is required. In fabrication, interconnects are formed during the back-end-of-line after the fabrication of the transistors on the substrate. Interconnects are classified as local or global interconnects depending on the signal propagation distance it is able to support; the width and thickness of the interconnect, as well as the material from which it is made, are some of the significant factors that determine the distance a signal may propagate. Local interconnects connect circuit elements that are close together, such as transistors separated by ten or so other contiguously laid out transistors.

Global interconnects can transmit further, such as over large-area sub-circuits. Local interconnects may be formed from materials with high electrical resistivity such as polycrystalline silicon or tungsten. To extend the distance an interconnect may reach, various circuits such as buffers or restorers may be inserted at various points along a long interconnect; the geometric properties of an interconnect are width, spacing and aspect ratio, or AR. The width, spacing, AR, pitch, are constrained in their minimum and maximum values by design rules that ensure the interconnect can be fabricated by the selected technology with a reasonable yield. Width is constrained to ensure minimum width interconnects do not suffer breaks, maximum width interconnects can be planarized by chemical mechanical polishing. Spacing is constrained to ensure adjacent interconnects can be fabricated without any conductive material bridging. Thickness is determined by the technology, the aspect ratio, by the chosen width and set thickness.

In technologies that support multiple levels of interconnects, each group of contiguous levels, or each level, has its own set of design rules. Before the introduction of CMP for planarizing IC layers, interconnects had design rules that specified larger minimum widths and spaces than the lower level to ensure that the underlying layer's rough topology did not cause breaks in the interconnect formed on top; the introduction of CMP has made finer geometries possible. The AR is an important factor. In technologies that form interconnect structures with conventional processes, the AR is limited to ensure that the etch creating the interconnect, the dielectric deposition that fills the voids in between interconnects with dielectric, can be done successful. In those that form interconnect structures with damascene processes, the AR must permit successful etch of the trenches, deposition of the barrier metal and interconnect material. Interconnect layout are further restrained by design rules that apply to collections of interconnects.

For a given area, technologies that rely on CMP have density rules to ensure the whole IC has an acceptable variation in interconnect density. This is because the rate at which CMP removes material depends on the material's properties, great variations in interconnect density can result in large areas of dielectric which can dish, resulting in poor planarity. To maintain acceptable density, dummy interconnects are inserted into regions with spare interconnect density. Interconnects were routed in straight lines, could change direction by using sections aligned 45° away from the direction of travel; as IC structure geometries became smaller, to obtain acceptable yields, restrictions were imposed on interconnect direction. Only global interconnects were subject to restrictions. To allow easy routing, alternate levels of interconnect ran in the same alignment, so that changes in direction were achieved by connecting to a lower or upper level of interconnect though a via. Local interconnects the lowest level could assume a more arbitrary combination of routing options to attain the a higher packing density.

In silicon ICs, the most used semiconductor in ICs, the first interconnects were made of aluminum. By the 1970s, substrate compatibility and reliability concerns (mostly concerning electromigration forced the use of aluminum-based alloys containing silicon, copper, or both. By the late 1990s, the high resistivity of aluminum, coupled with the narrow widths of the interconnect structures forced by continuous feature size downscaling, resulted in prohibitively high resistance in interconnect structures; this forced aluminum's replacement by copper interconnects. In gallium arsenide ICs, which have been used in application domains different to those of silicon, the predominant material used for interconnects is gold. To reduce the delay penalty caused by parasitic capacitance, the dielectric material used to insulate adjacent interconnects, interconnects on different levels, should have a dielectric constant, as close to 1 as

Baazi (1995 film)

Baazi is a 1995 Indian action film directed by Ashutosh Gowarikar and starring Aamir Khan and Mamta Kulkarni. It received mixed reviews from critics, with an India Today reviewer at its release calling it "an ambitious collage of foreign films - Die Hard, Point Break, Rambo - that just doesn't work." Film director Satyajit Bhatkal, after calling it a "Die Hard remake", stated that "the masala created massive indigestion both critically and commercially." The story opens with a group of people travelling in a bus. The bus is stopped on its way and a bunch of hooligans board the bus and create a nuisance when a man tricks them into getting off the bus; the bus stops for a tea break and the hooligans arrive at the same time, when a passing convoy is attacked and the assassins try to kill the man inside one of the cars. The man, using his swiftness, foils the attack and manages to nab and arrest one of the attackers while killing another; the rest manage to escape the hotel. This man is Inspector Amar Damjee and the person in the car turns out to be Chief Minister Vishwasrao Chowdhury, impressed with Amar and delegates to him the task of locating the people behind a multi-crore rupee international scandal to Amar.

Amar promises to fulfill the job to the best of his ability. It is shown that Chaubey was the one who committed the fraud and is trying to ensure that he is not caught, hence he had asked the assassins to attack the CM. Amar tries to break the back of crime and this starts irritating Chaubey, who senses how close Amar is getting. Chaubey frames Amar for the murder of the daughter of the Police Commissioner Mazumdar. Amar, after a long fight with the head assassin Raghu, escapes prison along with several others, he plots a scheme to go undercover as a woman to find the man behind all of this. He recognizes him as the man who killed both his parents. Chaubey's assassins take everyone hostage in a 12-story tower in attempt to attack the CM once again, but Amar but gets rid them all; as Chaubey tries to escape the scene via a helicopter on the terrace, Amar prevents him and knocks him into a satellite dish, electrocuting Chaubey to death. Amar is congratulated by the Police Commissioner. Aamir Khan – Inspector Amar Damjee and Sanjana's love interest.

Mamta Kulkarni – Sanjana Roy and Amar's love interest. Paresh Rawal – Deputy CM Chaturvedi alias Chaubey/Javed Avtar Gill – Deshpande, Sub Inspector Kulbhushan Kharbanda – Commissioner Mazumdar Raza Murad – Chief Minister Vishwasrao Chowdhury Satish Shah – Editor Roy Mukesh Rishi – Raghu Jaya Mathur – Anjalia Asrani – Hirandani The music of the film was composed by Anu Malik; the lyrics were written by Anwar Sagar. The film grossed ₹88.05 million at box office. Baazi on IMDb

Casey Arms

Casey Arms is a Romance, Arkansas business that makes a variety of historic weapons for "highly discerning collectors and enthusiasts", using "raw steel and ancient timber". The Casey family, led by Daniel Casey, the Casey Arms business are the subjects of Iron & Fire, a reality television series on The History Channel. Daniel Casey is featured on an episode of CarbonTV's original web-series Heartlandia, as he forges a traditional knife and goes hog hunting in the foothills of the Arkansas Ozarks; the close-knit, small-town company prides themselves on "quality, custom craftsmanship". Each piece can take up to 500 hours to build, "are coveted by collectors and gun enthusiasts from across the United States and overseas". "Born and raised in the foothills of the Ozarks, Daniel Casey grew up obsessed with becoming a blacksmith. He built his first forge and began making knives at the age of 12." At age 14, "Daniel was determined to learn from the best and honed his craft with legendary blacksmith Hershel House."Today, Daniel has made a full-time job of transforming scrap metal and a chunk of wood into handcrafted knives and guns from any time period, but "his honey hole lands between 1770 and 1830."Daniel's dedication to his craft and his unrivaled perfectionism make his creations among the most sought after by collectors around the world.

Daniel lives on top of a mountain in Romance, with his wife Chelsey, his four-year-old son Wesley, a variety of hound dogs and chickens. At the age of 23, Charlie Casey said goodbye to his family and left Arkansas to travel the U. S. and seek his fortune vowing never to become beholden to “the man.” His journey took him around the country, from Bremerton, Washington, to Blasdell, New York, to Arlington, Texas. During this time, he worked various jobs, including a vacuum cleaner salesman, a customer service representative and a machinist. Charlie's restless spirit would not allow him to stay in one place for more than six months at a time. After five years of adventurous wanderings, he returned home to the welcoming arms of his family. Today, Charlie is learning the blacksmithing trade. In his continuing effort to avoid “the man,” Charlie tries to go fishing at least once a day. Jonathan joined the U. S. Army at the age of 18 and served in the 82nd Airborne Division as a paratrooper. After receiving his honorable discharge, Jonathan returned to Arkansas to pursue his lifelong dream: working with his uncle Daniel at the blacksmith shop.

While Jonathan is interested in all elements of the craft, he is fond of woodworking and takes great pride in shaping the rifle stocks and knife handles for Daniel's creations. Jonathan creates flutes, penny whistles and other instruments by hand, he and his wife Emily have one daughter. Official website

USS Relief (ID-2170)

The fourth USS Relief was a salvage tug that served in the United States Navy from 1918 to 1919. Relief was a steel-hulled wrecking tug built during 1907 by Harlan and Hollingsworth at Wilmington, Delaware; the U. S. Navy acquired her on 8 August 1918 from the Merritt and Chapman Derrick and Wrecking Company of New York, New York for World War I service; the Navy gave her Id. No. 2170 and commissioned her on 19 August 1918. Relief operated as a salvage and wrecking tug in the New York area while assigned to the 3rd Naval District into 1919, she collided with the patrol vessel USS Williams on 27 September 1918. Relief was sold to her former owner on 14 May 1919, remained in commercial service between the two world wars. During World War II, although remaining civilian-owned and -operated, supported the U. S. Navy under the direction of its Bureau of Ships beginning on 14 January 1942. Relief subsequently returned to mercantile service until placed out of service in 1955; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

Department of the Navy: Naval Historical Center: Online Library of Selected Images: Civilian Ships: Relief. Served as USS Relief in 1918-1919