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Raupenschlepper Ost

Raupenschlepper Ost was a tracked, lightweight vehicle used by the Wehrmacht in World War II. It was conceived in response to the poor performance of wheeled and half-tracked vehicles in the mud and snow during the Wehrmacht's first autumn and winter on the Soviet Front; the RSO was a contemporary with somewhat similar Allied full-tracked small artillery tractors in use in other armies originated from the pre-war light to medium series of Vickers artillery tractors. Two variants of this vehicle were built: the basic cargo carrier, a self-propelled antitank vehicle armed with a PaK 40 gun. Both shared the same chassis. After the Wehrmacht's first fall and winter on the Eastern Front, they found that the primitive roadways in the USSR and seasonal mud required a tracked supply vehicle to maintain mobility. Steyr responded by proposing a small tracked vehicle based upon its 1.5-tonne truck in use in the army. The vehicle was introduced in 1942 as the Raupenschlepper Ost. Designed as a prime mover and artillery supply vehicle, it served in a wide variety of roles.

After the vehicle reached the Eastern front, the combat units started using it for general transport duties. It gave outstanding service due to its reliability, its ease of maintenance, its capability to take over a variety of roles - in every kind of terrain - that other vehicles lacked; the four road wheels per side, all in a single line as part of a "slack-track" system with no return rollers, comprised a much simpler suspension system, much more able to handle the rasputitsa mud season and Russian winter conditions, without mud or snow freezing between the wheels of the complex overlapping/interleaved Schachtellaufwerk suspension systems that German half-track vehicles like the Sd. Kfz. 7 possessed. Soon the orders for the RSO surpassed Steyr's production ability, more manufacturers joined the vehicle's production in order to meet the increased demands; the original version had a pressed-steel cab with a truck-like configuration similar to the wheeled trucks. The next two versions – RSO/02 and 03 – had a simpler, soft-top, slab-sided metal cab.

All models had drop-side cargo beds typical of light trucks of the era. It had a ground clearance of 55 centimetres and was powered by a gasoline Steyr V8 cylinder engine of 3.5 l giving 85 metric horsepower, which in the RSO/03 Magirus-produced vehicles was replaced by a better-performing 66 PS Deutz diesel air-cooled engine. The model used a Cletrac-type final drive along with many other improvements; the engine was mounted on the floor of the driving cab with the drive taken through a single plate clutch to the transmission. The transmission had one reverse; the suspension consisted of four large pressed-steel disk wheels on each side, mounted in pairs with elliptic springs. Steering involved upright steering levers to four hydraulic brakes on the idlers. A spring-loaded pintle was fitted at the rear, towing hooks were fitted in the front, it had a speed of about 30 kilometres per hour. The Kingdom of Romania purchased 100 RSO/01 tractors in 1943; these were used for towing anti-tank guns. By 1943 infantry anti-tank units at the front complained that it was impossible to move their guns using trucks at daylight under enemy fire, leading to enormous losses of equipment during emergency relocations, their opinions reached the top ranks.

OKW explored a considered proposal to fit the 7.5 cm PaK 40/1 anti-tank gun – by the standard PaK used by the Wehrmacht - on top of an RSO chassis. After seeing the blueprints, Hitler ordered a limited production run for combat testing, before the prototypes were completed; the project was carried out by Steyr. The suspension of the RSO remained unchanged, but the front driver's compartment was replaced with a low armoured superstructure; the result was a lightweight, cheap to produce, mobile infantry anti-tank weapon. It was more exposed compared to the conventional, open-topped Panzerjäger style of tank destroyer, which had a construction cost many times that of a RSO/PaK 40. Although the vehicle was intended for use by the infantry anti-tank units, all pre-production vehicles were issued to armoured units, due to the urgent need for replacements, their low speed and light armour resulted in problems for these units trying to cooperate with those in other fighting vehicles. The German Army Group South, where the units issued for combat testing, declared the vehicle useful, large-scale production was authorised.

Despite the decision to have Steyr shift its entire production line into RSO/PaK 40, no specific order reached industry, only the 60 pre-production vehicles were manufactured. While the first vehicles were rolled out from the production line, Steyr started testing an improved version that incorporated a wider chassis and tracks. None of the improved version reached the front. In October 1943, Steyr was ordered by the Ministry of Munitions to cease production of any type of tracked vehicles. By a new up-gunned version of the widened chassis had been designed and was planned to enter production in 1944.

Bulgarian grammar

Bulgarian grammar is the grammar of the Bulgarian language. Bulgarian is a South Slavic language that evolved from Old Church Slavonic—the written norm for the Slavic languages in the Middle Ages which derived from Proto-Slavic. Bulgarian is a part of the Balkan sprachbund, which includes Greek, Romanian and the Torlakian dialect of Serbian, it shares with them several grammatical innovations that set it apart from most other Slavic languages other South Slavic languages. Among these are a sharp reduction in noun inflections—Bulgarian has lost the noun cases but has developed a definite article, suffixed at the end of words. In its verbal system, Bulgarian is set apart from most Slavic languages by the loss of the infinitive, the preservation of most of the complexities of the older conjugation system and the development of a complex evidential system to distinguish between witnessed and several kinds of non-witnessed information. Bulgarian nouns have the categories grammatical gender, number and definiteness.

A noun has one of two numbers. The plural is formed by adding to or replacing the singular ending, most in the following ways: With cardinal numbers and some adverbs, masculine nouns use a separate numerical plural form бройна множествена форма, it is a remnant of the grammatical dual number, which disappeared from the language in the Middle Ages. The numerical form is used in the masculine whenever there is a precise amount of something, regardless of the actual number, e.g. – стол → много столове → два стола / десет стола. Definiteness is expressed by a definite article, postfixed to the noun: When the two are combined, the plural ending comes first: Old Bulgarian had a system of seven cases, but only three remain intact: the accusative and nominative. Though Bulgarian has lost most of its declensions, it retains many remnants of the old, more complex case system; these make up the modern genitive and instrumental cases. Being rare, they are no longer seen as case endings, but are rather considered to be part of some different phenomenon, such as being a subcategory of the definite article or of the plural, as with the genitive below.

The accusative and the dative have merged as an oblique case. The distinction between the two cases is preserved: in the personal pronouns – their short forms are in common use, have distinct forms for accusative and dative – e.g. ме vs. ми, я vs. ѝ. The long form of the dative case is archaic, accusative constructions with the preposition на are used instead. In the masculine interrogative pronoun кой, /kɔj/ and all of its derivatives – these, are only declined when they refer to men: кой /kɔj/ – кого /koˈɡɔ/ – кому /koˈmu/; the words някой /ˈɲakoj/ and никой /ˈnikoj/ follow the same pattern as кой. The relative pronouns който /ˈkɔjto/, когото /koˈɡɔto/ and комуто /koˈmuto/ – again, only declined when referring to men: човекът, с когото говоря /tʃoˈvɛkɐt, s koˈɡɔto ɡoˈvɔrjɐ/ столът, на който седя /ˈstɔɫɐt, nɐ ˈkɔjto sɛˈdjɐ/ the genitive had become involved in restructuring in late Proto-Slavic, where it replaced the accusative of animate masculine singulars; this form, in -а, was not adopted in Standard Bulgarian.

However, the grammarians who standardised the language in the 19th century specified an identical form as the incomplete definite article suffix, contrasting with the complete definite article in -ът. The incomplete definite article is used with definite masculine singular nouns which are not the subject of a sentence, including as objects of verbs and prepositions: стол → столът → под стола. Adnominal uses of the genitive have been lost.the vocative for family members – e.g. майка → майко for masculine names – e.g. Петър → Петре in social descriptors – e.g. приятел → приятелю, учител → учителю There is a tendency to avoid them in many personal names, as the use of feminine name forms in -o and of the potential vocative forms of foreign names has come to be considered rude or rustic. Thus, Иване means'hey, Ivan', while the corresponding feminine forms Елено, Маргарито are today seen as rude or, at best and declining foreign names as in *Джоне or *Саймъне could only be considered humorous.

The tendency to avoid vocative forms for foreign names does not apply to names from Classical Antiquity, with the source languages having the vocative case as well: cf. Цезаре', Перикле, Зевсе, etc. Vocative is still in full and regular use for general nouns such as господине, госпожице, госпожо, бабо, майко, сине. the instrumental for set phrases, such as н

Afrikanda (air base)

Afrikanda is a military air base in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located just north of the village of the same name. Though it is built for fighter operations with 30 revetments, it has served the interceptor aircraft role. Western intelligence services reported jet fighters operating from Afrikanda as early as 1953. From 1953, the 431st Fighter Aviation Regiment was stationed at the base, which became the 431 Regiment PVO in 1960. From 1960 the regiment was part of the 21st Air Defence Corps, it served through the whole Cold War. In September 1993 it was merged with the 641 Guards IAP and became the 470th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment; the regiment operated a number of Su-27 aircraft. The 470 Guards IAP disbanded on 30 November 2000. On June 26, 1941, the first known air victory was won over the airfield 147th Fighter Aviation Regiment in World War II: senior lieutenant L. I. Ivanov, piloting I-15bis, shot down a German bomber in an air battle near the Afrikanod airfield, He-111. In the future, the airfield was used by combat aircraft Karelian Front.

From June 1 to July 1, 1942, the 835th Fighter Aviation Regiment was based at the airfield on Hawker Hurricane fighters. At the aerodrome from 1941 to November 10, 1943, 609th Fighter Aviation Regiment was based on the Hurricane and LaGG-3 fighter jets. In 1943, the 137th short-range aviation regiment was based at the airfield from 258th mixed aviation division on airplanes Boston-3, for exemplary performance of command assignments renamed 114th Guards Middle Bomb Aviation Regiment. In March 1944, units of the operational group 8th long-range air corps were based on the airfield: operational group 36th long-range aviation division actions and 455th long-range air regiment 48th long-range aviation division on aircraft IL-4. From April to June 1944, the 668th Assault Aviation Regiment was based at IL-2 at the airfield. From August 1945 to July 1946, the 668th cap continued to be based on IL-2 aircraft at the aerodrome. In the period from October 1953 to September 1993, 431st Fighter Aviation Regiment was based on the airfield, Armaments MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19 and Su-15TM.

From 1954 to 1960, a bomber aviation regiment, one of the regiments 184th bomber aviation division was based at this airfield 22nd Air Army. The regiment was armed with a front-line jet bomber IL-28. In 1993 from the airfield Rogachevo was translated 641st Guards Vilna Order Kutuzov Fighter Aviation Regiment. Both regiments were merged into one, which in September 1993 received the name of the 470th Guards Vilna Order of Kutuzov Fighter Aviation Regiment. In service with the 470th Guards. Iap consisted fighter Su-27. September 1, 2001 and the 470th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment was disbanded