The forest raven is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae native to Tasmania and parts of southern Victoria, such as Wilsons Promontory and Portland. Populations are found in parts of New South Wales, including Dorrigo and Armidale. Measuring 50–53 cm in length, it has all-black plumage and legs; as with the other two species of raven in Australia, its black feathers have grey bases. Adults have white irises. New South Wales populations are recognised as a separate subspecies C. tasmanicus boreus, but appear to be nested within the Tasmanian subspecies genetically. The forest raven lives in a wide variety of habitats in Tasmania but is restricted to more closed forest on mainland Australia. Breeding takes place in spring and summer, occurring in Tasmania than in New South Wales; the nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree. An omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas and roadkill, it has been blamed for killing lambs and poultry and raiding orchards in Tasmania, is unprotected under Tasmanian legislation.
The forest raven is sedentary, with pairs bonding for life and establishing permanent territories. John Latham described the "South-Seas raven" in 1781, with loose throat feathers and found in "the Friendly Isles" in the South Seas, but did not give a binomial name. Although "the Friendly Isles" refers to Tonga, the specimen resembles what is now known as the forest raven and was collected by ships' surgeon William Anderson on the third voyage of James Cook in January 1777. Of the species, he had written, "Crows, nearly the same as ours in England". Tasked as the expedition's naturalist, Anderson collected many bird specimens but had died of tuberculosis in 1778 before the return home. Many collection localities were incorrect, notes were lost or pieced together many years later. German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin gave the species the name Corvus australis in the 13th edition of Systema naturae in 1788. Since Australia was settled by Europeans, all species of crows and ravens have been colloquially known as crows by the general population and are difficult to distinguish.
In his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia, John Gould noted a single species of corvid in Australia, Corvus australis, which he called the white-eyed crow. He used Gmelin's 1788 name, which took precedence by virtue of its age over Vigors and Horsfield's description. In 1912 Scottish naturalist William Robert Ogilvie-Grant clarified the species as C. coronoides and C. cecilae. Subsequently, French-American ornithologist Charles Vaurie acted as First Revisor under Article 24 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Code and discarded C. australis as a junior homonym—in 1788, Gmelin had used the same binomial name to describe the black nunbird—to preserve the stability of the name. This has been followed by authors. Gregory Mathews described the forest raven as a distinct subspecies—Corvus marianae tasmanicus—of the Australian raven in 1912, its species name derived from Tasmania, the type locality. Rowley raised the forest raven to species rank in 1970, noting there were no intermediate forms between it and the little raven and that it was larger with a much more massive bill.
He described a second subspecies—Corvus tasmanicus boreus—the same year, observing that C. tasmanicus from Tasmania and southern Victoria has a short tail compared with individuals from the northern New South Wales population. Rowley gave the species name forest raven in 1970; the term "crow" is colloquially applied to all species of Australian corvid. Preliminary genetic analysis of the genus using mitochondrial DNA showed the three raven species to belong to one lineage and the two crows to another, that the two lineages are not related; the genetic separation between species is small and there was a suggestion the forest raven may be conspecific with the Australian raven. Subsequent multigene analysis using nuclear DNA by Jønsson and colleagues in 2012 clarified that the forest and little raven are each other's closest relative; the northern subspecies boreus turned out to be nested in the Tasmanian tasmanicus, indicating the populations separated recently. It is still recognised as a distinct subspecies by the International Ornithological Committee.
Ian Rowley proposed that the common ancestor of the five species diverged into a tropical crow and temperate raven sometime after entering Australia from the north. The raven diverged into the ancestor of the forest and little ravens in the east and Australian raven in the west; as the climate was cooler and drier, the aridity of central Australia split them as the habitat between became inhospitable. Furthermore, the eastern diverged into nomadic little ravens and, in forested refuges, forest ravens; as the climate became warmer, the western ravens spread eastwards and outcompeted forest ravens on mainland Australia, as evidenced by the forest raven being only found in closed forest refuges on the mainland but in a wider variety of habitats in Tasmania. The largest of the Australian corvids, the adult forest raven is 50–53 cm in length with a wingspan between 91–113 cm and weight of 650 g. There is no seasonal variation in plumage, glossy black with a blue or green sheen visible on the upperparts.
The wings are long and broad, with the largest of its ten primary feathers reaching the end of the tail wh
The Chihuahuan raven is a species of bird in the family Corvidae, native to the United States and Mexico. It was known as the American white-necked raven, has the proportions of a common raven with a heavy bill, but is about the same size as a carrion crow, or larger than the American crow; the plumage is all-black with a rich purple-blue gloss in good light. Like the forest raven, little raven, fan-tailed raven and Australian raven, it is one of the smaller raven species; the larger species of raven are the common raven, thick-billed raven, white-necked raven and brown-necked raven, with the common and thick-billed ravens being the world's largest raven species and the little and fan-tailed ravens being the smallest. The Chihuahuan raven is similar in appearance to the Australian raven, although with dark brown irises and whiter feather bases; the nasal bristles extend farther down the top of the bill than in any other Corvus species to about two-thirds the length. The base of the neck feathers are white-ish.
The bill and feet are black. The Chihuahuan raven occurs in the Southwestern and Midwestern United States and northern Mexico, including southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, western Kansas, western Oklahoma, southern and western Texas, it feeds on cultivated cereal grains and many other invertebrates, small reptiles, cactus fruits and nestlings. The nest is built in either trees, large shrubs or sometimes in old buildings. There are 5–7 eggs laid late in the year during May so as to take advantage of the insect food for their young in their more arid environment; the voice is similar to that of the common raven with "pruk-pruk" sounds and other croaks but is not as deep in tone. Like all corvids, the Chihuahuan raven is capable of vocal mimicry, however this behavior is recorded in captivity and in the wild. A 2005 molecular study reviewed segments of DNA of the common raven and found that Chihuahuan raven are genetically nested within common ravens based on mitochondrial DNA.
That is, common ravens from the California clade are more similar in mtDNA to Chihuahuan ravens than they are to common ravens in the Holarctic Clade. Photo of Chihuahuan Raven Great shot showing white bases to neck feathers Comparison of Chihuahuan and Common Raven specimens Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter species account, including Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count range maps. Chihuahuan Raven photo gallery VIREO
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
The white-necked raven is somewhat smaller than the common raven or its nearest relative, the thick-billed raven C. crassirostris. It is native to southern Africa; the white-necked raven has a much shorter tail than the common raven, as well as a deeper bill with a white tip, as arched as that of the thick-billed raven. Though predominantly black, the throat and neck show a faint purple gloss. There is a large patch of white feathers on the nape of the neck. Soars well with shallower wingbeats than other Corvidae. Length 50 – 54 cm Wingspan 752 – 860 mm Weight 762 - 865g Often described as a raven with a sore throat, it has similar calls to the common raven, but with a more husky note, it has a croak with a more whispering note. Like all corvids, the White-necked raven is capable of vocal mimicry. However, this behavior is only recorded in captivity, it occurs in southern Africa in open, mountainous country. It is quite found in small towns and villages as long as there are mountains or hills for roosting and nesting nearby.
Most of this bird's food is obtained from the ground. It has been seen to drop a tortoise from a height on to hard ground, preferably on rocks, swoop down to eat it, or pick it up again if not sufficiently broken. White-necked ravens will readily take carrion from road kills. Fruit, insects, small reptiles and human food are readily taken and the bird forages in back yards and gardens quite openly. Like all or most raven species, the White-necked raven form flocks after leaving their parents and once matured will pair off and form territories, it is found in the company of other scavengers such as kites or vultures. Nests are bowls of sticks lined with grass and wool, found on cliff ledges but found in trees. There are 3-5 eggs laid. White-necked raven - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. Photos Videos and sounds
The common raven known as the northern raven, is a large all-black passerine bird. Found across the Northern Hemisphere, it is the most distributed of all corvids. There are at least eight subspecies with little variation in appearance, although recent research has demonstrated significant genetic differences among populations from various regions, it is one of the two largest corvids, alongside the thick-billed raven, is the heaviest passerine bird. Common ravens can live up to 21 years in the wild, a lifespan surpassed among passerines by only a few Australasian species such as the satin bowerbird and the lyrebirds. Young birds may travel in flocks but mate for life, with each mated pair defending a territory. Common ravens have coexisted with humans for thousands of years and in some areas have been so numerous that people have regarded them as pests. Part of their success as a species is due to their omnivorous diet; some notable feats of problem-solving provide evidence that the common raven is unusually intelligent.
Over the centuries, it has been the subject of mythology, folklore and literature. In many cultures, including the indigenous cultures of Scandinavia, ancient Ireland and Wales, the northwest coast of North America, Siberia and northeast Asia, the common raven has been revered as a spiritual figure or godlike creature; the common raven was one of the many species described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae, it still bears its original name of Corvus corax. It is the type species of the genus Corvus, derived from the Latin word for "raven"; the specific epithet, corax/κοραξ, is the Ancient Greek word for "raven" or "crow". The modern English word raven has cognates in all other Germanic languages, including Old Norse hrafn and Old High German raban, all which descend from Proto-Germanic *khrabanas. An old Scottish word corby or corbie, akin to the French corbeau, has been used for both this bird and the carrion crow. Obsolete collective nouns for a group of ravens include "unkindness" and "conspiracy".
In practice, most English-speakers use the more generic "flock". The closest relatives of the common raven are the brown-necked raven, the pied crow of Africa, the Chihuahuan raven of the North American southwest. While some authorities have recognized as many as 11 subspecies, others recognize only eight: The common raven evolved in the Old World and crossed the Bering land bridge into North America. Recent genetic studies, which examined the DNA of common ravens from across the world, have determined that the birds fall into at least two clades: a California clade, found only in the southwestern United States, a Holarctic clade, found across the rest of the Northern Hemisphere. Birds from both clades look alike, but the groups are genetically distinct and began to diverge about two million years ago; the findings indicate that based on mitochondrial DNA, common ravens from the rest of the United States are more related to those in Europe and Asia than to those in the California clade, that common ravens in the California clade are more related to the Chihuahuan raven than to those in the Holarctic clade.
Ravens in the Holarctic clade are more related to the pied crow than they are to the California clade. Thus, the common raven species as traditionally delimited is considered to be paraphyletic. One explanation for these genetic findings is that common ravens settled in California at least two million years ago and became separated from their relatives in Europe and Asia during an ice age. One million years ago, a group from the California clade evolved into a new species, the Chihuahuan raven. Other members of the Holarctic clade arrived in a separate migration from Asia at the same time as humans. A 2011 study suggested that there are no restrictions on gene flow between the Californian and Holarctic common raven groups, that the lineages can remerge reversing a potential speciation. A recent study of raven mitochondrial DNA showed that the isolated population from the Canary Islands is distinct from other populations; the study did not include any individuals from the North African population, its position is therefore unclear, though its morphology is close to the population of the Canaries.
A mature common raven ranges between 67 cm long, with a wingspan of 115 to 150 cm. Recorded weights range from 0.69 to 2 kg, thus making the common raven one of the heaviest passerines. Birds from colder regions such as the Himalayas and Greenland are larger with larger bills, while those from warmer regions are smaller with proportionally smaller bills. Representative of the size variation in the species, ravens from California weighed an average of 784 g, those from Alaska weighed an average of 1,135 g and those from Nova Scotia weighed an average of 1,230 g; the bill is large and curved, with a culmen length of 5.7 to 8.5 cm one of the largest bills amongst passerines. It has a longish graduated tail, at 20 to 26.3 cm, black iridescent plumage, a dark brown iris. Th
The Australian raven is a passerine bird in the genus Corvus native to much of southern and northeastern Australia. Measuring 46–53 centimetres in length, it has all-black plumage and mouth, as well as strong grey-black legs and feet; the upperparts are glossy, with a purple, blue, or green sheen, its black feathers have grey bases. The Australian raven is distinguished from the Australian crow species by its throat hackles, which are prominent in adult birds. Older adult individuals have white irises, younger adults have white irises with an inner blue rim, while younger birds have dark brown irises until fifteen months of age, hazel irises with an inner blue rim around each pupil until age two years and ten months. Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield described the Australian raven in 1827, its species name highlighting its similarity with the carrion crow. Two subspecies are recognized, which differ in calls and are quite divergent genetically; the preferred habitat is open transitional zones.
It has adapted well to urban environments and is a common city bird in Sydney and Perth. An omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas. In eastern Australia, its range is correlated with the presence of sheep, it has been blamed for killing lambs. However, this is rare, the raven most scavenges for afterbirth and stillborn animals as well as newborn lamb faeces; the Australian raven is territorial, with pairs bonding for life. Breeding takes place between July and September, with no variation across its range; the nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree, or in a man-made structure such as a windmill or other building. The Australian raven was first described by Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield in 1827, when they reported George Caley's early notes on the species from the Sydney district, its specific epithet coronoides "crow-shaped" is derived from the Greek corone/κορόνη "crow" and eidos/είδος "shape" or "form".
The two naturalists regarded the Australian raven as similar in appearance to the carrion crow of Europe, though they noted it was larger with a longer bill. They did not give it a common name; the location where the type specimen was collected is not recorded, but thought to be in the Parramatta district. Christian Ludwig Brehm described Corvus affinis in 1845 determined to be this species. In his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia, John Gould recognised only one species of corvid in Australia, Corvus australis, which he called the white-eyed crow, he used Johann Friedrich Gmelin's 1788 name, which predated Horsfield's description. In 1877 Richard Bowdler Sharpe recognised two species, but recorded that the feather bases of the type specimen of C. coronoides were white. He named C. coronoides as the "crow" and C. australis the "raven". Scottish naturalist William Robert Ogilvie-Grant corrected this in 1912 after re-examining the type specimen, clarifying the species as C. coronoides and C. cecilae.
Gregory Mathews described the western subspecies perplexus in 1912, naming it the southwestern crow and noting that it was smaller than the nominate subspecies. He called C. coronoides coronoides the eastern crow, listing its range as New South Wales, described what is now the Australian crow as another subspecies, C. coronoides cecilae, calling it the north-western crow and recording its range as northwestern Australia. In the same work he listed the raven as Corvus marianae, with a type specimen from Gosford and listing its range as New South Wales, he listed the little forest raven as subspecies. Mathews had erected C. marianae in 1911 as the name after declaring Corvus australis Gould to be preoccupied. This has been followed by authors. German ornithologist Erwin Stresemann lumped all Australian corvids plus other species as far as India into a single species, C. coronoides, as he believed there was intergradation between all characteristics such as iris colour, colour of feather bases and plumage.
This was hotly disputed by Mathews. The official RAOU checklist listed three species, with the little raven recognised as a fourth species in 1967 and forest raven in 1970. Stresemann described C. difficilis in 1943 from a single specimen, now thought to have been an unusual Australian raven or an Australian raven/Torresian crow hybrid. Alternative names sometimes seen include southern raven, southern crow and Kelly, the last thought to have alluded to the Kelly Gang, though did not appear until the 1920s. Southern crow was considered by the RAOU before Australian raven was adopted as the official name for the species in 1926; the term "crow" is colloquially applied to all species of Australian corvid. The Australian raven was called wugan by the local Darug inhabitants of the Sydney Basin; the Australian raven's closest relatives are the other two species of raven occurring in Australia: the little raven and forest raven. The Australian raven is somewhat related to the Torresian and little crow, although not as related as it is to the other raven species.
Initial single gene genetic analysis of the genus using mitochondrial DNA showed the three raven species to belong
The thick-billed raven, a corvid from the Horn of Africa, shares with the common raven the distinction of being the largest bird in the corvid family, indeed the largest of the most diverse bird order with well over 5,000 identified species, the passerines. The thick-billed raven average 64 cm in length, with a range of 60 to 70 cm and weighs 1.15 kg in females and 1.5 kg in males on average. Its size is about the same as the largest races of common raven but some common raven subspecies are rather smaller and, going on average weights, the thick-billed raven is the heaviest extant passerine; the thick-billed raven is about 25% heavier on average than the Australasian superb lyrebird, sometimes erroneously titled the largest passerine. It has a large bill, laterally compressed and is curved in profile giving the bird a distinctive appearance; this bill, the largest of any passerine at 8–9 cm in length, is black with a white tip and has deep nasal grooves with only light nasal bristle covers.
This raven has short feathers on the head and neck. The throat and upper breast have an oily brown gloss, while the rest of the bird is glossy black except for a distinctive white patch of feathers on the nape and onto the neck, its range covers Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is one of several avian species endemic to northeastern tropical Africa; the thick-billed raven is omnivorous, feeding on grubs, beetle larvae from animal dung, scraps of meat and human food. It has been seen taking standing wheat; when seeking food from dung, it has been seen using a distinct scything movement to scatter the dung and extract the grubs. It nests in trees and on cliffs building a stick nest like the similar and much more distributed and studied white-necked raven, it lays three to five eggs. In one case, thick-billed ravens were observed to vigorously displace predatory Verreaux's eagle owls from their nest area, its calls include a harsh nasal croak, a low wheezy croak, a "raven-raven", sometimes a "dink, dink" sound.
Like many corvids, the thick-billed raven is capable of vocal mimicry. Thick-billed Raven videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection