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Raven paradox

The raven paradox known as Hempel's paradox, Hempel's ravens, or the paradox of indoor ornithology, is a paradox arising from the question of what constitutes evidence for a statement. Observing objects that are neither black nor ravens may formally increase the likelihood that all ravens are black though, these observations are unrelated; this problem was proposed by the logician Carl Gustav Hempel in the 1940s to illustrate a contradiction between inductive logic and intuition. Hempel describes the paradox in terms of the hypothesis: All ravens are black. In the form of an implication, this can be expressed as: If something is a raven it is black. Via contraposition, this statement is equivalent to: If something is not black it is not a raven. In all circumstances where is true, is true—and in all circumstances where is false, is false. Given a general statement such as all ravens are black, a form of the same statement that refers to a specific observable instance of the general class would be considered to constitute evidence for that general statement.

For example, My pet raven is evidence supporting the hypothesis. The paradox arises. On sighting a green apple, one can observe: This green apple is not black, it is not a raven. By the same reasoning, this statement is evidence that if something is not black it is not a raven, but since this statement is logically equivalent to all ravens are black, it follows that the sight of a green apple is evidence supporting the notion that all ravens are black. This conclusion seems paradoxical because it implies that information has been gained about ravens by looking at an apple. Nicod's criterion says that only observations of ravens should affect one's view as to whether all ravens are black. Observing more instances of black ravens should support the view, observing white or coloured ravens should contradict it, observations of non-ravens should not have any influence. Hempel's equivalence condition states that when a proposition, X, provides evidence in favor of another proposition Y X provides evidence in favor of any proposition, logically equivalent to Y.

Realistically, the set of ravens is finite. The set of non-black things is either infinite or beyond human enumeration. To confirm the statement'All ravens are black', it would be necessary to observe all ravens; this is possible. To confirm the statement'All non-black things are non-ravens', it would be necessary to examine all non-black things; this is not possible. Observing a black raven could be considered a finite amount of confirmatory evidence, but observing a non-black non-raven would be an infinitesimal amount of evidence; the paradox shows that Nicod's criterion and Hempel's equivalence condition are not mutually consistent. A resolution to the paradox must reject at least one out of: negative instances having no influence, equivalence condition, or, validation by positive instances. A satisfactory resolution should explain why there naively appears to be a paradox. Solutions that accept the paradoxical conclusion can do this by presenting a proposition that we intuitively know to be false but, confused with, while solutions that reject or should present a proposition that we intuitively know to be true but, confused with or.

Although this conclusion of the paradox seems counter-intuitive, some approaches accept that observations of non-ravens can in fact constitute valid evidence in support for hypotheses about ravens. Hempel himself accepted the paradoxical conclusion, arguing that the reason the result appears paradoxical is that we possess prior information without which the observation of a non-black non-raven would indeed provide evidence that all ravens are black, he illustrates this with the example of the generalization "All sodium salts burn yellow," and asks us to consider the observation that occurs when somebody holds a piece of pure ice in a colorless flame that does not turn yellow: This result would confirm the assertion, "Whatever does not burn yellow is not sodium salt," and by virtue of the equivalence condition, it would confirm the original formulation. Why does this impress us as paradoxical? The reason becomes clear when we compare the previous situation with the case of an experiment where an object whose chemical constitution is as yet unknown to us is held into a flame and fails to turn it yellow, where subsequent analysis reveals it to contain no sodium salt.

This outcome, we should no doubt agree, is what was to be expected on the basis of the hypothesis... thus the data here obtained constitute confirming evidence for the hypothesis.... In the paradoxical cases of confirmation, we are not judging the relation of the given evidence, E alone to the hypothesis H... we tacitly introduce a comparison of H with a body of evidence which consists of E in conjunction with an additional amount of information which we happen to have at our disposal. If we assume this additional information as given of course, the outcome of the experiment can add no strength to the hypothesis under consideration, but if we are careful to avoid this tacit reference to additional knowledge... the paradoxes vanish. One of the most popular proposed resolutions is to accept the conclusion that the observation of a gree

Red-veined darter

The red-veined darter or nomad is a dragonfly of the genus Sympetrum. There is genetic and behavioural evidence that S. fonscolombii is not related to the other members of the genus Sympetrum and it will at some time in the future be removed from this genus. Sympetrum fonscolombii was named under the protonym Libellula fonscolombii by the Belgian entomologist Edmond de Sélys Longchamps, in 1840, in honor of the French entomologist Étienne of Fonscolombe, its name is sometimes spelt fonscolombei instead of fonscolombii but Askew gives the latter as the correct spelling. Sympetrum fonscolombii is a widespread and common species in much of central and southern Europe including most Mediterranean islands, North Africa, the Middle East, south-western Asia, including the Indian Subcontinent, the Indian Ocean Islands and Sri Lanka. In Europe it is resident in the south of its range but in some years it migrates northward. From the 1990s onwards has been found in northwest Europe, including Belgium, Finland, Poland and Ireland.

It is the only Libellulidae to be found in the Azores and it is found on the Canary Islands and Madeira. It breeds in a wide range of habitats including marshes, ponds and seasonal rivers, it is able to recolonize dry areas after a rainfall. Sympetrum fonscolombii can reach a body length of 38–40 millimetres; this species is similar to other Sympetrum species but a good view with binoculars should give a positive identification with a male. Males have a red abdomen, redder than many other Sympetrum species; the frons and the thorax are red-brown. The eyes are brown blue/grey below; the wings have red veins and the wing bases of the hind-wings are yellow. The pterostigma is pale yellow with a border of black veins. Female are similar but the abdomen is ochre yellow, not red, with two black lines along each side; the wings have yellow veins at the costa, leading edge and base, not red veins as found in the males. The legs of both sexes are black with some yellow. Immature males are like females but with more red and a single line along each side of the abdomen.

Male S. fonscolombii can be mistaken for Crocothemis erythraea as both are red dragonflies with yellow bases to the wings, red veins and pale pterostigma. However C. erythraea has no black on a broader body and no black on the head. C. erythraea females do not oviposit in tandem. The jizz of these two species is different and with some experience. Sympetrum fonscolombii can be seen on the wing throughout the year around the Mediterranean and in the south of its range, its main flight period is May to October and it is scarce during the winter months, it is a territorial species with the males sitting on an exposed perch. After copulation the pair stay in tandem for egg laying and pairs can be seen over open water with the female dipping her abdomen into the water depositing eggs. Pairs are known to fly over the sea in tandem dipping into the salt water where the eggs soon perish; the eggs and larvae develop within a few months and S. fonscolombii unlike most other European dragonflies has more than one generation a year.

Some larvae overwinter. Askew, R. R; the Dragonflies of Europe. Harley Books.pp180 and 213. ISBN 0-946589-75-5 Boudot JP. et al. Atlas of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa. Libellula Supplement 9:1-256. Dijkstra, K-D. B & Lewington, R. Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe. British Wildlife Publishing. ISBN 0-9531399-4-8. African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online Red-veined darter in Africa Media related to Sympetrum fonscolombii at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Sympetrum fonscolombii at Wikispecies

Ashraf Uddin Ahmed Chunnu

Ashrafuddin Ahmed Chunnu played for the Bangladesh national football team as the captain for 10 years since 1975-85. The left-winger capped in 50 matches in which he scored 23 goals during his 10-year long national career. Chunnu started his football career with Dilkusha in 1973, he played for Abahani Limited for the longest period from 1975-88 after playing for Rahmatganj Muslim Friends Society in 1974, besides wearing the national jersey. The winger, locally known as Chunnu, scored a hat-trick as the first-ever Bangladeshi footballer against Nepal at the President’s Gold Cup at the Bangabandhu National Stadium in 1983. Chunnu was the first Bangladeshi goal scorer in the FIFA World Cup Qualifier in 1985, he participated in the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, scoring the first goal in the history of Bangladesh in the Asian Cup on a penalty kick in the 60th minute, against North Korea. Bangladesh was eliminated with four defeats in that tournament. Chunnu scored two goals in the 1986 World Cup qualifier without progressing from the first round.

He is the first Bangladeshi player to score a playoff goal in World Cup. In 1991 he contested in the Bangladesh general elections from Narayanganj-4 under the Awami League banner. Chunnu won the National Sports Award as a national footballer in 1996. In 2003, he served as the Abahani football secretary. In 2005, he was made the manager of the Bangladesh national team, he served as the joint secretary of Bangladesh Football Federation and president of Sonali Otit Club. He is the chairman of the football committee of Sheikh Jamal Dhanmondi Club

John Deming

John Deming was an early Puritan settler and original patentee of the Connecticut Colony Deming was born in Shalford, England. He arrived in New England during the Great Migration with his older sister Elizabeth and her husband Nathaniel Foote. Deming and the Footes first settled in Watertown, but left for the Connecticut River Valley in 1636, where they helped found the town of Wethersfield. Deming was brother-in-law to Connecticut governors Robert Thomas Welles. After Foote died Deming's sister Elizabeth married Welles in 1646. Benjamin Trumbull named Deming one of the "fathers of Connecticut." John Deming's descendants number in the thousands today. Some of his notable descendants include: Louisa May Alcott, she is best known for the novel Little Women Humphrey DeForest Bogart, was an American actor. He has been called a cultural icon. Jérôme Napoleon Bonaparte, was Elizabeth Patterson, an American. David Deming, noted American author. William Edwards Deming, was an American statistician, author and consultant.

Bruce Dern, is an American film actor. Laura Dern, is film director and producer. John Fay, was a U. S. Representative from New York. B. F. Goodrich, was an American industrialist in the rubber industry. Karen Linder, is author. Archibald MacLeish, was an American poet and the Librarian of Congress, he is associated with the Modernist school of poetry. He received three Pulitzer Prizes for his work. Cole Albert Porter, was songwriter, his works include the musical comedies Kiss Me, Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady and Anything Goes, as well as songs like "Night and Day," "I Get a Kick out of You," "Well, Did You Evah!" and "I've Got You Under My Skin." Nancy Davis Reagan, was the wife of former United States President Ronald Reagan and served as an influential First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Harriet Beecher Stowe, descended from John Deming's sister Elizabeth and her first husband, Nathaniel Foote the Settler, was an abolitionist and the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin that depicted life for African-Americans under slavery.

Tennessee Williams, was an American playwright who received many of the top theatrical awards for his works of drama. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948 and for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof in 1955. Case, Lafayette Wallace; the Goodrich family in America. A genealogy of the descendants of John and William Goodrich of Wethersfield, Conn. Richard Goodrich of Guilford, Conn. and William Goodridge of Watertown, Mass. Fergus printing company, 1889. Deming, Judson Keith. Genealogy of the descendants of John Deming of Wethersfield, Connecticut: with historical notes University of Wisconsin – Madison: Publisher Press of Mathis-Mets Co. 1904 Treat, John Harvey. Title The Treat family: a genealogy of Trott and Treat for fifteen generations, four hundred and fifty years in England and America, containing more than fifteen hundred families in America Publisher The Salem press publishing & printing company, 1893. Whittemore, Henry The heroes of the American Revolution and their descendants: Battle of Long Island The Heroes of the American Revolution and Their Descendants: Battle of Long Island Publisher, Henry Whittemore, Heroes of the Revolution Pub. Co. 1897

New South Wales 81 class locomotive

The 81 class are a class of diesel locomotives built by Clyde Engineering, Kelso for the State Rail Authority. Eighty 81 class locomotives were built by Clyde Engineering, Kelso between September 1982 and February 1986, to replace 1950s vintage 42 and 44 class locomotives as well as provide additional capacity; the first 42 were based at Broadmeadow Locomotive Depot to operate Hunter Valley coal trains, while the remaining 38 were concentrated on the Main South line between Sydney and Albury hauling both passenger and freight trains. The final 15 were equipped with V/Line radios, from July 1986 operated through to Melbourne, they are mechanically similar to the V/Line G class and Australian National BL class. In 1991, a further four units were built at Kelso using many components from spares held. Following the delivery of the 90 class in 1994, the Broadmeadow based units were released to replace older locomotives on other freight duties; this saw their sphere of operation extended to Broken Hill.

In the mid-1990s some of the locomotives were leased to National Rail. These were exchanged for 13 of the earlier locomotives which were permanently transferred to National Rail for use as high-power shunters around Australia. All were reunited when National Rail and FreightCorp were both sold to form Pacific National in February 2002. In February 1999, 81s began operating in South Australia when FreightCorp won a contract to haul brown coal on the Leigh Creek to Stirling North line from Leigh Creek to the Northern Power Station in Port Augusta; as at February 2013, Pacific National operated 83 in New South Wales. 8147 was written off following a derailment near Forbes on 11 March 2007. SDS Models in 2015 announced a range of 81 class locomotives, thought to include Candy, Bicentennial and Freightcorp variants, National Rail and Pacific National models, with all four body types; the range will be available both as DCC with sound. Austrains in 2014 released models of the 81 class locomotive retailing at about $300 per model.

The range included 8134, 8155 and 8169 in Freightrail Blue, 8125, 8150 and 8178 in Pacific National blue and yellow. An incorrectly-modelled Candy locomotive was released. A second run was planned for 2015, but will not go ahead after SDS Models announced their range Powerline released models of the 81 class in 1987. At the time the entire fleet was painted in Candy, so, the only model released. 8175 was a dummy unit. Some twin packs were released the dummy 8175 with one single-motor unit. 1990 saw a special release of an unnumbered Candy locomotive released with a KB coach. In 1997 the locomotive was rerun, this time in Bicentennial and Freight Rail. In December 1987 Hobbyco in George Street, were retailing the single motor version for $101.95. New South Wales Rail System Locomotives. Sydney: Archives Section, State Rail Authority of New South Wales. 1984. Media related to New South Wales 81 class locomotives at Wikimedia Commons

Telethon Kids Institute

The Telethon Kids Institute is an Australian medical research institute focused on the prevention of paediatric disease and the development of improved treatments to improve the health and wellbeing of children. Telethon Kids has developed a particular focus on Aboriginal health and has more than 500 staff, post-graduate students and visiting scholars. Telethon Kids is located in the Perth Children's Hospital building. Telethon Kids is an independent not-for-profit, non-government organisation with close affiliations with the University of Western Australia and the Perth Children's Hospital. Established in 1990 by Professor Fiona Stanley, the Director of the Institute since July 2012 is Professor Jonathan Carapetis. Stanley presently holds the role of Patron. Research at the Telethon Kids Institute is grouped around four major research focus areas: Aboriginal Health Brain & Behaviour Chronic Diseases of Childhood Early EnvironmentThe Telethon Kids Institute is committed to ensuring that the benefits of its research are translated into real therapies and policies to improve the health and wellbeing of children.

Since its establishment in 1990, researchers at the Institute have published more than 2600 scientific papers and advocated on behalf of children and families. Some highlights include: Discovering; the Institute is a research hub for prominent scientists such as Patrick Holt, as well as the home of one of the largest longitudinal cohort studies, the Raine Study, following the lives of thousands of children for more than 20 years. Telethon Kids is co-located with the Perth Children's Hospital within the Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre site in Nedlands, Western Australia, with which it collaborates closely; the new building is adjacent to the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The Institute moved in 2018 after the closure of the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, moved to the current site to continue to enhance collaboration with researchers and other clinicians located at the new site. Ongoing collaborations exist with the University of Western Australia Department of Paediatrics, Curtin University and Seven Network's Telethon, a major funding partner.

Formed in 1990 on the grounds of Princess Margaret Hospital when Professor Fiona Stanley and a group of population scientists from UWA joined a group of lab based researchers from the hospital and formed the WA Research Institute for Child Health. By 1994, due to rapid success and expansion, it became clear that a purpose built facility was required. A$11.2 million was raised from West Australian corporates and individuals through a capital campaign with the state and federal governments matching this with A$11.2 million each. The land was purchased from Perth Modern School, construction began in 1998, the building was opened in February 2000; the original A$11.2 million raised through the capital campaign was invested in a capital account which earns interest to maintain infrastructure. Channel 7's Telethon was the biggest single donor to the capital campaign and in recognition of this, the name was changed to the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research. In May 2016 the Telethon Kids Institute held an informational immunisation seminar in Perth.

Anti-vaccination activists hijacked the event, "abusing researchers and branding them liars" and forcing the event to close early. An editorial in The West Australian called it an "ugly disruption" and said that "those who oppose vaccination programs through the use of the tactics displayed on Monday, should examine their consciences". Health in Australia Official web site