Lawrence County, Arkansas
Lawrence County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,415; the county seat is Walnut Ridge. Lawrence County is Arkansas's second county, formed on January 15, 1815, named for Captain James Lawrence who fought in the War of 1812, it is dry county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 588 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. Randolph County Greene County Craighead County Jackson County Independence County Sharp County As of the 2000 census, there were 17,774 people, 7,108 households, 5,011 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 8,085 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.78% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,108 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,139, the median income for a family was $32,163. Males had a median income of $26,288 versus $18,518 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,785. About 13.90% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.50% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over.
Public education is available from four school districts: Hillcrest School District Hoxie School District Lawrence County School District Sloan–Hendrix School District Black Rock Hoxie Walnut Ridge Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Lawrence County are listed below. List of lakes in Lawrence County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Lawrence County, Arkansas
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Hoxie is a town in Lawrence County, United States. It lies south of Walnut Ridge; the population was 2,780 at the 2010 census. Prior to 1955, Hoxie maintained a dual system of education for younger students, one for white students and another one for blacks. Rather than maintain two high schools, white high school students were educated locally, while black high school students were bused to a black school in Jonesboro. On June 25, 1955, in response to the recent Brown v. Board of Education ruling, Hoxie's superintendent, Kunkel Edward Vance, spearheaded plans to integrate the schools, he received the unanimous support of Hoxie's school board. On July 11, 1955, Hoxie schools allowed African American students to attend. In order to do "what was morally right in the sight of God" and to "uphold the law of the land", Vance insisted that all facilities, including restrooms and cafeterias, be integrated. Although there were many nervous parents, the schools opening on July 11 went smoothly; the teachers and children got along fine, but unlike the two other school districts in Arkansas that implemented partial integration, Hoxie attracted national attention.
A team of photographers from Life Magazine was on hand to document the event. After the publication of the Life article, segregationists from outside the area converged on Hoxie in an unsuccessful attempt to reverse the school board decision. Handbills were printed making wild assertions including allegations of a plot between negroes and Jews, advocating for the death of "Race Mixers". A group of local citizens, led by soybean farmer Herbert Brewer, confronted the school board in an unproductive meeting. After the meeting, Brewer organized a White Citizen's Council, which called for students, both black and white to boycott the schools. One third of the white students refused to attend the schools beginning on August 4, 1955. A lawyer, Amis Guthridge, the leader of White America, inc. attempted to draw more outside influence into the fray, inflaming passions with statements such as calling school integration a "plan, founded in Moscow in 1924 to mongrelize the white race in America" and claimed that "white Methodist women" wanted integration so they could get negro men into their bedroom.
Johnson and others fanned the flames, were joined by Orval Faubus in trying to invoke fears of miscegenation in white husbands and parents. In one rally, Faubus shouted "they do not want equality, you know they don't want equality"..."They want what you've got, they want your women!"The Hoxie School Board filed suit against the segregationist leaders from Hoxie and elsewhere in the state and charged them with trespassing on school property, threatening picket lines, organizing boycotts, intimidating school officials. In November 1955, United States District Judge for the Eastern District of Arkansas Thomas C. Trimble ruled that pro-segregationists had "planned and conspired" to prevent integration in Hoxie. In December 1955, he issued a permanent injunction and restraining order against the segregationists, their appeal in the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals was opposed by United States Attorney General Herbert Brownell and the U. S. Department of Justice; this marked the first intervention by the attorney general in support of any school district attempting to comply with the Brown decision.
On October 25, 1956, the court ruled in favor of the Hoxie School Board. U. S. Attorney Osro Cobb recalls that the situation at Hoxie had reached the point of possible bloodshed. Guns were being carried. Notwithstanding, a conference exploring the situation and its possible effects on the community with the individuals at the core of the problem had worked a minor miracle, it demonstrated that while passions and prejudice in race relations hurl reason aside, reason can be restored at the conference table where there is dedication by the parties to the public interest. That is the lesson to be learned from Hoxie. In 2003, David Appleby produced a documentary entitled Hoxie - The First Stand detailing the events of school integration in Hoxie; the film received the Peabody Award and the Du Pont Award for Broadcast Journalism. On August 17, 2014, at 2:30 AM, two Union Pacific freight trains collided in Hoxie, killing two people and causing the evacuation of about 500 people within a 1.5 square mile radius.
U. S. 67 was closed for one week for cleanup and repair. Hoxie is located at 36°2′55″N 90°58′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.0 square miles, all land. US 63 U. S. 63 Business US 67 U. S. 67 BusinessU. S. Highways 63 and 67 intersect and cross each other in Hoxie. U. S. 63 enters Arkansas at the Missouri line at Thayer and Mammoth Spring, two contiguous cities. U. S. 63 goes southeastward to connect with Interstate 55 near Turrell, in Crittenden County. It runs contiguous with I-40 for a ways. Both those interstates cross the Mississippi River into Tennessee. U. S. 63 is contiguous with a number of other routes southward in Arkansas, leaving Arkansas for Louisiana at Junction City, in Union County. U. S. 67 is a southwest—northeast bisector of Arkansas. Two railroads, the Burlington Northern-Santa Fe and the Union Pacific, have mainline tracks that cross each other at Hoxie—the BNSF in a northwest-southeast direction, the UP in a north and south direction.
This same situation occurs in Jonesboro, in Craighead County. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,780 people, 1,108 households, 797 families residing in the city; the population density was 707.5 people per square mile (27
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
U.S. Route 62 in Arkansas
U. S. Route 62 is a U. S. highway running from El Paso, Texas northeast to Niagara Falls, New York. In the U. S. state of Arkansas, the route runs 329.9 miles from the Oklahoma border near Summers east to the Missouri border in St. Francis, serving the northern portion of the state; the route passes through several cities and towns, including Fayetteville, Bentonville, Mountain Home and Piggott. US 62 runs concurrent with several highways in Arkansas including Interstate 49 and U. S. Route 71 between Fayetteville and Bentonville, U. S. Route 412 through much of the state, U. S. Route 65 in the Harrison area, with U. S. Route 63 and U. S. Route 67 in northeast Arkansas. U. S. Route 62 enters Arkansas from Oklahoma and runs by the Bean Cemetery near Lincoln and the Borden House and Prairie Grove Battlefield Park in Prairie Grove; the route enters the Northwest Arkansas metro area, including the cities of Fayetteville and Bentonville. The route concurs with I-49/US 71 through these communities. In Benton County, the route passes Garfield Elementary School near the junction with Arkansas Highway 127 in Garfield before exiting Rogers.
The route continues east near the Pea Ridge National Military Park and the Missouri state line before entering Carroll County. US 62 winds through the Ozarks, passing through small towns. US 62 passes the Thorncrown Chapel, the Tall Pines Motor Inn, the historic U. S. 62 White River Bridge near Eureka Springs. The route begins a concurrency with U. S. Route 412 in Alpena. US 62/US 412 meet U. S. Route 65 in Harrison. In Marion County, the route meets US 62S in Pyatt and the US 62 Bridge over Crooked Creek outside of town. During this stretch, US 62 crosses two of the nine Arkansas Scenic Byways, the Pig Trail and Scenic Highway 7. Continuing east, the route passes a former alignment of US 62 before entering Yellville. East of Yellville, the route enters Mountain Home in Baxter County and crosses over Norfolk Lake to enter rural Fulton County. After passing through Fulton County, US 62/US 412 enters Sharp County. In Ash Flat, US 62/US 412 serves as the northern terminus of U. S. Route 167. After passing around Cherokee Village, the route enters Hardy.
In Hardy, US 62/US 412/US 63 Business passes four properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas: the Carrie Tucker House, the Sherman Bates House, the Fred Graham House, Web Long House and Motel. US 62/US 412 meets U. S. Route 63, a patchwork of concurrencies throughout the state; the routes continue together to Imboden, when US 63/US 412 break and continue south, where US 62/AR 115 continues over the St. Louis-San Francisco Overpass headed north into Randolph County and Crowley's Ridge. In Randolph County, US 62 passes by cotton fields until Pocahontas, when the route meets US 67; the route concurs with US 67 east until Corning in Clay County. The route runs east through Crowley's Ridge to Piggott, enters Missouri near St. Francis; the route was a trail known as the Ozark Trail, the main series of routes in the area prior to the construction of U. S. Route 66; the Ozark Trails Association was responsible for maintaining and marking the routes, with William Hope Harvey in charge.
Harvey wanted an auto trail from Oklahoma to his resort town Monte Ne, which he established after retiring from the railroad business. He had grand visions of trails connecting Monte Ne with St. Louis, Kansas City, Wichita and Oklahoma City, points west. U. S. Route 62 from Gateway to Eureka Springs was designated part of The Jefferson Highway, although the highway was not marked and shifted; the highway was listed as a "Proposed Primary Federal Aid Road" on a state map in the first issue of "Arkansas Highways Magazine", but not numbered. The road brought lots of traffic through the hills of Arkansas resistant to development. Eureka Springs was a popular stop on the route, with a vibrant downtown. Nearby Arkansas Highway 23 further added tourists to the community. Further east, cities of Mountain Home and Flippin grew with US 62's traffic. Rough terrain interspersed with large waterways caused the need for large bridges, including the Cotter Bridge and the St. Louis-San Francisco Overpass. A 1981 study indicated a need of 31 climbing lanes from Harrison to Hardy necessary for safety purposes, indicative of the rough terrain.
Some historic alignments of the old road still exist with original pavement. One section, built between 1932 and bypassed in 1952, is located between Busch and Eureka Springs on either side of the White River. On the north side of the river Carroll County Route 109 follows the alignment to the former river crossing, where only concrete bridge piers remain to be seen. On the south side County Route 107 continues southward rejoining the modern alignment; this section was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008
U.S. Route 63 in Arkansas
U. S. Route 63 is a north-south U. S. highway that begins in Ruston, LA. In the US state of Arkansas the highway enters the state from Louisiana concurrent with US 167 in Junction City; the highway zigzags through the state serving the major cities of Pine Bluff, West Memphis and Jonesboro. The highway exits the state at Mammoth Spring traveling into Missouri. US 63 shares many overlaps with other highways in Arkansas; this includes I-40 and I-55. Once the freeway section was extended further south to I-55 at Turrell, US 63 from there to Jonesboro became I-555. U. S. 63 enters into Arkansas from Louisiana concurrent with US 167 in Junction City. Just a few miles into the state, the two highways run on the eastern edge of El Dorado as an expressway. US 167 splits here. US 63 bypasses the town of Warren, crossing US 270. US 63 passes through the rural Cleveland County enters into Jefferson County. In Jefferson County, US 63 serves the city of Pine Bluff. US 63 bypasses the city, running on the last 3 miles of I-530.
In Pine Bluff, the highway overlaps with US 65 and US 79. US 63 runs northeast with US 79 until Stuttgart. Just north of Hazen, US 63 overlaps with I-40 to West Memphis. In West Memphis, US 63 runs north with I-55. U. S. 63 runs with I-55 until Turrell, where it leaves the interstate and runs concurrent with I-555 until Jonesboro, until I-555 terminates. US 49 overlaps the two roadways for two miles in central Jonesboro. US 63/I-555 serves as a by-pass for southern Jonesboro. In Hoxie, US 63 intersects with US 67. Northwest of here near Portia the highway overlaps with US 412. In Imboden US 62 joins. In Hardy, US 63 leaves the two highways. In Mammoth Spring, US 63 crosses into Missouri. Portions of U. S. 63 in northern Arkansas have their origins in the work of the Ozark Trails Association, which established a network of roads in northern Arkansas and southern Missouri beginning in the 1910s. A portion of roadway was mapped out in Arkansas between Mammoth Spring and Memphis and built c. 1918-22. This roadway was designated Highway A-7, was designated U.
S. 63. Some of the original infrastructure of this early construction has survived the 1927 Mississippi flood and the realignment of U. S. 63 in 1967. Northwest of Tyronza, Old U. S. 63 runs for about 1-1/4 miles of original concrete pavement. Four bridges built in the 1920s (three before the 1927 flood and one after, are on the National Register. Interstate 555 U. S. Route 63 National Register of Historic Places in Poinsett County, Arkansas
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou