Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476, it served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although it is an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal, it is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, with eight buildings comprising the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna". The origin of the name Ravenna is unclear; some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna", the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point. The origins of Ravenna are uncertain; the first settlement is variously attributed to the Etruscans and the Umbrians.
Afterwards its territory was settled by the Senones the southern countryside of the city, the Ager Decimanus. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of small islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later; the Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, but accepted it into the Roman Republic as a federated town in 89 BC. In 49 BC, it was the location. After his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus founded the military harbor of Classe; this harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages. During the Germanic campaigns, widow of Arminius, Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna prospered under Roman rule. Emperor Trajan built a 70 km long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city.
For this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but banished those, brought there. In AD 402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna. At that time it was home to 50,000 people; the transfer was made for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes, was perceived to be defensible. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths bypassed Ravenna, went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II. Ravenna enjoyed a period of peace, during which time the Christian religion was favoured by the imperial court, the city gained some of its most famous monuments, including the Orthodox Baptistery, the misnamed Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, San Giovanni Evangelista; the late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West was deposed in 476 by the general Odoacer.
Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, where he withstood a siege of three years by Theodoric, until the taking of Rimini deprived Ravenna of supplies. Theodoric took Ravenna in 493 slew Odoacer with his own hands, Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Theodoric, following his imperial predecessors built many splendid buildings in and around Ravenna, including his palace church Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, an Arian cathedral and Baptistery, his own Mausoleum just outside the walls. Both Odoacer and Theodoric and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were Catholic Orthodox. Ravenna's Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theodoric allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system.
The Goths, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theodoric ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense. Theodoric died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theodoric's line was represented only by Amalasuntha's daughter Matasuntha. Various Ostrogothic military leaders took the Kingdom of Italy, but none were as successful as Theodoric had been. Meanwhile, the orthodox Christian Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, opposed both Ostrogoth rule and the Arian variety of Christianity. In 535 his general Belisarius in 540 conquered Ravenna. After the conquest of Italy was completed in 554, Ravenna became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy. From 540 to 600, Ravenna's
The Happy Hooker Goes Hollywood released in the UK as Hollywood Blue, is a 1980 film starring two-time Bond girl Martine Beswick, Adam West, Phil Silvers, Chris Lemmon, Edie Adams, Richard Deacon. The film, the last of a trilogy, is loosely based on the life of Xaviera Hollander, a prostitute from the Netherlands, as she attempts to make a film in Hollywood based on her best-selling book about her life, she gets involved with some of the most crooked producers in Hollywood, but beats them at their own game and films the movie without them. The Happy Hooker The Happy Hooker Goes to Washington The Happy Hooker Goes Hollywood on IMDb
The Southern League was a Class B and Class C minor league baseball league which operated intermittently in the Southern United States from 1885 to 1899. Financial problems plagued its member teams throughout their existence, it was not unusual for teams to depart the league during the season or for the league to cease operations without completing the season. It was this lack of financial support which caused the league to permanently disband in 1889. In 1901, a new league, called the Southern Association, was created from its remnants; the original Southern League was formed on February 1885, in Atlanta. It was the first professional league to operate in the South. Henry W. Grady, managing editor of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, was selected as the league's first president; the eight-team circuit included the Atlanta Atlantas, Augusta Browns, Chattanooga Lookouts, Columbus Stars, Memphis Reds, Nashville Americans, unnamed teams from Birmingham and Macon, Georgia. Each team was scheduled to play 100 games during the season, but few would reach that mark as the Birmingham and Columbus clubs quit the league in the final two weeks of the season.
Atlanta captured the Southern League's first pennant with their 66–32 season record. Nashville's Len Sowders was the league's first batting champion with a.309 batting average. Financial insolvency, a perpetual problem in the league, forced the teams from Augusta and Chattanooga to drop out of the league in July 1886. Atlanta repeated their previous winning season by capturing the 1886 league pennant with a 64–28 record. Lefty Marr, mirroring Nashville teammate Len Sowders' feat from the previous season, was the league's batting champion with a.327 batting average. Charleston Seagulls pitcher Gus Wehling had the lowest. A new entrant to the league, the New Orleans Pelicans, won the 1887 league pennant with a 74–40 record. Of the seven teams fielded during the 1887 season, only three made it to the end of the season on October 11. Wally Andrews of Memphis was the league's batting champion. Only four teams were able to compete during the 1888 season; the season opened on April 7, was halted by early July.
The league champion Birmingham Maroons compiled a 32–19. Season. Memphis' John Sneed led the league with his.354 batting average. The league played again in 1889 but only fielded four teams, to blame for the failure of the 1888 season. After the first week or two of play, the Southern League reorganized by adding three other teams; the league collapsed again that season after only three teams remained active by the middle of the season. New Orleans was in first place at the time the league dissolved; the circuit was non-operational from 1890 to 1891. The Southern League started up again in 1892, the Birmingham Grays won the league pennant; the 1893 Southern League featured the largest circuit in the league's history. The 12-team league was hampered by a poorly-designed schedule and insufficient financing which forced the owners of the Birmingham club, Charleston Seagulls, Nashville Tigers to turn control of their teams over to the league, which continued to operate the clubs. A meeting was held on July 1, at which the league's president, resigned despite those in attendance asking him to reconsider.
J. B. Nicklin of Chattanooga was elected as the new league president six days later. Between mid July and early August, The Birmingham team transferred to Pensacola, but soon found themselves quarantined from the rest of the league due to an outbreak of yellow fever; this development, in addition to ongoing financial debacles, caused the league to end the season on August 12. The Augusta Electricians were awarded the pennant for the first part of the season, the Macon Central City/Hornets were awarded the pennant for the second half. Charlie Frank of Memphis won the league batting title with a.390 average. In 1894, some teams were forced to sell their players to other clubs in order to stay financially solvent, while others refused to continue play in the second half. Only Nashville, New Orleans, Memphis competed after the season's midpoint; this prompted the Southern League to call the rest of the season off nine games into the second half on July 7, 1894, as the result of league-wide financial instability brought on by the expense of travel and poor attendance.
Memphis was awarded the pennant for having the best overall record. In the ensuing months, baseball leaders across the South considered which cities to include in the next iteration of the league. Representatives met at The Read House Hotel in Chattanooga on January 14 to reorganize for the 1895 season. Membership was granted to clubs in Atlanta, Evansville, Little Rock, Montgomery and New Orleans, thus lessening the expense of travel incurred in the past with the inclusion of cities such as Charleston and Savannah; each of the eight teams paid a US$1,000 deposit to guarantee. They pledged to pay dues of $100 per month plus 3% of total gate receipts for a sinking fund. Player salaries were capped at $1,000 per team; the 1895 season saw the Chattanooga franchise being transferred to Mobile on June 19, Memphis disbanding on July 23, Little Rock dropping out on July 27. Though the Atlanta Crackers and Nashville Seraphs ended the 1895 season tied for first place, a meeting of the league's directors resulted in the nullification of an August 10 game between the two in which the umpire improperly made an out call following fan interference.
This ruling caused the Seraphs' winning percentage to rise to.676 (