Tía Vicenta

Tía Vicenta was a satirical current events magazine published in Argentina between 1957 and 1966. Caricaturist and commentator Juan Carlos Colombres established Tía Vicenta with fellow illustrator Oski in 1957; the current events weekly earned renown for its satirical content regarding Argentine politics, its circulation, which averaged 50,000, doubled shortly afterward. One of its recurring topics was the ban on Peronism, which its editorials referred to and in violation of Decree Law 4161/56. Another political controversy whose coverage made Tía Vicenta memorable was the dispute between President Arturo Frondizi and Vice President Alejandro Gómez regarding Frondizi's decision in 1958 to open the nation's oil fields to foreign exploration; the Vice President had not made his opposition to this policy in public. The covers of Tía Vicenta, appeared for a number of weeks with a corner photo of Gómez in a circular insert with an epigraph asking: ¿A mi por qué me miran?. Gómez was forced to resign by the President in November six months after their swearing in.

Tía Vicenta appeared as a supplement to the popular news daily El Mundo beginning in 1960, with a circulation ranging from 200,000 to 450,000 per issue it would become the best-selling magazine in the country. Numerous well known Argentine illustrators and journalists began their career at Tía Vicenta, including Quino, Faruk and Copi. Other noted contributors included Conrado Nalé Roxlo, Hermenegildo Sábat, María Elena Walsh, as well as its co-founder, Oscar Conti. Landrú used surreal humor to lampoon prevailing issues, he made a liberal use of artistic license on the magazine's covers themselves, which featured his caricatures, whose design changed frequently. His irreverent portrayals of General Juan Carlos Onganía, who had seized power in a 1966 coup d'état, as a walrus resulted in the closure of Tía Vicenta by government edict in July of that year; the shuttered magazine returned as Tío Landrú from 1967 to 1969, again returned, by its original name though in a less successful version, from 1977 to 1979.

Landrú would continue to illustrate editorials in numerous other publications in subsequent decades, notably Clarín. Edgardo Russo wrote a history of the periodical, Historia de Tía Vicenta, published by Espasa-Calpe in 1994


EKIP is the Soviet and Russian project of a multifunctional aerodrome-free aircraft, built according to the "flying wing" scheme, with an elliptical-shaped fuselage. Known by its Russian nickname of Tarielka, the EKIP can land on water or unpaved ground through the use of an air cushion instead of a wheeled undercarriage; the EKIP is a short landing aircraft. A special feature of the design is the presence of a special system of stabilization and reduction of drag, made in the form of a vortex control system of the boundary layer flowing around the stern surface of the device, as well as an additional flat-bed reactive system for controlling the device at low speeds and in takeoff and landing modes; the need for a stabilization system and reduction of drag is due to the fact that the body of the apparatus, made in the form of a thick wing of small elongation, on the one hand, has a high aerodynamic quality and is able to create lifting force several times higher than a thin wing, on the other hand, it has low stability due to the disruption of flows and the formation of zones of turbulence.

The use of the "bearing wing" scheme allows us to provide a useful internal volume several times larger than that of promising aircraft of equal payload. Such a body increases the comfort and safety of flights saves fuel and reduces operating costs; the EKIP concept was developed by Professor Lev Nikolayevich Schukin, an engineer trained in aircraft engine development who worked for the NPO Energia rocket design corporation and participated in the Soviet portion of the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975, the first US-Soviet space linkup. In 1978, the EKIP concept was first proposed to Soviet military authorities, in 1979, Schukin founded the EKIP NPP, based in Podlipki. In 1980, the EKIP project initiated engineering work; the first bench test on a small-scale model was conducted in 1982 at the top-secret Geodesia research institute in Krasnoarmeysk, Moscow Oblast. Major work on the still top-secret project began in 1987, flight tests of the first scale model began in 1990–1991; this first radio-controlled flown aircraft was called the L-1 model, it had a T-tail empennage.

The flights took place at the Sokol Aircraft Plant, known for producing MiG fighter aircraft. After radio-control problems caused the scale model to crash during a flight in snowy conditions, the Nizhny Novgorod manufacturing plant banned further EKIP test flights. Scale model testing was moved in April 1990 to the Saratov Aviation Plant, where Yakovlev aircraft were manufactured. In 1992, another small, unmanned model crashed from a height of 40 m, but it flew after repairs and ballast adjustment; that year, the EKIP Aviation Concern was founded by the EKIP NPP, Saratov Aviation Plant, the Triumf NPP. The concept made its public debut in 1992 at the Mosaeroshou, it appeared at other exhibitions over the next two years, including the 1993 Paris Air Show. At the MAKS air show in September 1993, Schukin described three versions being developed: an 8-metric-ton, single-deck, 20-seat model. Two 2.7 m span, L-2 models were flown by remote control in the middle of that year. In 1994, reports about the EKIP began to appear in Western media, the L3 model had earned provisional orders for 1,500 aircraft from the North Siberian Development Board, a Russian food distribution agency.

At this time, the Saratov Aviation Plant was building an unmanned, 15 m span L2-3 model for flight testing. The all-metal L2-3 model would be powered by two Saturn/Lyulka AL-34 engines, which generate an air cushion for takeoff and landing and power the boundary layer control system; the AL-34 turboshaft engines, which were designed for light aircraft and rotorcraft, were placed centrally inside the hull. Saratov had finished the preliminary design of the 120 t variant, which would have a span of 56 m. In addition to its two AL-34 engines, this larger variant would include a pair of Kuznetsov NK-92 ducted propfan engines to provide 18,000 kgf of forward thrust. Bigger variants of up to 128 m in span and 600 t in weight may use the 23,000 kgf, Progress D-18T turbofan for forward thrust instead of the NK-92, with the AL-34 engines still remaining for auxiliary purposes. By April 1995, unmanned test flights were scheduled for October 1995, with manned flights to be attempted in 1996. Five commercial cargo/passenger variants were described at this time: the L2-3, L3-1, L3-2, L4-1, L4-2, which had seating capacities covering 24 to 2,000 passengers, flying ranges of 1,300–4,600 nmi, maximum takeoff weights of 9–600 t.

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russian government granted the EKIP project 1.2 billion rubles of funding in June 1993. However, by the time the money was received, hyperinflation had eroded its purchasing power by a factor of eight. Construction of two full-size EKIP vehicles with a total take-off weight of 9 t had begun; the hulls and control surfaces were built at Energia in Korolev, final assembly was performed at Sara