Ray Douglas Bradbury was an American author and screenwriter. He worked in a variety of genres, including fantasy, science fiction and mystery fiction. Predominantly known for writing the iconic dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, his science-fiction and horror-story collections, The Martian Chronicles, The Illustrated Man, I Sing the Body Electric, Bradbury was one of the most celebrated 20th- and 21st-century American writers. While most of his best known work is in fantasy fiction, he wrote in other genres, such as the coming-of-age novel Dandelion Wine and the fictionalized memoir Green Shadows, White Whale. Recipient of numerous awards, including a 2007 Pulitzer Citation, Bradbury wrote and consulted on screenplays and television scripts, including Moby Dick and It Came from Outer Space. Many of his works were adapted to comic book and film formats. Upon his death in 2012, The New York Times called Bradbury "the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream".
Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Esther Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant, Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, a power and telephone lineman of English ancestry. He was given the middle name "Douglas" after the actor Douglas Fairbanks. Bradbury was related to the U. S. Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding and descended from Mary Bradbury, tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692. Bradbury was surrounded by an extended family during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan. An aunt read him short stories; this period provided foundations for his stories. In Bradbury's works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes Illinois; the Bradbury family lived in Tucson, during 1926–1927 and 1932–1933 while their father pursued employment, each time returning to Waukegan. They settled in Los Angeles in 1934 when Bradbury was 14 years old; the family arrived with only US$40, which paid for rent and food until his father found a job making wire at a cable company for $14 a week. This meant that they could stay, Bradbury, in love with Hollywood, was ecstatic.
Bradbury was active in the drama club. He roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meeting celebrities. Among the creative and talented people Bradbury met were special-effects pioneer Ray Harryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradbury's first pay as a writer, at age 14, was for a joke he sold to George Burns to use on the Burns and Allen radio show. Throughout his youth, Bradbury was an avid reader and writer and knew at a young age that he was "going into one of the arts." Bradbury began writing his own stories at age 11, during the Great Depression — sometimes writing on the only available paper, butcher paper. In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie library in Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe. At 12, Bradbury began writing traditional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe until he was about 18. In addition to comics, he loved Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan of the Apes Burroughs' John Carter of Mars series; the Warlord of Mars impressed him so much.
The young Bradbury was a cartoonist and loved to illustrate. He drew his own Sunday panels, he listened to the radio show Chandu the Magician, every night when the show went off the air, he would sit and write the entire script from memory. As a teen in Beverly Hills, he visited his mentor and friend science-fiction writer Bob Olsen, sharing ideas and maintaining contact. In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, Bradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings of the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society. Excited to find there were others sharing his interest, Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-night conclave at age 16. Bradbury cited H. G. Jules Verne as his primary science-fiction influences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, "He believes the human being is in a strange situation in a strange world, he believes that we can triumph by behaving morally". Bradbury admitted that he stopped reading science-fiction books in his 20s and embraced a broad field of literature that included Alexander Pope and poet John Donne.
Bradbury had just graduated from high school when he met Robert Heinlein 31 years old. Bradbury recalled, "He was well known, he wrote humanistic science fiction, which influenced me to dare to be human instead of mechanical."In young adulthood Bradbury read stories published in Astounding Science Fiction, read everything by Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, the early writings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt. The family lived about four blocks from the Fox Uptown Theatre on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship theater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how to sneak in and watched previews every week, he rollerskated there, as well as all over town, as he put it, "hell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars. It was glorious." Among stars the young Bradbury was thrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer and Hardy, Ronald Colman. Sometimes, he spent all day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pictures and skated to the Brown Derby to watch the stars who came and went for meals.
He recounted seeing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, whom he learned made a regular appearance every Friday night, bodyguard in tow. Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bondarchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War
Balwinder Singh Bhunder is an Indian politician a member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India, from the state of Punjab, is the Senior Vice-President of Shiromani Akali Dal Political party. He is a member of the Shiromani Akali Dal party, he served as the Cabinet Minister for Agriculture, the Cabinet Minister for Forest and Soil Conservation from 1977–1980. He has held former positions of General Secretary of Shiromani Akali Dal, President of All India Kisan Sabha and Member of the Legislative Assembly from Sardulgarh, Mansa district, he was born 20 September 1944, in the village of Bhunder, Mansa district, in the state of Punjab, to Sardar Boota Singh and Shrimati Surjit Kaur. He is married to Shrimati Balwant Kaur, they had Balraj Singh Bhunder and Dilraj Singh Bhunder. Balraj Singh Bhunder died in 2007 at the age of 40. Dilraj Singh Bhunder is an MLA from Mansa district. From 1964 to 1972, he was a Village Sarpanch. From 1972 to 1987, he was a member of the Punjab Legislative Assembly.
During which he served as the Cabinet Minister for Agriculture and the Cabinet Minister for Forest and Soil Conservation from 1977 to 1980. From 1997 to 1999, he served as the Chairman of the Agriculture Marketing Board. In 1998, he was elected to the Rajya Sabha. Since he has served as a member of Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Agriculture, Civil Supplies and Public Distribution, the Committee of Food, he was again elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha in 2010 and 2016. Since he has served as a member of Committee to the Wakf Bill, Committee on Water Resources, Committee on Subordinate Legislation, the Committee of Rajya Sabha on the Mines and Minerals Amendment Bill
Birchills Junction is the canal junction at the northern limit of what is now called the Walsall Canal where it meets the Wyrley and Essington Canal main line, near Walsall, West Midlands, England. It opened in 1798, but lasted for little more than a year, until it was re-opened in 1841 when a connecting link was built to the Birmingham Canal Navigations' southern route to Walsall; the Wyrley and Essington Canal was authorised by an Act of Parliament in 1792, as a way of delivering coal from the Wyrley and Essington coal fields to the towns of Wolverhampton to the west and Walsall to the east. The main line was to run from the coal fields down to Sneyd Junction, continue westwards to reach the Birmingham Canal Navigations at Horseley Fields Junction, near Wolverhampton. A branch would run from Sneyd Junction eastwards to Birchills. Before construction work was complete, the company obtained a second Act in 1794, which authorised a line from near Birchills to Brownhills, passing through Bloxwich and Pelsall.
From Brownhills it would drop through 30 locks on its route past Lichfield to reach Huddlesford Junction. This was on a route authorised by the Coventry Canal Act, but built by the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, as part of a deal to ensure that that canal was part of a larger network and would therefore be profitable; the Wyrley and Essington main line was now considered to be the route from Horseley Fields to Birchills Junction via Sneyd Junction, on to Huddlesford Junction. The route which climbed Wyrley Bank to the coal mines was now a branch, as was the final short section of the route between Birchills Junction and the basin where the original branch terminated. To the south of the junction, another canal had been built in stages. Leaving the Birmingham Canal Navigations main line at Pudding Green Junction, the first part had been built by the Wednesbury Canal and opened in 1769; the next section had been built under powers contained in the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Act, ran from Riders Green Junction to Broadwaters, a coal mining complex near Moxley.
This opened in 1786. Plans for a link from Broadwaters to Walsall were proposed in 1793, but the route was not built until 1799; the Wyrley and Essington main line opened on 8 May 1797, their northern branch to Walsall opened the following year. The southern route from Broadwaters opened in June 1799, after that date, the northern branch was used. John Farley visited the area in 1809, reported that the northern branch was dammed off, had been dry for some time. Although a Mr. Willoughby attempted to get the branch reopened in 1818, no further action took place, until after the merger of the Wyrley and Essington Canal and the Birmingham Canal Navigations. A short connecting link was built in 1841, with eight locks, to join the southern and northern branches and create a through route; the junction became operational again in 1841, the canal to the south of it is now considered to be part of the Walsall Canal. From the junction, the Wyrley and Essington Canal to the west is level for its entire 8 miles to Horseley Fields Junction, where it joins the Birmingham Canal Navigations main line.
In the other direction, it passes under Green Lane Bridge, which carries the A34 road over the canal, is level for 9.3 miles to Chasewater Reservoir. Ogley Junction, from where the former main line to Huddleford ran, is just over 1 mile from the end, but the route was abandoned in 1954. However, it may be reopened as the Lichfield Canal, for a restoration group have been working on it for some years; the towpath on the Wyrley and Essington Canal is on the southern bank, it crosses the start of the Walsall Canal. Afterwards, Stephenson Avenue Bridge crosses, the canal passes over an aqueduct, which once passed over a railway line but is now dismantled; the top lock of the eight Walsall Locks, which lower the level by 65 feet, is reached after 0.4 miles. At the bottom of the flight is Walsall Junction, where the Walsall Canal continues straight ahead and the short Walsall Town Arm turns to the east. List of canal junctions in the United Kingdom List of canal aqueducts in the United Kingdom List of canal basins in the United Kingdom List of canal locks in the United Kingdom List of canal tunnels in the United Kingdom