Glossary of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms. A-show A wrestling event where a company's biggest draws wrestle. Compare B-show and C-show. A-team A group of a wrestling promotion's top stars who wrestle at an A-show. Compare B-team. Abort To discontinue a feud, angle, or gimmick due to a lack of fan interest without explanation. Ace A term only used in Japanese puroresu for a wrestler designated as the face of the promotion. Not the same as the top champion. Examples of aces include Hayabusa in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, Hiroshi Tanahashi in New Japan Pro Wrestling and Suwama in All Japan Pro Wrestling.
Agent Also producer. A management employee a former wrestler, who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, relay instructions from the bookers. Agents act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may help in training younger wrestlers, they are referred to by WWE as "producers". Alliance A cooperative relationship developed between two or more wrestlers, whether wrestling as a tag team or in individual matches. Differentiates from a stable and a faction as the wrestlers are not packaged together, but are presented as a group of individuals working together for a common short term goal. Alliances are formed for the specific purpose of retaining titles between the members of the alliance, or to counter a specific foe or group of foes; the formation of an alliance can be a storyline of its own. Angle A fictional storyline. An angle begins when one wrestler attacks another, which results in revenge. An angle may be as small as a vendetta that lasts for years.
It is not uncommon to see an angle become retconned due to it not getting over with the fans, or if one of the wrestlers involved in the angle is fired. Apter mag An old-style professional wrestling magazine; the term refers to the magazines at one time connected to journalist Bill Apter, such as Pro Wrestling Illustrated. B-show A wrestling event featuring the middle and lower-level talent of a wrestling promotion. Sometimes includes well-known wrestlers making a return or finishing up their career. Compare A-show and C-show. B-team The group of wrestlers on a B-show; the B-team will wrestle at a venue the same night wrestlers on the A-team are wrestling in a different event, although a promotion will sometimes schedule an event with B-team wrestlers to test a new market. Compare A-team. Babyface See face. Beat down An angle in which a wrestler or other performer is the recipient of a one-sided beating by a group of wrestlers. Blading Also juicing and getting color. A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves to provoke bleeding to sell the opponent's offense.
Blind tag 1. A tag made in a tag team match where the wrestler on the apron tags his partner unbeknownst to them or without their consent. 2. A tag where the tagger's opponent is unaware a tag has occurred, leaving them open to a blindside attack. Most occurs when the partner in the ring is thrown against the ropes or backed into their own corner. Blown spot See missed spot. Blow off The final match in a feud. While the involved wrestlers move onto new feuds, sometimes it is the final match in the promotion for one or more of the wrestlers. Blow up To become exhausted during a match. Book Also booking. To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling card; the person in charge of setting up matches and writing angles is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion; the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as " any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions".
Booking is the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show. Botch Something which does not go as planned due to a mistake. Bret's rope The second rope of a wrestling ring, the middle rope. Broadway Also going broadway. A match that ends in a time limit draw. Bump To fall on the mat or ground. A flat back bump is a bump in which a wrestler lands solidly on their back with high impact, spread over as much surface as possible. A "phantom bump" occurs when a referee takes a bump without a plausible reason. Burial Also buried; the worked lowering of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a push, it is the act of a promoter or booker causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in squash matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no-sell or kick out of said wrestler's finisher, or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or gimmick.
Business Professional wrestling. Bust
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Charles Doyle Haas II is an American retired professional and amateur wrestler. He is best known for his appearances with World Wrestling Entertainment in the 2000s and Ring of Honor in the 2010s, he is known for teaming up with Shelton Benjamin and Kurt Angle in a tag team called "The World's Greatest Tag Team" Haas was an amateur wrestler in high school, attended Seton Hall University on a wrestling scholarship, before becoming a stockbroker. He became a professional wrestler in 1996, teamed with his brother, with the two winning numerous championships on the independent circuit, including the CZW World Tag Team Championship and the JAPW Tag Team Championship. After signing contracts with WWE, The Haas Brothers were assigned to WWE's developmental territories, where they won the MCW Southern Tag Team Championship on three occasions. After Russ' death in 2001 due to a heart attack, Haas began wrestling in singles competition, winning the HWA Heavyweight Championship once. Haas formed a team with Shelton Benjamin and the two debuted on SmackDown in December 2002.
They won the WWE Tag Team Championship twice, dubbed themselves The World's Greatest Tag Team before they split in 2004. Haas won the WWE Tag Team Championship once more with Rico, gained Miss Jackie, whom he married, as a valet. Haas transferred into singles competition before being released from WWE in 2005. After a short stint in Jersey All Pro Wrestling and other independent promotions, Haas was re-signed to WWE in April 2006, he formed a short-lived team with Viscera, before reforming the World's Greatest Tag Team with Benjamin. After Benjamin transferred to the ECW brand, Haas began wrestling with a comical luchador persona, before developing a character where he imitated other wrestlers and WWE Hall of Famers. In addition, Haas won the last match on WWE Heat when the show ended on May 30, 2008. Haas was released from WWE in February 2010, he soon returned to the independent circuit, including returning to JAPW and appearing for Ring of Honor. In September 2010, he won the NWA Texas Heavyweight Championship.
On April 1, 2011, Haas and Benjamin won the ROH World Tag Team Championship and held it until December 2011. Haas announced his retirement from professional wrestling in March 2013, but returned to competition in August that same year. Aside from wrestling and his wife Jackie ran a nutritional store, Custom Muscle Nutrition and Smoothie Shop, in Frisco, which they opened in October 2008 but has since closed. After debuting in 1996 as a professional wrestler, Haas teamed with his brother Russ for numerous independent promotions. On July 22, 1998, The Haas Brothers won the Jersey All Pro Wrestling Tag Team Championship by defeating The Skin Head Express, they lost it to The Nation of Immigration just over a month on August 25. They won the championship for the second time on May 21, 1999, by defeating The Big Unit, held the championship until February 25, 2000 when they were defeated by Da Hit Squad. During 2000 they held the Pennsylvania Championship Wrestling Tag Team Championship and the ECWA Tag Team Championship in the East Coast Wrestling Association promotion, which they won by defeating The Backseat Boyz.
The Haas brothers began competing for Combat Zone Wrestling in November 1999, losing to The King Pinz at The War Begins on November 20, 1999. They competed for CZW throughout early 2000, won the CZW World Tag Team Championship on February 12 at Climbing The Ladder by defeating The Kashmerino Brothers and The Thrill Kill Kult in a three-way match. On July 10, they lost the championship to The Backseat Boyz at Caged To The End, when Johnny Kashmere defeated Russ in a singles match and was awarded the championship. After a World Wrestling Federation tryout match at Madison Square Garden on August 7, 2000, they signed a developmental contract with WWF; the two worked their way through the tag ranks in the WWF's developmental territories, Memphis Championship Wrestling and the Heartland Wrestling Association. The brothers won the MCW Southern Tag Team Championship three times during early 2001, defeating The Dupps the first time and The Island Boyz and Joey Matthews and Christian York in a three-way match on both the second and third occasions.
Russ died from a heart attack due to a pre-existing heart condition, on December 15, 2001 at age 27. The brothers fought in dark matches in the WWF up until Russ died. After Russ' death, Charlie continue to fight in dark matches. After Russ' death as a tribute to him, Haas wrote Russ' name on his wrist tape, used the name "R. C. Haas" before being called up to the main WWE roster. On January 2, 2002, Haas won the HWA Heavyweight Championship, his first singles championship, by defeating Val Venis, he was stripped of the title on January 29 due to a scripted contract loophole. After World Wrestling Entertainment ended its affiliation with the HWA, Haas was moved to Ohio Valley Wrestling where he competed until December 2002. Haas debuted on WWE's main roster on the December 26, 2002 episode of SmackDown! as a heel along with Shelton Benjamin as Team Angle. The tag team was the "contingency plan" of Paul Heyman, were intended to help WWE Champion Kurt Angle retain his title, attacking Chris Benoit and Brock Lesnar in an attempt to soften them up.
They won the WWE Tag Team Championship on February 6, 2003, by defeating Los Guerreros. They held the championship for three months, including a successful title defense at WrestleMania XIX against Los Guerreros and the team of Chris Benoit and Rhyno, before losing the
Cryme Tyme is a professional wrestling tag team consisting of JTG and Shad Gaspard, best known for their tenure in WWE. The team is an over-the-top parody of stereotypical street thugs. Gaspard qualified for the finals of the reality television program Tough Enough 2 in 2002, but was disqualified and replaced after failing a physical, he was recruited by WWE talent scout Tom Prichard and trained with DeWayne Bruce for six months before debuting in Ohio Valley Wrestling under the ring name Da Beast. He acted as part of the stable Bolin Services. JTG meanwhile had debuted as Just Too Good in OVW and after two matches, he was repackaged as The Neighborhoodie and subsequently placed into a tag team with Gaspard, who began performing under his real name. Collectively, their team was named "The Gang Stars". In OVW, they won the OVW Southern Tag Team Championship by defeating Roadkill and Kasey James on May 24, 2006, in their first match as a team. After they won the championships, they entered into a feud with CM Punk who teamed up with Kane to defeat them and Simon Dean in a handicap match.
Punk and Kane won a title match by disqualification. They retained the titles in a gauntlet match, but in the month lost the championships to Punk and Seth Skyfire on July 28; the following day, they lost a number one contendership match to The Untouchables. The following year, the team returned to OVW, this time under the name "Cryme Tyme", regained the OVW Southern Tag Team Championship on July 21 from The James Boys, they lost the titles back to them the following day. In late 2006, WWE promoted The Gang Stars to the main Raw brand roster, starting by having them work live events and dark matches. On the September 4 episode of Raw, vignettes began airing to promote the debut of the team, now dubbed Cryme Tyme, showing them "training" for their pending debut on the show. Before the vignettes aired, WWE placed a statement on their website, WWE.com, stating: The vignettes, which aired weekly, featured Cryme Tyme robbing people while an announcer dubbed their actions "training exercises" designed to work on things like "speed", "agility", "drive", "endurance", "intensity".
Cryme Tyme wrestled as fan favorites at live events and in dark matches making their television debut, defeating Johnny and Mikey of The Spirit Squad on the October 16 episode of Raw. After arriving on Raw, they were depicted covertly stealing things—such as Jerry Lawler's laptop, a plasma screen TV—during interviews and while celebrating wins with the announce team. On November 5, the team made their pay-per-view debut at Cyber Sunday, defeating Lance Cade and Trevor Murdoch, The Highlanders, Charlie Haas and Viscera in a four team tornado tag team match; that same month, they were featured in a Raw segment that parodied Michael Richards's "Laugh Factory incident". In the skit, a wrestler — acting as a stand in for Richards — recreated the scene of the incident by using racial slurs and insults until Cryme Tyme confronted him on stage. Nervous, he offered an apology, but Gaspard kicked him in the head and JTG made a Seinfeld-esque joke by saying, "What's the deal with the Bloods and the Crips?
Can't they all just get along?". This event was the beginning of a series of vignettes and skits featuring Cryme Tyme interacting with different, unexpected audiences. Around the same time, they began a feud with The World's Greatest Tag Team, during which Benjamin began to express disgust with Cryme Tyme's antics, calling them offensive and harmful to the black community. During the storyline, Haas started "acting black", but after the World's Greatest Tag Team handed Cryme Tyme their first loss on the January 29, 2007, episode of Raw, the program was dropped, with Cryme Tyme appearing on Raw's sister show Heat, only appearing on Raw in backstage segments. On July 21, 2007, Cryme Tyme appeared at an OVW event and wrestled the OVW Southern Tag Team Champion The James Boys, winning the championship for the second time; the duo returned to Raw in July with a new gimmick, which saw them taking items and auctioning them off to the crowd. This led to a feud with World Tag Team Champions Lance Cade and Trevor Murdoch, but both JTG and Gaspard were released from their WWE contracts for undisclosed reasons on September 2, 2007, before the feud was resolved.
After leaving WWE, they continued teaming together on the professional wrestling independent circuit, using the alternate spelling "Crime Time". They appeared at Jersey All Pro Wrestling's 10th Anniversary Show, defeating the Dirty Rotten Scoundrelz, they left the promotion undefeated after defeating Style & Finesse in January 2008's Reclaiming Hudson. The duo made several solo appearances on the solo circuit. Gaspard lost to Psicosis at a Pro Wrestling Alliance event in September while his partner, appearing under the altered name Jay-TG made several appearances on the Derby City Wrestling television programme. JTG and Gaspard returned to WWE under the Cryme Tyme name on the March 31 episode of Raw in 2008, defeating Lance Cade and Trevor Murdoch. Cryme Tyme began working with John Cena on the June 30 episode of Raw when they helped him interfere during John "Bradshaw" Layfield's match; the following week on Raw, they again appeared together in a segment when they vandalized JBL's limo. After a live event match, Cena confirmed that they had created a faction and announced that it was called CTC or "Cryme Tyme Cenation".
Separately, Cryme Tyme started a feud with World Tag Team Champions Cody Rhodes and Ted DiBiase, stealing their championship belts for a time losing a title ma
Curt Hawkins and Zack Ryder
Curt Hawkins and Zack Ryder are a professional wrestling tag team signed to WWE and assigned to the Raw brand. They are the current Raw Tag Team Champions in their second reign, with Hawkins and Ryder being the youngest tag team, collectively, to hold the championship; the duo made their professional wrestling debut in 2004 as a tag team in New York Wrestling Connection, wrestling as Brian Myers and Brett Matthews. After the team signed with WWE, they would become exclusively tag team wrestlers, they debuted in WWE's main roster in 2007 on the ECW brand as Brian and Brett Major, collectively known as The Major Brothers. That year, they were repackaged and renamed to Curt Hawkins and Zack Ryder as associates of Edge and subsequently aligned themselves with La Familia on the SmackDown brand. Nicknamed "The Rated-R Entourage" and "The Edgeheads", Hawkins and Ryder continued their alliance with Edge until the team split in April 2009, after Ryder was drafted back to the ECW brand as part of the 2009 WWE draft.
After the team's split and Ryder sporadically teamed together in matches, but would not reunite until ten years in January 2019. They would go on to capture the WWE Raw Tag Team Championships at WrestleMania 35 in April 2019; the two debuted as a team in New York Wrestling Connection in 2004 with Matthew Cardona using the name Brett Matthews and Brian Myers using his real name. On May 21, 2005, they defeated the NYWC Tag Team Champions Dickie Rodz and Mason Raige by disqualification. At the next event on June 4, they won a rematch decisively to become Tag Team Champions; that month they were attacked by The Dead Presidents. Though they defended their titles against them in July, on August 27. On September 23 they were entered into a three-way match with the champions but Team Tremendous ended up with the belts. After continuing to win matches they re-earned a match against the champions and won the titles for the second time on January 25, 2006, they held the titles until they faced The B. S. Xpress, who defeated them for the gold on March 26.
Matthews and Myers moved to Deep South Wrestling in Georgia tweaking their ring names to Brett and Brian Majors, appearing collectively as The Majors Brothers. They lost their debut match on June 1 to Montel Vontavious Eric Pérez, they picked up their first wins on June 15 against Francisco Ciatso and Cru Jones but lost a Four Way title contendership match in July to Urban Assault. They continued to feud with Ciatso who changed partners but never defeated The Majors Brothers. After a six match winning streak they were given a match against The Untouchables who were reigning as DSW Tag Team Champions. On 12 October, The Majors Brothers became the new champions after the match was restarted following a double pin situation; as champions, the team became targets for aspiring champions and after their first title defence were attacked by Urban Assault. A scheduled match against them in November ended in double disqualification when The Gymini interfered in the match to attack both teams while a defence against The Gymini the following week saw another disqualification when Urban Assault made a return interference.
The following week on November 30 The Majors Brothers lost their titles to Urban Assault. Their rematch went to a no contest when Urban Assault's manager G-Rilla began fighting with The Freakin' Deacon, in The Majors' corner. After the DSW Tag Team Championship was vacated when the incumbents were released, The Majors were placed in a Three Way Tag Team match on January 19, 2007 for the titles, defeating The Samoan Fight Club and The Blue Bloods to become two-time champions, they held the championships losing them on 8 March to Team Elite. The Majors stayed in DSW until April, exchanging victories with The Blue Bloods and teaming with Kofi Nahaje Kingston to defeat The Next Generation Hart Foundation and Shawn Osborne. Brian Majors pre-empted the tag team's first appearance in Ohio Valley Wrestling on April 25's TV tapings in a 15-minute time limit draw against Jay Bradley; as a team they debuted on May 9 to pick up a win against Los Locos with a tweaked name of The Major Brothers. After defeating Gothic Mayhem in successive matches they went on to defeat the reigning OVW Southern Tag Team Champions "The Hammer" Charles Evans and "The Ox" Justin LaRouche twice in non-title matches, once by disqualification.
These series of victories led to them facing Evans and LaRouche, joined by Dr. Thomas in a three-on-two handicap tag match on June 15 and winning the OVW Tag Team Championship; the former champions defeated them in a Four-Way Elimination Tag Team match the following week but a title match between the two of them on June 22 saw The Major Brothers retain. This was short lived though as they lost a non-title and subsequent title match to The James Boys on 29 June, their rematch ended in a double countout and after this The Major Brothers won only by disqualification, by which titles can't change hands, but lost a decisive rematch on July 13. In October they shared a rivalry with Paul Burchill winning against him and Drew McIntyre and again against Burchill and Stu Sanders and The Empire, they continued to win in a Four Corners Tag Team match against Los Locos, The Empire and LaRouche with Andrew Vain. They took this momentum into a tournament for the Southern Tag Team Championship defeat
"Hillbilly" is a term for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States in Appalachia and the Ozarks. The first known instances of "hillbilly" in print were in The Railroad Trainmen's Journal, an 1899 photograph of men and women in West Virginia labeled "Camp Hillbilly", a 1900 New York Journal article containing the definition: "a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammeled white citizen of Tennessee, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him"; the stereotype is twofold in that it incorporates both positive and negative traits: "Hillbillies" are considered independent and self-reliant individuals who resist the modernization of society, but at the same time they are defined as backward and violent. Scholars argue; the Appalachian Mountains were settled in the 18th century by settlers from the Province of Ulster in Ireland. The settlers from Ulster were Protestants who migrated to Ireland, during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century, from Scotland and Northern England.
Many further migrated to the American colonies beginning in the 1730s, in America became known as the Scots-Irish. Scholars argue; the term "hill-folk" referred to people who preferred isolation from the greater society, "billy" meant "comrade" or "companion". It is suggested that "hill-folk" and "billie" were combined when the Cameronians fled to the Scottish Highlands. There is the belief that most of the settlers from Scotland and northern Ireland were followers of king William of Orange.'Billy' is a diminutive of'William'. For the people who settle in America in the hills and who were Williamites, the term hillbilly connects both people who live in the hills and who are supporters of king William of Orange's ideologies. In 17th century Ireland, during the Williamite War, when Protestant supporters of King William III were referred to as "Billy's Boys". However, some scholars disagree with this theory. Michael Montgomery's From Ulster to America: The Scotch-Irish Heritage of American English states, "In Ulster in recent years it has sometimes been supposed that it was coined to refer to followers of King William III and brought to America by early Ulster emigrants, but this derivation is certainly incorrect....
In America hillbilly was first attested only in 1898, which suggests a independent development."The term "hillbilly" spread in the years following the American Civil War. At this time, the country was developing both technologically and but the Appalachian region was falling behind. Before the war, Appalachia was not distinctively different from other rural areas of the country. Post-war, although the frontier pushed farther west, the region maintained frontier characteristics. Appalachians themselves were inbred in their isolation. Fueled by news stories of mountain feuds such as that in the 1880s between the Hatfields and McCoys, the hillbilly stereotype developed in the late 19th to early 20th century; the "classic" hillbilly stereotype reached its current characterization during the years of the Great Depression, when many mountaineers left their homes to find work in other areas of the country. The period of Appalachian out-migration from the 1930s through the 1950s, saw many mountain residents moving North to the Midwestern industrial cities of Chicago, Cleveland and Detroit.
This movement North, which became known as the "Hillbilly Highway", brought these isolated communities into mainstream United States culture. In response, poor white mountaineers became central characters in newspapers and motion pictures. Authors at the time were inspired by historical figures such as Daniel Boone; the mountaineer image transferred over to the 20th century. Pop culture has perpetuated the "hillbilly" stereotype. Scholarly works suggest that the media has exploited both the Appalachian region and people by classifying them as "hillbillies"; these generalizations do not match the cultural experiences of Appalachians. Appalachians, like many other groups, do not subscribe to a single identity. One of the issues associated with stereotyping is; when "hillbilly" became a used term, entrepreneurs saw a window for potential revenue. They brought it to life through various forms of media. Television and film have portrayed "hillbillies" in both sympathetic terms. Films such as Sergeant York or the Ma and Pa Kettle series portrayed the "hillbilly" as wild but good-natured.
Television programs of the 1960s such as The Real McCoys, The Andy Griffith Show, The Beverly Hillbillies, portrayed the "hillbilly" as backwards but with enough wisdom to outwit more sophisticated city folk. Gunsmoke's Festus Haggen was portrayed as quick-witted; the popular 1970s television variety show Hee Haw lampooned the stereotypical "hillbilly" lifestyle. A darker image of the hillbilly is found in the film Deliverance, based on a novel by James Dickey which depicted some "hillbillies" as genetically deficient and murderous, while depicting others as helpful and smart. "Hillbillies" were at the center of reality television in the 21st century. Network television shows such as New Beverly Hillbillies, High Life, The Simple Life displayed the "hillbilly" lifestyle for viewers in the United States; this sparked pro