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Ray Hyman

Ray Hyman is a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Oregon in Eugene, a noted critic of parapsychology. Hyman, along with James Randi, Martin Gardner and Paul Kurtz, is one of the founders of the modern skeptical movement, he is the leader of the Skeptic's Toolbox. Hyman serves on the Executive Council for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Hyman was born in Massachusetts. In his teenage years and while attending Boston University as a young man, he worked as a magician and mentalist, impressing the head of his department with his palmistry. Hyman at one point believed that'reading' the lines on a person's palm could provide insights into their nature, but discovered that the person's reaction to the reading had little to do with the actual lines on the palm; this fascination with why this happened led him to switch from a journalist degree to psychology. JREF president D. J. Grothe asked Hyman "How does a young psychology student get into this parapsychology racket... why you?"

Hyman replied that it began when he was hired as a magician at age 7 performing for the Parents and Teachers Association at his school. This led him to read all about his work with spiritualists. By the age of 16 he started investigating spiritualist meetings. Thinking back to age 7, "I can't remember not being a skeptic". Magicians who perform mentalism debate among themselves about using a disclaimer; the disclaimer is supposed to inform the audience that what they are witnessing is entertainment, is not based on actual paranormal powers. In an interview with mentalist Mark Edward, Edward asked Hyman if he had used a disclaimer during the six years when he performed professionally as a mentalist. Hyman told him, he remembered always beginning the performance by stating. He was an entertainer and he hoped they would enjoy the show. After he became a psychologist, he realized that this was an example of the "invited inference." By stating that he made no claims about the nature of his ability, Hyman had given his audience no reason to challenge him.

Indeed, he had invited the onlookers to make their own inferences about the source of the apparent feats of mind reading. Most of them concluded he was psychic, he obtained a doctorate in psychology from Johns Hopkins University in 1953, taught at Harvard for five years. He became an expert in statistical methods. In 2007 Hyman received an honorary doctorate from the Simon Fraser University for his "intellect and discipline who inspire others to follow in his footsteps... for his courageous advocacy of unfettered skeptical inquiry". In 1982, Hyman held the "Spook Chair" for one year at Stanford University during a sabbatical from the University of Oregon. What the Stanford University psychologists informally call the "Spook" chair is known as The Thomas Welton Stanford Chair for Psychical Research. Thomas Welton was the brother of Leland Stanford. Along with other notable skeptics like James Randi, Martin Gardner, Marcello Truzzi and Paul Kurtz, he was a founding member of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, which publishes the Skeptical Inquirer.

Aside from his scholarly publications and consultation with the U. S. Department of Defense in scrutinizing psychic research, one of his most popular articles is thirteen points to help you "amaze your friends with your new found psychic powers!", a guide to cold reading. According to Jim Alcock, "His article on cold reading, so Paul Kurtz informs me, has generated more requests for reprints than any other article in the history of the Skeptical Inquirer"; the guide exploits what fascinated him in his academic research in cognitive psychology, that much deception is self-deception. He has written a book on the subject, he is one of the foremost skeptical experts on the Ganzfeld experiment. According to Bob Carroll, psychologist Ray Hyman is considered to be the foremost expert on subjective validation and cold reading. Hyman's prestidigitational skills have earned him the cover of The Linking Ring twice, June 1952 and October 1986 this magazine of the International Brotherhood of Magicians of which he has been a member for over 35 years.

Hyman continues to give talks and investigate paranormal claims. In July 2009 he appeared at The Amaz!ng Meeting 7 in Nevada. In 2011, TAM 9 From Outer Space and TAM 2012, he is working on two books: How Smart People Go Wrong: Cognition and Human Error and Parapsychology's Achilles' Heel: Consistent Inconsistency. On October 9, 2010, the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry announced Hyman as a part of their policy-making Executive Council, he will serve on Skeptical Inquirer's magazine board. In the 2010 D. J. Grothe interview, Hyman states that the formation of the skeptic movement can be attributed to Uri Geller and Alice Cooper. Randi was touring with Cooper as a part of the stage show, Cooper asked Randi to invite Hyman to a show in order to ask his advice about the audience. While there, "Randi pulled me aside and said... we ought to do something about this Uri Geller business... lets form an organization called SIR". In 1972 joined by Martin Gardner they had their first meeting; the three of them felt they had no administration experience, "we just had good ideas" and were soon joined by Marcello Truzzi who provided structure for the group.

Truzzi involved Paul Kurtz and they formed CSICOP in 1976. In an i


Ochaby is a sołectwo in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of about 2,128, it consists of two villages: Ochaby Małe. It is known from a large horse stud farm, one of the largest in Silesia; the name of the villages are of topographic origin, a plural form of the Slavic-rooted word ochab, denoting swamp, quagmire or bog. The supplementary adjectives Małe mean Great/Large and Lesser/Small respectively; the settlement lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. It was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Ochabe, it meant. The creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what would be known as Upper Silesia. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Silesian Piast dynasty.

In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The village became a seat of a Catholic parish, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among the 50 parishes of Teschen deanery as Ochabn. After 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans, it was taken from them in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 15 April 1654. After the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Bielsko and the legal district of Strumień. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 1070 in 1880 to 1101 in 1910 with a dwindling majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by a growing German-speaking minority, in terms of religion in 1910 majority were Roman Catholics, followed by Protestants and Jews.

The village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect. After World War I, the fall of Austria-Hungary, the Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Poland, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland. Ochaby lies in the southern part of Poland 5 km north of the nearest town, Skoczów, 14 km north-east of the county seat, Cieszyn, 20 km north-west of Bielsko-Biała, 50 km south-west of the regional capital Katowice, 12 km east of the border with the Czech Republic; the settlement is situated on both banks of the Vistula, in Oświęcim Basin, between 270–320 m above sea level, 14 km north-west of the Silesian Beskids. The sołectwo is further subdivided into Ochaby Małe. There are numerous fish ponds in Ochaby. Józef Pieter, Polish psychologist, was born here. Ochaby horse stud farm

Marion Wilson (artist)

Marion Wilson is an American artist and associate professor at Syracuse University situated in New York State. In 1983, Marion Wilson received her B. A. in Studio Art from Wesleyan University. She received her M. A. in Urban Pedagogy from Columbia University in 1990, her M. F. A. from the University of Cincinnati in 1993. In 2018 she was an Artist-in-Residence at the McColl Center for Art + Innovation. Wilson uses sculpture and painting: mining her life, history and culture to reveal what is hidden, she addresses larger social issues with smaller anecdotes and is researching and photographing moss species. Additionally as a professor she created an interdisciplinary curriculum for artists and architects – revitalizing urban spaces to address critical social issues, she was awarded the Chancellors award for Global Citizenship from Syracuse University for the "new Directions in Social Sculpture" curriculum that two design build projects: MLAB and 601 Tully. 601 Tully was renovation of a neighborhood crack house into a neighborhood art center.

Wilson has been acknowledged for her "'Last Suppers' series of mixed-media installations that focus on the final meals of famous killers, combines video and sculpture to comment on what Wilson perceives is the irony inherent in offering a condemned man his last supper." Commissioned for the "Counter Culture" exhibition at the New Museum, NYC, Marion Wilson set up an art-vending cart outside the Bowery Mission, an organization for the homeless. She made small sculptures from common objects cast in hair sculpture, knitted scarves, she bartered and traded skills and objects with people on the LES and ran the business with three men served at the Bowery Mission. 2016 // Schuylkill Center for Art and Environment 2015 // Pulse Art Fair Miami, Frederieke Taylor Gallery 2010 // Artificially Free of Nature. New York, 2009 // Museum of the City of Lost and Found, Warehouse Gallery, Syracuse, NY 2005 // Tender, Cheryl Pelavin Fine Arts, NYC,NY 2005 // -scopeNewYork, guest installation artist 2004 // -scopeMiami, "This Store Too", guest performance artist, curated by Melanie Cohn, New Museum 2004 // ARTWALK NY, "This Store Too", New School, NY 2003 // Remnants of Luxury in Forbidden Play, Cheryl Pelavin Fine Arts, New York 2003 // Distilled Lives, Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY, catalog 2003 // Marion Wilson, Dowd Fine Arts Center, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY 2000 // Playing War, Sculpture Center, New York, NY, video/public project, funded by Gunk Foundation 1999 // Playing War, Hallwalls Contemporary Arts Center, Buffalo, 1999 // Marion Wilson: Recent Work, Dana Arts Center, Colgate University, Hamilton,NY 1998 // Boy and Memory Rags, Olean Public Art Gallery, Olean, NY, 1996 // Automata Urban Poems and Other Dead Things Syracuse, NY 1995 // Abjections/Devotions.

2014 // I-81 Urban Rest Stop, Public Art Project. Led a team of 54 neighbors and students in the complete re-design/build/sustain of an abandoned residence—turned drug house in the ninth-poorest neighborhood in America—the near westside of Syracuse - as an artist driven neighborhood revitalization project. 601 Tully now supports artists and university in the co-production of new culture through residencies and public projects. 2009 // Museum of the City of Lost and Found. 2008 // MLAB. Led a design build team of nine in the complete renovation of MLAB. 2004 // Counter Culture, New Museum of Contemporary Art, NYC Official website


Prontosil is an antibacterial drug of the sulfonamide group. It has a broad effect against gram-positive cocci but not against enterobacteria. One of the earliest antimicrobial drugs, it was used in the mid-20th century but is little used today because better options now exist; the discovery and development of this first sulfonamide drug opened a new era in medicine, because it widened the success of antimicrobial chemotherapy in an era when many physicians doubted its still untapped potential. At the time, disinfectant cleaners and topical antiseptic wound care were used but there were few antimicrobial drugs to use safely inside living bodies. Antibiotic drugs derived from microbes, which we rely on today, did not yet exist. Prontosil was discovered in 1932 by a research team at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany; the capitalized name "Prontosil" is Bayer's trade name. Because the drug predates the modern system of drug nomenclature, which ensures that nonproprietary names are well known from the inception of marketing, it was known among the public only by its trade name, the trade name was the origin of some of the nonproprietary names.

This compound was first synthesized by Bayer chemists Josef Klarer and Fritz Mietzsch as part of a research program designed to find dyes that might act as antibacterial drugs in the body. The molecule was tested and in the late autumn of 1932 was found effective against some important bacterial infections in mice by Gerhard Domagk, who subsequently received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Prontosil was the result of five years of testing involving thousands of compounds related to azo dyes; the crucial test result that preliminarily established the antibacterial efficacy of Prontosil in mice dates from late December 1931. IG Farben filed a German patent application concerning its medical utility on December 25, 1932; the synthesis of the compound had been first reported by Paul Gelmo, a chemistry student working at the University of Vienna in his 1909 thesis, although he had not realized its medical potential. The water-soluble sodium salt of sulfonamidochrysoidine, which gives a burgundy red solution and was trademarked Prontosil Solubile, was clinically investigated between 1932 and 1934, first at the nearby hospital at Wuppertal-Elberfeld headed by Philipp Klee, at the Düsseldorf University Hospital.

The results were published in a series of articles in the February 15, 1935 issue of Germany's pre-eminent medical scientific journal, Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, were received with some skepticism by a medical community bent on vaccination and crude immunotherapy. Leonard Colebrook introduced it as a cure for puerperal fever; as impressive clinical successes with Prontosil started to be reported from all over Europe, after a published treatment in 1936 of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. acceptance was quick and dozens of medicinal chemistry teams set out to improve Prontosil. In late 1935, working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in the laboratory of Dr. Ernest Fourneau, Jacques and Thérèse Tréfouël, Dr. Daniel Bovet and Federico Nitti discovered that Prontosil is metabolized to sulfanilamide, a much simpler, colorless molecule, reclassifying Prontosil as a prodrug. Prontalbin became the first oral version of sulfanilamide by Bayer, which had obtained a German patent on sulfanilamide as early as 1909, without realizing its medical potential at this time.

It has been argued that IG Farben might have made its breakthrough discovery with sulfanilamide in 1932 but, recognizing that it would not be patentable as an antibacterial, had spent the next three years developing Prontosil as a new, therefore more patentable, compound. However Dr. Bovet, who has received a Nobel Prize for medicine, one of the authors of the French discovery, wrote in 1988: "Today, we have the proof that the chemists of Elberfeld were unaware of the properties of sulfanilamide at the time of our discovery and that it was by our communication that they were informed. To be convinced about it, it is enough to attentively examine the monthly reports of work of Mietzsch and Klarer during years 1935–1936 and the Log Book of Gerhard Domagk: the formula of sulphamide is consigned there – without comment – not before January 1936."Dr. Alexander Ashley Weech, a pioneer pediatrician, while working at Columbia University's College of Physicians & Surgeons treated the first patient in the United States with an antibiotic in 1935 which led to a new era of medicine across the Atlantic.

Dr. Weech researched Domagk's work, translating the German article, "was so intrigued by experiments and by the three accompanying clinical articles on Prontosil that he contacted a pharmaceutical house, obtained a supply of the drug, proceeded to treat a patient who had serious streptococcal disease." Dr. Perrin Long and Dr. Eleanor Bliss of Johns Hopkins University began their pioneering work on prontosil and sulfanilamide which led to the large scale production of this new treatment saving the lives of millions with systemic bacterial infections. Sulfanilamide was cheap to produce and was off-patent when its antibacterial propert


The dhoti known as panche, dhuti, chaadra, panchey, is a type of sarong that outwardly resembles trousers, it is a lower garment forming part of the national or ethnic costume for men in the Indian subcontinent. The dhoti is fashioned out of a rectangular piece of unstitched cloth around 4.5 metres long, wrapped around the waist and the legs and knotted either in the front or the back. Dhotis come in plain or solid colours, silk dhotis with embroidered borders are considered to be formal wear and worn to religious ceremonies and on national/ ethnic festivals, in contrast to dhotis, multi-coloured and patterned skirt-like sarongs called longyis are worn at home and to casual errands and outings; however there are exceptions to this rule in some South Indian communities where a plain white longyi with embroidery is the ethnic formal wear for men. The word dhoti is derived from dhauti, meaning to "cleanse or wash". In the context of clothing, it refers to the cleansed garment, worn as part of everyday attire The dhoti evolved from the ancient antriya, passed through the legs, tucked at the back and covered the legs loosely flowed into long pleats at front of the legs, the same way it is worn today.

The garment is known by various names, such as: Dhoti is worn over a kaupinam or langot, types of loincloth undergarments. The pancha is worn by many orthodox Jain men, they wear a loose, unstitched cloth, shorter than the pancha, on top. It is the national dress of the Madhesh region of southern Nepal, worn by Nepalis of Madhesi and Maithali ethnicity. Hare Krishna, known for its distinctive dress code, prompts Western adherents to wear pancha of saffron or white cloth folded in a traditional style. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was known for wearing a white silk dhoti. In India, there's a distinction between the lungi, a similar but smaller garment worn by people at their home as it is more casual and comfortable than dhoti, the more formal dhoti, sometimes worn by politicians

McKinlay, Queensland

McKinlay is a town and locality in McKinlay Shire, Australia. At the 2016 census, McKinlay had a population of 178. McKinlay is in the remote north west of Queensland and on the Landsborough Highway 1,595 kilometres north west of the state capital Brisbane and 228 kilometres south east of the regional centre of Mount Isa. McKinlay is named for the nearby McKinlay River—itself named for the Scottish explorer John McKinlay, the first European to discover the river in 1861. Gold was discovered in the area in 1872 and a letter receiving office was opened in 1883; the town was surveyed and allotments sold in 1888. Mackinlay Post Office opened on 1 April 1894 and was renamed McKinlay in 1909; the offices of the Shire of McKinlay were located in the town until 1930 when they were relocated to Julia Creek. In 2011 census, McKinlay had a population of 417 people. McKinlay today is described as "nothing more than a roadhouse, a few houses and a pub." The town is best known for the Walkabout Creek Hotel, featured in the movie Crocodile Dundee.

The McKinlay pub has become a major tourism draw for the town and when put up for sale in 2010 attracted worldwide interest. BHP Cannington mine, Australia's largest silver and lead mine, is 85 kilometres west of McKinlay. McKinlay has a small museum; the McKinlay Shire Council operates a public library at Middleton Street. The McKinlay branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms at 22 Middleton Street. Media related to McKinlay, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Town map of Mckinlay, 1969