No man's land
No man's land is land, unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times, it is associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross or seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process. According to Alasdair Pinkerton, an expert in human geography at the Royal Holloway University of London, the term is first mentioned in Domesday Book in the 11th century to describe parcels of land that were just beyond the London city walls; the Oxford English Dictionary contains a reference to the term dating back to 1320, spelled nonesmanneslond, when the term was used to describe a disputed territory or one over which there was legal disagreement. The same term was used as the name for the piece of land outside the north wall of London, assigned as the place of execution.
The term was applied to a little-used area on ships called the forecastle, a place where various ropes, tackle and other supplies were stored. In the United Kingdom several places called No Man's Land denoted "extra-parochial spaces that were beyond the rule of the church, beyond the rule of different fiefdoms that were handed out by the king … ribbons of land between these different regimes of power"; the British Army did not employ the term when the Regular Army arrived in France in August 1914, soon after the outbreak of the Great War. The terms used most at the start of the war to describe the area between the trench lines included'between the trenches' or'between the lines'; the term'no man's land' was first used in a military context by soldier and historian Ernest Swinton in his short story The Point of View. Swinton used the term in war correspondence on the Western Front, with specific mention of the terms with respect to the Race to the Sea in late 1914; the Anglo-German Christmas truce of 1914 brought the term into common use, thereafter it appeared in official communiqués, newspaper reports, personnel correspondences of the members of the British Expeditionary Force.
In World War I, no man's land ranged from several hundred yards to in some cases less than 10 yards. Defended by machine guns, mortars and riflemen on both sides, it was extensively cratered, riddled with barbed wire, rudimentary improvised land mines, as well as corpses and wounded soldiers who were not able to make it through the hail of bullets and flames; the area was sometimes contaminated by chemical weapons. It was open to fire from the opposing trenches and hard going slowed down any attempted advance. However, not only were soldiers forced to cross no man's land when advancing, as the case might be when retreating, but after an attack the stretcher bearers would need to go out into it to bring in the wounded. No man's land remained a regular feature of the battlefield until near the end of World War I, when mechanised weapons made entrenched lines less of an obstacle. Effects from World War I no man's lands persist today, for example at Verdun in France, where the Zone Rouge is an area with unexploded ordnance, poisoned beyond habitation by arsenic and phosgene.
The zone is sealed off and still deemed too dangerous for civilians to return: "The area is still considered to be poisoned, so the French government planted an enormous forest of black pines, like a living sarcophagus", comments Alasdair Pinkerton, a researcher at Royal Holloway University of London, who compared the zone to the nuclear disaster site at Chernobyl encased in a "concrete sarcophagus". During the Cold War, one example of "no man's land" was the territory close to the Iron Curtain; the territory belonged to the Eastern Bloc countries, but over the entire Iron Curtain there were several wide tracts of uninhabited land, several hundred meters in width, containing watch towers, unexploded bombs and other such debris. The U. S. Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba is separated from Cuba proper by an area called the Cactus Curtain. In late 1961, Cuba had its troops plant an 8-mile barrier of Opuntia cactus along the northeastern section of the 28-kilometre fence surrounding the base to prevent economic migrants fleeing from Cuba from resettling in the United States.
This was dubbed the "Cactus Curtain", an allusion to Europe's Iron Curtain and the Bamboo Curtain in East Asia. U. S. and Cuban troops placed some 55,000 land mines across the no man's land, creating the second-largest minefield in the world, the largest in the Americas. On 16 May 1996, the President of the United States, ordered their removal; the U. S. land mines have since been replaced with sound sensors to detect intruders. The Cuban government has not removed the corresponding minefield on its side of the border; the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan were signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on 3 April 1949. Armistice lines were determined in November 1948. Between the lines territory was left, defined as no man's land; such areas existed in Jerusalem, in the area between the western and southern parts of the Walls of Jerusalem and Musrara. A strip of land north and south of Latrun was known as "no man's land" because it was not controlled by either Israel or Jordan in 1948–1967.
In 1885, the United States Interior Department ruled that what was called "The Neutral Strip" was public land and that squatter homesteads were invalid. The Strip began to be called No Man's Land around 1886 after one official stated "no man can own the land". Batman: No Man
Thor (Marvel Comics)
Thor is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character, based on the Norse deity of the same name, is the Asgardian god of thunder who possesses the enchanted hammer, which grants him the ability to fly and manipulate weather amongst his other superhuman attributes. Debuting in the Silver Age of Comic Books, the character first appeared in Journey into Mystery #83 and was created by editor-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, penciller-plotter Jack Kirby, he has starred in several ongoing series and limited series, is a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers, appearing in each volume of that series. The character has appeared in associated Marvel merchandise including animated television series, video games, clothing and trading cards; the character was first portrayed in live action by Eric Allan Kramer in the 1988 television movie The Incredible Hulk Returns. Chris Hemsworth portrays Thor Odinson in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, will reprise his role in Avengers: Endgame in 2019.
Additionally, archival footage of Hemsworth as Thor was used in the episodes "Pilot" and "The Well" of Marvel's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. Thor placed 14th on IGN's list of "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time" in 2011, first in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012; the Marvel Comics superhero Thor debuted in the science fiction/fantasy anthology title Journey into Mystery #83, was created by editor-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, penciller-plotter Jack Kirby. A different version of the mythological Thor had appeared in Venus #12–13. Lee in 2002 described Thor's genesis early in the Marvel pantheon, following the creation of the Hulk: ow do you make someone stronger than the strongest person? It came to me: Don't make him human — make him a god. I decided readers were pretty familiar with the Greek and Roman gods, it might be fun to delve into the old Norse legends... Besides, I pictured Norse gods looking like Vikings of old, with the flowing beards, horned helmets, battle clubs....
Journey into Mystery needed a shot in the arm, so I picked Thor... to headline the book. After writing an outline depicting the story and the characters I had in mind, I asked my brother, Larry, to write the script because I didn't have time....and it was only natural for me to assign the penciling to Jack Kirby... In a 1984 interview Kirby said "I did a version of Thor for D. C. in the fifties before I did him for Marvel. I created Thor at Marvel because I was forever enamored of legends, why I knew about Balder and Odin. I tried to update Thor and put him into a superhero costume, but he was still Thor." The story was included in Tales of the Unexpected #16, from 1957. And in a 1992 interview, Kirby said " knew the Thor legends well, but I wanted to modernize them. I felt that might be a new thing for comics, taking the old legends and modernizing them."Subsequent stories of the 13-page feature "The Mighty Thor" continued to be plotted by Lee, were variously scripted by Lieber or by Robert Bernstein, working under the pseudonym "R. Berns".
Various artists penciled the feature, including Jack Kirby, Joe Sinnott, Don Heck, Al Hartley. With Journey into Mystery #101, the series began a long and definitive run by writer and co-plotter Lee and penciler and co-plotter Kirby that lasted until the by-then-retitled Thor #179. Lee and Kirby included Thor in The Avengers #1 as a founding member of the superhero team; the character has since appeared in every subsequent volume of the series. The five-page featurette "Tales of Asgard" was added in Journey into Mystery #97, followed by "The Mighty Thor" becoming the dominant cover logo with issue #104; the feature itself expanded to 18 pages in #105, which eliminated the remaining anthological story from each issue. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "the adventures of Thor were transformed from stories about a strange-looking superhero into a spectacular saga." Artist Chic Stone, who inked several early Thor stories, observed that "Kirby could just lead you through all these different worlds.
The readers would follow him anywhere."Journey into Mystery was retitled Thor with issue #126. "Tales of Asgard" was replaced by a five-page featurette starring the Inhumans from #146–152, after which featurettes were dropped and the Thor stories expanded to Marvel's then-standard 20-page length. Marvel filed for a trademark for "The Mighty Thor" in 1967 and the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the registration in 1970. After Kirby left the title, Neal Adams penciled issues #180–181. John Buscema became the regular artist the following issue. Buscema continued to draw the book without interruption until #278. Lee stopped scripting soon after Kirby left, during Buscema's long stint on the book, the stories were written by Gerry Conway, Len Wein, or Roy Thomas. Thomas continued to write the title after Buscema's departure, working much of the time with the artist Keith Pollard. Following Thomas's tenure, Thor had a changing creative team. In the mid-1970s
Daniel John Patrick "Danny" Greene was an Irish American mobster and associate of Cleveland mobster John Nardi during the gang war for the city's criminal operations during the 1970s. Competing gangsters set off more than 35 bombs, most attached to cars in murder attempts, many successful. Greene had gained power first in a local chapter of the International Longshoremen's Association, where he was elected president in the early 1960s. Greene pushed into Cleveland rackets and began competing with the Italian-American Mafia for control of the city, he set up his own group called the Celtic Club, complete with enforcers. Danny Greene was born to parents John Henry Greene and Irene Cecelia Greene, his father was born in Cleveland, but his mother was born in Pennsylvania. Three days after his birth, Greene's mother died, he was called "Baby Greene" until his mother was buried, was named after his grandfather. His father drank and lost his job as a salesman for Fuller Brush. After this, Danny temporarily moved in with his grandfather, widowed.
Unable to provide for him, Danny's father placed him in Parmadale, a Roman Catholic orphanage in Parma, three miles outside Cleveland. In 1939 Danny's father married her, they brought Danny home. At age six, he ran away on several occasions, his paternal grandfather took him in, Danny lived with him and an aunt for the rest of his childhood in the Collinwood neighborhood. Danny's grandfather worked nights, so he was able to roam the streets at night; when his father died in 1959, the newspaper obituary listed his children from his second marriage, but didn't mention Danny. At St. Jerome Catholic School, Danny developed a great fondness for the priests, he served as an altar boy. An athletic boy, he was an all-star basketball player. Although Greene was a poor student, the nuns at St. Jerome let him play sports because he was valuable for the team. Greene attended St. Ignatius High School. In frequent fights with Italian-American students, children of more recent immigrants' struggling for place, Danny developed an intense dislike for Italians that lasted his entire life.
After being expelled from Saint Ignatius, he transferred to Collinwood High School, where he excelled in athletics. A Boy Scout for a short time, he was kicked out of his troop, he was expelled from Collinwood High School due to excessive tardiness, which he claimed was caused by the bullying of fellow students. As an adult, Greene stood 5'10" and was self-conscious about his personal appearance, he pursued physical fitness. As he became older, he quit smoking and drinking, had a hair prosthesis, he followed a rigid diet of fish and vitamin supplements. Greene owned two pet dogs, he had a habit of putting out food for the squirrels. While some claim Greene disliked Italians, nonetheless, he collaborated with many Italian-Americans in business and criminal interests. Expelled from high school in 1951, Greene enlisted in the United States Marines, where he was soon noticed for his abilities as a boxer and marksman, he was stationed at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. He was transferred many times because of behavioral issues.
Promoted to the rank of corporal in 1953, Greene taught new junior Marines. He was honorably discharged that year. In the early 1960s, Greene worked as a longshoreman at the Cleveland docks years before the work was unionized by the International Longshoremen's Association. In his free time he read about its turbulent history, he began to think of himself as a "Celtic warrior". Some writers have speculated. In 1961, the president of the local union was removed from office by the ILA and Greene was chosen to serve as interim president, he handily won the next election. Once president, Greene had the union office installed thick green carpeting, he was known to drive a green car, wear green jackets, handed out green ink pens. In office, he raised dues 25% and pushed workers to perform "volunteer" hours to assist in providing a "building fund"; those who refused found themselves losing work. He fired more than 50 members while denouncing them as "bums" to other workers. Greene led sometimes violent protests and strikes to force the stevedore companies to allow the ILA to oversee the hiring of dockworkers.
As a prerequisite to landing a job as a longshoreman, many workers had to unload grain from the ships on a temporary basis and turn their paychecks over to Greene. Said to have been collected to build a union hall, most of the funds ended up in Greene's personal bank account. An unidentified ILA member would recall about Greene, "He read On the Waterfront, he imagined himself a tough dock boss. But he was thirty years too late, he used workers to beat up union members who did not come in line, but he was never seen fighting himself. He was a spellbinding speaker and a good organizer."As a union organizer, Greene sometimes declared work stoppages, as as 25 per day, to demonstrate to company owners his authority on the docks. On one occasion, he threatened to murder the two children of one owner. After Sam Marshall, an investigative reporter, collected affidavits that supported charges of extortion, Greene
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Rome (TV series)
Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald, Bruno Heller; the show's two seasons were broadcast on HBO, BBC Two, Rai 2 between 2005 and 2007. They were released on DVD and Blu-ray. Rome is set during Ancient Rome's transition from Republic to Empire; the series features a sprawling cast of characters, many of whom are based on real figures from historical records, but the lead protagonists are two soldiers named Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, who find their lives intertwined with key historical events. Rome was a ratings success for HBO and the BBC, though the numbers declined in the second season; the series received much media attention from the start, was honoured with numerous awards and nominations in its two-season run. The series was filmed in various locations, but most notably in the Cinecittà studios in Italy; the series chronicles the lives and deeds of the rich and significant, but focuses on the lives, fortunes and acquaintances of two common men: Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, fictionalized versions of a pair of Roman soldiers mentioned in Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico.
The fictional Vorenus and Pullo manage to witness and influence many of the historical events presented in the series, although some license is taken. The first season depicts Julius Caesar's civil war of 49 BC against the traditionalist conservative faction in the Roman Senate, his rise to dictatorship over Rome, his fall, spanning the time from the end of his Gallic Wars until his assassination on 15 March 44 BC. Against the backdrop of these cataclysmic events, we see the early years of the young Octavian, destined to become Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome; the second season chronicles the power struggle between Octavian and Mark Antony following Caesar's assassination, spanning the period from Caesar's death in 44 BC to the suicide of Antony and Cleopatra in 30 B. C. after their defeat at the Battle of Actium. Kevin McKidd as Lucius Vorenus – A staunch, traditional Roman officer who struggles to balance his personal beliefs, his duty to his superiors, the needs of his family and friends.
The basis for this character is the historical Roman soldier of the same name, mentioned in Julius Caesar's De Bello Gallico 5.44. Ray Stevenson as Titus Pullo – A friendly, devil-may-care soldier with the morals of a pirate, the appetites of a hedonist, a total lack of personal responsibility, who discovers hidden ideals and integrity within himself. Ciarán Hinds as Julius Caesar – Caesar is ambitious but his aims and motives are kept ambiguous to further complicate the plot and test the personal loyalties of other characters, he advertises himself as a reformer. He is merciful to his beaten enemies, genuinely distressed by their deaths and relieved at their willingness to make peace where a more vindictive individual would have killed them. Kenneth Cranham as Pompey Magnus – A legendary general, past the days of his prime, who tries to recapture the glories of his youth as well as to do what is right for the Republic; the real Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was a Roman general and politician, as ambitious as Caesar and just as unorthodox in his youth.
He chose to ally himself with the optimates in opposing Caesar and supporting the traditional Roman Republic. Polly Walker as Atia of the Julii – The niece of Julius Caesar and mother of Octavian/Augustus and Octavia, she is depicted as a cheerfully opportunistic manipulator. Her family connections and sexual liaisons have brought her into contact with some of the most powerful individuals in Rome, making her a influential figure in Roman society. Atia is loosely based on the historical figure Atia Balba Caesonia about whom little detail is known. Rome Historical Consultant Jonathan Stamp identifies the historical figure Clodia as the primary basis for the character of Atia. James Purefoy as Mark Antony – A popular and cunning Roman general and politician and a close supporter of Julius Caesar in Season 1. In Season 2, he is in a power struggle with the power unaccomplished Octavian. Tobias Menzies as Marcus Junius Brutus – Portrayed as a young man torn between what he believes is right, his loyalty and love of a man, like a father to him.
The real Marcus Junius Brutus was the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins, one of the key figures in the civil wars that followed the assassination. Max Pirkis and Simon Woods as Gaius Octavian – Portrayed as a shrewd, if somewhat cold, young man, with a precocious understanding of the world, people and politics, he is eager to enter political life and follow in Caesar’s footsteps - an ambition soon more achieved when he is able to use his inheritance as a means to further his political career. The basis for this character is the early life of the first Roman Emperor. Lindsay Duncan as Servilia of the Junii – The mother of Marcus Junius Brutus, lover of the married Julius Caesar, enemy of Atia of the Julii. Servilia is depicted as a sophisticated and regal Roman matron who follows her heart to her detriment, betrayed by love, hungering for revenge, she becomes as cold and cruel as those whom she would destroy. Servilia is loosely based on the historical personage of Servilia, mother of Marcus Junius Brutus, and
The Round Table is King Arthur's famed table in the Arthurian legend, around which he and his knights congregate. As its name suggests, it has no head, implying that everyone; the table was first described in 1155 by Wace, who relied on previous depictions of Arthur's fabulous retinue. The symbolism of the Round Table developed over time. Though the Round Table is not mentioned in the earliest accounts, tales of Arthur having a marvelous court made up of many prominent warriors is ancient. Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his Historia Regum Britanniae says that, after establishing peace throughout Britain, Arthur "increased his personal entourage by inviting distinguished men from far-distant kingdoms to join it." The code of chivalry so important in medieval romance figures in as well, as Geoffrey says Arthur established "such a code of courtliness in his household that he inspired peoples living far away to imitate him."Arthur's court was well known to Welsh storytellers. The fame of Arthur's entourage became so prominent in Welsh tradition that in the additions to the Welsh Triads, the formula tying named individuals to "Arthur's Court" in the triad titles began to supersede the older "Island of Britain" formula.
Though the code of chivalry crucial to continental romances dealing with the Round Table is absent from the Welsh material, some passages of Culhwch and Olwen seem to reference it. For instance, Arthur explains the ethos of his court, saying "e are nobles as long as we are sought out: the greater the bounty we may give, the greater our nobility and honour."Though no Round Table appears in the early Welsh texts, Arthur is associated with various items of household furniture. The earliest of these is Saint Carannog's mystical floating altar in that saint's 12th century Vita. In the story Arthur tries unsuccessfully to use it as a table. Elements of Arthur's household figure into local topographical folklore throughout Britain as early as the early 12th century, with various landmarks being named "Arthur's Seat", "Arthur's Oven", "Arthur's Bed-chamber". A henge at Eamont Bridge near Penrith, Cumbria is known as "King Arthur's Round Table"; the still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon has been associated with the Round Table, it has been suggested as a possible source for the legend.
Following archaeological discoveries at the Roman ruins in Chester, some writers suggested that the Chester Roman Amphitheatre was the true prototype of the Round Table. The Round Table first appeared in Wace's Roman de Brut, a Norman language adaptation of Geoffrey's Historia finished in 1155. Wace says Arthur created the Round Table to prevent quarrels among his barons, none of whom would accept a lower place than the others. Layamon added to the story when he adapted Wace's work into the Middle English Brut in the early 13th century, saying that the quarrel between Arthur's vassals led to violence at a Yuletide feast. In response, a Cornish carpenter built an enormous but transportable Round Table to prevent further dispute. Wace claims; some scholars have doubted this claim. There is some similarity between the chroniclers' description of the Round Table and a custom recorded in Celtic stories, in which warriors sit in a circle around the king or lead warrior, in some cases feuding over the order of precedence as in Layamon.
There is a possibility that Wace, contrary to his own claims, derived Arthur's round table not from any Breton source, but rather from medieval biographies of Charlemagne—notably Einhard's Vita Caroli and Notker the Stammerer's De Carolo Magno—in which the king is said to have possessed a round table decorated with a map of Rome. The Round Table takes on new dimensions in the romances of the late 12th and early 13th century, where it becomes a symbol of the famed order of chivalry which flourishes under Arthur. In Robert de Boron's Merlin, written around the 1190s, the magician Merlin creates the Round Table in imitation of the table of the Last Supper and of Joseph of Arimathea's Holy Grail table; this table, here made for Arthur's father Uther Pendragon rather than Arthur himself, has twelve seats and one empty place to mark the betrayal of Judas. This seat must remain empty until the coming of the knight; the Didot Perceval, a prose continuation of Robert's work, takes up the story, the knight Percival sits in the seat and initiates the Grail quest.
The prose cycles of the 13th century, the Lancelot-Grail cycle and the Post-Vulgate Cycle, further adapt the chivalric attributes of the Round Table. Here it is the perfect knight Galahad, rather than Percival, who assumes the empty seat, now called the Siege Perilous. Galahad's arrival marks the start of the Grail quest as well as the end of the Arthurian era. In these works the Round Table is kept by King Leodegrance of Cameliard after Uther's death. Other versions treat the Round Table differently, for instance Arthurian works from Italy like La Tavola Ritonda distinguish between the "Old Table" of Uther's time and Arthur