Raymond Duchamp-Villon

Raymond Duchamp-Villon was a French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, in the Haute-Normandie region of France, the second son of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp. Of the six Duchamp children, four would become successful artists, he was the brother of Jacques Villon, printmaker. From 1894 to 1898 Raymond Duchamp-Villon lived in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris with his brother Jacques and studied medicine at the Sorbonne. Rheumatic fever forced him to abandon his studies in 1898 and it left him incapacitated for a time; this unforeseen event altered the course of his life. He started by creating small statuettes and became self-taught, achieving a high level of mastery and acumen. In 1902 and 1903, he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts but to distinguish himself from his artist brother, he began to use the Duchamp-Villon designation on all his works. In 1905 Duchamp-Villon had his first exhibition at the Salon d'Automne and a show at the Galerie Legrip in Rouen with his brother Jacques.

Two years they moved to the village of Puteaux at the outskirts of Paris where the three Duchamp brothers were part of the regular meetings of what became known as the Puteaux Group of artists and critics. Raymond's reputation was such that he was made a member of the jury of the sculpture section of the Salon d'Automne in 1907 and was instrumental in promoting the Cubist movement. In 1911 he exhibited at the Galerie de l’Art Contemporain in Paris and the following year his work was included in a show organized by the Duchamp brothers at the Salon de la Section d’Or at the Galerie de la Boétie. All three of the Duchamp brothers showed their work at the important Armory Show in New York City that helped introduce modern art to America. In 1913 he took part in exhibitions at the Galerie André Groult in Paris, the Galerie S. V. U. Mánes in Prague, in 1914 at Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin. During World War I Raymond Duchamp-Villon served in the French army in a medical capacity, but still worked on his major cubist sculpture, The Large Horse.

In late 1916, Raymond Duchamp-Villon contracted typhoid fever while stationed at the military quarters in Champagne. As a result, he was taken to the military hospital at Cannes. In 1967, in Rouen, his last surviving artist brother Marcel helped organize an exhibition called Les Duchamp: Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp; some of this family exhibition was shown at the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris. Tomkins, Duchamp: A Biography. Henry Holt and Company, Inc. 1996. ISBN 0-8050-5789-7 Cubism La Maison Cubiste Tomkins, Duchamp: A Biography. Henry Holt and Company, Inc. 1996. ISBN 0-8050-5789-7 Raymond Duchamp-Villon's Horse Smarthistory Raymond Duchamp-Villon in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website


Heamoor is a village in Cornwall, England. A secondary settlement of the village of Madron, Heamoor is situated one-and-a half kilometres northwest of Penzance town centre. Heamoor is in the civil parish of Penzance and forms a single ward on Penzance Town Council; the principal local authority is Cornwall Council. In May 2019, Heamoor residents voted at a public meeting to submit a bid under Cornwall Council's Community Governance Review to split from Penzance Town Council and form a separate parish council to be known as Heamoor Village Council. Volunteers from the community have set up a Steering Group to prepare a bid, build community awareness, manage the transitional arrangements. Heamoor is one of only two communities in Cornwall to have applied to create a new local council in the Community Governance Review. Heamoor has a number of shops, The Sportsman's Arms pub, The British Legion and Scout group as well as several community facilities. There are two schools; the first mention of the village is in 1274 as La Hae/'Leye, followed by Hay Moor in 1663 and Hae/Anhea in 1869.

Heamoor saw initial growth in the 19th century due to its proximity to a major crossroads and the need of farms for agricultural labour. The village consisted of two areas—the Hea, the southern part of the village where the main road enters from Penzance and to the east of this towards St Thomas's Church; the moor occupies the area at the opposite end of the village and could be seen as the poorly drained area now occupied by the playing fields of Mount's Bay Academy and the housing estate nearby. The reason for the moor was the poor drainage which in turn was due to the outcrop of a Felsite dyke that can be seen forming the ridge where Poltair woods abuts onto the road leading from Heamoor to Trengwainton; this dyke channels water onto the ground lying below it giving rise to the swampy conditions. Further along the same road are a pair of reservoirs that form the former main supply of the nearby town of Penzance, the water for these reservoirs comes from this dyke, the main water supply for the town being Drift Reservoir.

The Scout Hut situated in Barn Lane, behind Rosparvah Gardens was the only building to be bombed during WW2 by the Germans. Following the war the Scout Hut was rebuilt in Bolitho Road, behind the British Legion, named the Venning Hall. Following World War II Heamoor was identified by the Penzance Borough Council as area of potential development for housing, during the 1970s and 1980s this was realised with the building of a number of large modern housing developments; until the mid-20th century, Heamoor had three centres of Christian worship: Wesley Rock Wesleyan Chapel. Wesley Rock Methodist Church is so called because of the frequent visits by John Wesley to the area where he is said to have preached from a rock in a field. The'Rock' in question now forms the base of the pulpit in Wesley Rock Church itself, it was moved upon completion of the building that now forms the Church, being held in the older adjacent building,The Rock is believed to have come from the Rosehill Area. St Thomas's Church was built in Heamoor in the late 19th century as a Chapel of ease to serve those living in the outskirts of Penzance.

The Church is part of Madron parish and was dedicated in 1892: it was licensed for weddings in 1975. As a hangover from when Heamoor was linked to Madron, Heamoor religious communities celebrate Madron feast


Avlo is the name of a proposed Spanish low-cost high-speed rail service, at the start between of the cities of Madrid and Barcelona by the national rail company Renfe. Plans for such a low-cost high speed service were reported in February 2018, with the goal of running by 2019. However, it was held up and new sets of proposals for the service were announced on 11 December 2019, for starting in 6 April 2020. Based the popularity of the French low-cost high-speed rail service Ouigo, introduced in 2013 by French national rail company SNCF, keen to encourage train travel on the Spanish high-speed rail network. Renfe was interested setting up their own such budget service, they created a working idea under the name of "eva", the name of the Renfe's own high-speed train service AVE, spelt backwards. The service was announced on 6 February 2018 by the Minister of Public Works Íñigo de la Serna, was aimed to be operational by the first quarter of 2019. Avlo was set to run between Madrid Atocha Zaragoza Delicias and Barcelona Sants stations.

A series of delays meant that Renfe went back to the drawing board, with the prospect of new competitors including the airline Air Nostrum, the Italian rail company Trenitalia and SNCF with Ouigo coming into the market in late 2020 meant that Renfe had to put the idea back on. So Renfe relaunched their low-cost high-speed service on the 11 December 2019, with the plan of launching during Holy Week 2020. A big difference is; the Avlo service would consists of modified purple-coloured Talgo AVE trains. They will use the future Service 106 train with 581 seats, or a Service 112 trains will be upgraded to 438 seats both in all-second class configuration.. Renfe has reported it is going to price tickets of the Avlo as low as €10, compared to the lowest offer of €48 for the normal AVE ticket for Madrid and Barcelona. Ouigo - the French low-cost high speed rail service IZY - A low-cost high-speed rail service between Paris and Brussels Official website Corporate website