FC Girondins de Bordeaux
Football Club des Girondins de Bordeaux is a French professional football club based in the city of Bordeaux. The club play in Ligue 1, the first division of French football; the team is coached by Paulo Sousa and captained by Benoît Costil. Bordeaux was founded in 1 October 1881 as a multi-sports club and is one of the most successful football clubs in France; the club has won six Ligue 1 titles, the joint fourth-most in its history. Bordeaux have won four Coupe de France titles, three Coupe de la Ligue titles, three Trophée des champions titles as well. Bordeaux reached the Uefa Cup final in 1996; the club has the honour of having appeared in the most finals in the Coupe de la Ligue, having featured in six of those contested. From a year to its inception, the club's stadium was the Stade Chaban-Delmas, though since 2015, Bordeaux's home ground has been the Matmut Atlantique; the club took its name Girondins from a group of French Revolutionaries from the region, was founded on 1 October 1881 as a gymnastics and shooting club.
The club, chaired by André Chavois added sports such as rowing and swimming, among others. It was not until 1910 when football was introduced to the club following strong urging from several members within the club, most notably club president Raymond Brard, though it was only available on a trial basis; the experiment with football lasted only a year before returning a decade in 1919. The club contested its first official match in 1920 defeating Section Burdigalienne 12–0. Bordeaux achieved professional status in football on 2 July 1936 due to the club's merger with fellow Bordelais outfit Girondins Guyenne Sport, which resulted in the club that exists today. Bordeaux's rise to professionalism came about alongside the French Football Federation's plea to increase professionalism in French football, which prior to 1932, had been non-existent; the club was inserted into the second division of French football and made its debut appearance during the 1937–38 season. The club's first manager was Spaniard Benito Díaz.
Diaz brought fellow Spanish players Santiago Urtizberea and Jaime Mancisidor to the team with the latter serving as captain. The club's most prominent Frenchmen on the team were homegrown attacker Henri Arnaudeau and goalkeeper André Gérard. Bordeaux played its first official match on 23 May 1937 defeating Rhône-Alpes-based FC Scionzier 2–1 at the Stade de Colombes; the club's first league match was contested on 22 August losing away to Toulouse 3–2. Bordeaux recorded. For the club, the team finished 6th in the Southern region of the division. Bordeaux's disappointing finish inserted the club into the relegation playoff portion of the league where the team finished a respectable 3rd. A year Bordeaux moved into a new home, the Stade Chaban-Delmas, known as Parc Lescure; the facility was built for the 1938 FIFA World Cup and, following the competition's completion, was designated to Bordeaux. The club had played its home matches at the Stade Galin, which today is used as a training ground. On 15 October 1940, Bordeaux merged with local club AS Port and took on one of the club's most prestigious traditions, the scapular.
Bordeaux ASP, which the club was now known, adorned the scapular during its run to the 1941 edition of the Coupe de France final. The match, played in occupied France at the Stade Municipal in Saint-Ouen, saw Bordeaux defeat SC Fives 2–0 with Urtizberea netting both goals; the Coupe de France triumph was the club's first major honour. Following the liberation of France, Bordeaux returned to league play and earned promotion to the first division following its 2nd-place finish during the 1948–49 season. After the season, André Gérard, now manager of the club, signed Dutchman Bertus de Harder. Led by the three-headed monster of De Harder, Édouard Kargu, Camille Libar, Bordeaux captured its first-ever league championship, in just the club's first season in the first division, winning by six points over second place Lille; the league success led to Bordeaux being selected to participate in the second edition of the Latin Cup. In the competition, Bordeaux reached the final drawing 3–3 with Portuguese outfit Benfica.
The draw forced a second match with Benfica claiming victory following an extra time goal after over two hours and 25 minutes of play. Bordeaux maintained its title-winning aspirations finishing runners-up to Nice two seasons after winning its first title; the club performed well in cup competitions reaching the Coupe de France final in 1952 and 1955. In 1952, Bordeaux suffered defeat to the team it finished runner-up to the same year, following a thrilling match in which eight goals were scored with five of them coming in the first 40 minutes. Bordeaux drew the match at 3–3 following a 55th-minute goal from Henri Baillot, but Nice countered minutes with two goals in a span of four minutes to go up 5–3, the final result. In 1955, Bordeaux were trounced 5 -- 2 by Lille; the resulting struggles in the cup competitions led to struggles domestically with the club suffering relegation in the 1955–56 season. The club returned to the first division for the 1959–60 season, but failed to make an impact falling back to Ligue 2 after finishing last in the standings with 21 points.
Bordeaux returned to its former selves in the 1960s under new manager and former player Salvador Artigas. Under the helm of Artigas, Bordeaux returned to the first division and finished in a respectable fourth place for the 1962–63 season; the following season, Bordeaux returned to the Coupe
Royal Standard de Liège referred to as Standard Liège, is a Belgian football club from the city of Liège. They are one of the most successful clubs in Belgium, having won the Belgian league on ten occasions, most in 2007–08 and 2008–09, they have been in the top flight without interruption since 1921, longer than any other Belgian side. They have won eight Belgian Cups, in 1981–82 they reached the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup, which they lost 2–1 against Barcelona. Standard players are nicknamed the "Rouches" because of their red jerseys; the French word for red, when pronounced with a Liège accent, sounds like "rouche." On the first day of school in September 1898, the pupils of Collège Saint-Servais in Liège started a football club, which they called Standard of Liège in reference to Standard Athletic Club of Paris. Standard, whose official name is Royal Standard Club of Liège, was based in Cointe and Grivegnée before settling permanently in 1909 in Sclessin, an industrial neighbourhood in Liège.
Standard joined the Belgian First League in 1909 before returning to the lower leagues a few years later. The club gained promotion back to the top division in 1921 and has never been relegated since. Shortly after World War II, Roger Petit, a former player and team captain, became general secretary of the club. Petit worked alongside President Henrard Paul to establish Standard among the elite of Belgian football. In 1954, Standard won their first club trophy, the Belgian Cup, soon followed by a first national title in 1957–58. At European level, in the 1960s, the club reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1961–62, falling to beaten finalists Real Madrid 0–6 on aggregate, the same stage of the Cup Winners' Cup in the year 1966–67, losing to eventual champions Bayern Munich; the 1960s and early 1970s brought much success to the club, as Standard won six Belgian First Division titles, two Belgian Cups and a League Cup. Driven by the Austrian Ernst Happel, Standard won the Belgian Cup again in 1981.
The following year, Raymond Goethals took control of the team. Playing by the "Raymond Science" philosophy of football, the club was twice the champions of Belgium, twice winners of the Belgian Supercup and reached the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1982. Standard played against Barcelona in the final at the Camp Nou on 12 May 1982, losing the match 1–2 to the Spaniards. In 1984, these exploits were tainted by the revelation of the Standard-Waterschei Affair. Just days before the match against Barcelona, to secure the championship of Belgium and guard against injuries last minute, Standard had approached Roland Janssen, the captain of Thor Waterschei, to ensure that Thor players' threw the final game of the season; this scandal involved several players, including Eric Gerets, coach Raymond Goethals, who fled to Portugal to escape suspension. In compensation the Standard players gave their game bonuses to the Waterschei players. Following the scandal, Standard was deprived of many of its playing staff due to long-term suspensions and it took the club several years to recover from the incident.
On 6 June 1993, Standard won the Belgian Cup for the fifth time in its history, defeating Robert Waseige's Charleroi at the Constant Vanden Stock Stadium in Brussels. This led to another appearance in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, ending in a record 10–0 aggregate defeat to Arsenal— having lost 3–0 at Highbury in London, Standard were humiliated 0–7 in the second leg at home. Following the scandal of 1982, it took 25 years before Standard won the Belgium Championship again, lifting the title on 20 April 2008; the club won the Belgian league again the following year, securing the club's tenth league title on 24 May 2009 after a home-and-away game against rivals Anderlecht. Standard won the national cup once more in 2011, defeating Westerlo 2–0 in the final at the King Baudouin Stadium on 21 May 2011; the club was bought by businessman Roland Duchatelet on 23 June 2011, who took over English club Charlton in December 2013, creating an affiliation between the two clubs. On 20 October 2014, Guy Luzon resigned as manager of Standard with the club sitting in 12th position in the Pro League standings and having taken only two points from three UEFA Europa League matches.
Luzon became head coach of Charlton. Assistant and former midfielder Ivan Vukomanović took over as caretaker-manager. 1898: Standard Football Club 1899: Standard FC Liégeois 1910: Standard Club Liégeois 1923: Royal Standard Club Liège 1952: Royal Standard Club Liégeois 1972: Royal Standard de Liège On nine occasions, Standard players have won the Belgian Golden Shoe as the best player in the domestic league. Jean Nicolay won the award in 1963, Wilfried Van Moer in 1969 and 1970, Christian Piot in 1972, Eric Gerets in 1982, Sérgio Conceição in 2005, Steven Defour in 2007, Axel Witsel in 2008 and Milan Jovanović in 2009. Belgian LeagueChampions: 1957–58, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1981–82, 1982–83, 2007–08, 2008–09 Runners-up: 1925–26, 1927–28, 1935–36, 1961–62, 1964–65, 1972–73, 1979–80, 1992–93, 1994–95, 2005–06, 2010–11, 2013–14, 2017–18Belgian CupChampions: 1953–54, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1980–81, 1992–93, 2010–11, 2015–16, 2017–18 Runners-up: 1964–65, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1983–84, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1998–99, 1999–00, 2006–07Belgian League CupChampions: 1975Belgian SupercupChampions 1981, 1983, 2008, 2009 Runners-up 1982, 1993, 2011, 2016, 2018 UEFA Cup Winners' CupRunners-up: 1981–82UEFA Intertoto CupRunners-up: 1996 Amsterdam Tournament:Runners-up: 1981 As of 3 Augus
Royal Sporting Club Anderlecht known as Anderlecht or RSCA, is a Belgian professional football club based in Anderlecht, Brussels Capital-Region. Anderlecht plays in the Belgian First Division A and is the most successful Belgian football team in European competitions, with five trophies, as well as in the Belgian domestic league, with 34 championship wins, they have won nine Belgian Cups and hold the record for most consecutive Belgian championship titles, winning five between the 1963–64 and 1967–68 seasons. Founded in 1908, the club first reached the highest level in Belgian football in 1921–22 and have been playing in the first division continuously since 1935–36 and in Europe since 1964-65, they won their first major trophy after World War II with a championship win in 1946–47. Since they have never finished outside the top six of the Belgian first division, they are ranked 12th amongst all-time UEFA club competition winners, tenth in the International Federation of Football History & Statistics continental Clubs of the 20th Century European ranking and were 41st in the 2012 UEFA team rankings.
In 1986, they achieved their best UEFA ranking with a joint first place with Juventus. Anderlecht have been playing their matches in the Astrid Park in the municipality of Anderlecht since 1917, their current stadium, Constant Vanden Stock Stadium, was first opened in 1983, replaced the former Emile Versé Stadium. They play in white outfits, they have long-standing rivalries with Standard Liège. Founded as Sporting Club Anderlechtois on 27 May 1908 by a dozen football lovers at the Concordia café, the club beat Institut Saint-Georges in their first match, 11–8, they joined the official competition in 1909–10, starting at the lowest level in the Belgian football league system the third provincial division. In 1912–13, they gained promotion to the second-higher level of football named the Promotion. After only one season at that level, the championships were suspended due to World War I, resumed in 1919–20. With the popularity of the team increasing, Anderlecht had moved to a new stadium in the Astrid Park in 1917.
They baptized the stadium Stade Emile Versé in honor of the club's first major patron, the industrialist Emile Versé. At the end of the 1920–21 season, Anderlecht were promoted to the first division for the first time in their history. In the next 14 seasons, Anderlecht were relegated four times and promoted four times, earning themselves the mockery of local rival clubs Union Saint-Gilloise and Daring Club de Bruxelles, who nicknamed them the "lift club". In 1933, 25 years after their formation, the club changed their name to Royal Sporting Club Anderlechtois. Since their promotion in 1935, Anderlecht has remained at the top level of football. With Jef Mermans, a striker signed from K Tubantia FC in 1942 for a record fee of 125,000 Belgian francs, Anderlecht won their first league title in 1947, their success increased in the following years as they won six more titles between 1949–50 and 1955–56 and two more in 1958–59 and 1961–62. In the 1960s, under the coaching of Pierre Sinibaldi and of Andreas Beres, the club won five titles in a row, still a Belgian league record.
The star of this team was Paul Van Himst, topscorer in 1965, 1967 and 1969 and Belgian Golden Shoe winner in 1960, 1961, 1965 and 1974. Anderlecht played in the first European Champion Clubs' Cup in 1955–56, lost both legs of their tie against Vörös Lobogo, they had to wait until the 1962–63 season to win their first European tie, with a 1–0 victory over Real Madrid, which followed a 3–3 draw in Spain. For the first time, they advanced to the second round, where they beat CSKA Sofia before losing to Dundee in the quarter-finals. In the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Anderlecht lost in the final against Arsenal. Between 1975 and 1984, Anderlecht only won one championship but they achieved considerable European success: they won the 1975–76 and 1977–78 European Cup Winners' Cups against West Ham United and Austria Wien as well as the two subsequent European Super Cups; the 1982–83 season was a noteworthy season for the club for numerous reasons: former Anderlecht favourite Paul Van Himst was named the new coach, they won the 1982–83 UEFA Cup and the rebuilding of the club stadium began.
But in the domestic league, Anderlecht had to settle for second place behind Standard. Their bid to retain the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 failed at the final hurdle against English side Tottenham Hotspur. Anderlecht reached the final controversially by beating another English side, Nottingham Forest, with a debatable extra time penalty to win 3–2 on aggregate, it was found Anderlecht had bribed the referee the equivalent of £27,000 to ensure passage to the final. After three second-place finishes in a row, the Purple and Whites secured an easy 18th title in 1984–85, 11 points ahead of Club Brugge. In 1985–86, Anderlecht won the championship again, but this time after a two-legged play-off against Club Brugge. Anderlecht won their 20th championship on the last matchday of the 1986–87 season, they lost key players Franky Vercauteren, Enzo Scifo and Juan Lozano. A weakened team coached by Raymond Goethals finished only fourth in 1988 behind Club Brugge, KV Mechelen and Royal Antwerp, but they nonetheless managed to lift the Belgian Cup for the sixth time in cl
The Bonnot Gang was a French criminal anarchist group that operated in France and Belgium during the Belle Époque, from 1911 to 1912. Composed of individuals who identified with the emerging illegalist milieu, the gang used cutting-edge technology not yet available to the French police. Referred to by the press as "The Auto Bandits", the gang was dubbed "The Bonnot Gang" after Jules Bonnot gave an interview at the office of Le Petit Parisien, a popular daily paper. Bonnot's perceived prominence within the group was reinforced by his high-profile death during a shootout with French police in Choisy-le-Roi; the Bonnot Gang consisted of a group of French anarchists centered around the individualist anarchist magazine l'Anarchie. The group was founded by Octave Garnier, Raymond Callemin, René Valet, it was Garnier's idea to use automobiles in the service of a daring criminal act. Jules Bonnot joined them in December 1911. Principal gang members included: Jules Bonnot Octave Garnier Raymond Callemin Anna Dondon Marie Vuillemin André Soudy Édouard Carouy Jeanne Belardi Jean De Boe Étienne Monier Eugène DieudonnéMinor players included David Belonie, Marius Medge, Antoine Gauzy, Pierre Jourdan, Charles Reinart, Victor Serge, Henriette Maîtrejean, Berbe Leclech.
The gang's political and social perspective was influenced by Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as well as Max Stirner, Ludwig Büchner, Friedrich Nietzsche. Bonnot's ideas were more part with late anarchist Ravachol; the first robbery by Bonnot's Gang was at the money transfer of Société Générale Bank in Chantilly on December 21, 1911. They escaped in an automobile they had stolen a week before. Robbers – Bonnot, Octave Garnier, Eugène Dieudonné and Raymond Callemin – got booty equal to 5,126 francs, but the rest of it was composed of securities. On December 28, 1911, the gang broke into a gun shop in the Paris center. A few days on the night of January 2, 1912, they entered the home of the wealthy M. Moreau and murdered both him and his maid; the booty take was equal to 30,000 francs. The National Police did its best to catch the gang, they were able to arrest one man based on their registry of anarchist organisations. The Gang fled temporarily to Belgium, where they sold the stolen automobile and tried to carjack another.
In the process they shot a Belgian policeman. The gang continued their automobile thefts and robberies, shooting two more policemen in the process. Automobiles were not yet common so the gang stole still expensive cars from garages, not from the street. By March 1912, police had arrested many of the gang's supporters and knew many of the members' faces and names. In March 1912, gang member and would-be leader Octave Garnier sent a mocking letter to the Sûreté – with his fingerprints. In those days, the French police still did not yet use fingerprinting. On March 25, 1912, the gang stole a de Dion-Bouton automobile in the Forest of Sénart south of Paris by shooting the driver through the heart, they drove into Chantilly north of Paris where they robbed the local branch of Société Générale Bank – shooting the bank's three cashiers. They escaped in their stolen automobile as two policemen tried to catch them, one on horseback and the other on a bicycle. Sûreté Chief Xavier Guichard took the matter personally.
Politicians became concerned, increasing police funding by 800,000 francs. Banks began to prepare for forthcoming robberies and many cashiers armed themselves; the Société Générale promised a reward of 100,000 francs for information that would lead to arrests. On March 30, police arrested André Soudy at the English Channel coast, where he announced that he did not care whether he died of tuberculosis or by guillotine. Édouard Carouy was arrested April 3. Raymond Callemin was arrested April 7, police had to prevent an angry mob from lynching him on the spot. Étienne Monnier was arrested in Paris on April 24. By the end of that month, police had arrested 28 gang members and supporters. Still, Octave Garnier and René Valet remained at large. On April 24, three police officers surprised Bonnot in the apartment of a suspected fence, he shot at the officers, killing one and wounding another, fled over the rooftops. Part of the 100,000 francs reward was given to the widow of the police officer killed. On April 28, police had tracked Bonnot to a converted garage in the Paris suburb of Choisy-le-Roi.
The building had only one entrance so it was easy for Bonnot to keep the police at bay. They besieged the place with 500 armed police officers, firefighters, military engineers and private gun-owners. By noon, after a sporadic firing from both sides, Paris Police Chief Louis Lépine sent three police officers to put a dynamite charge under the house; the explosion demolished the front of the building. Bonnot was hiding in the middle of a rolled mattress and tried to shoot back until Lépine shot him non-fatally in the head. Afterwards police again had to prevent the spectators from lynching Bonnot, they told the crowd that Bonnot was dead and had been buried in a secret grave. In fact, he was fatally injured but was taken to the Hôtel-Dieu hospital and survived for around another hour. On the evening of 14 May, Octave Garnier and Rene Valet were besieged in the Paris suburb of Nogent-sur-Marne by a large force including 300 police officers and gendarmes and 800 soldiers. Sûreté Chief Xavier Guichard himself led the siege.
The firing from both sides was intense, at 2 am, Guichard decided to blow the place up. Garnier died in the explosion, but Valet tried to keep firing despite his
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Camp Nou is the home stadium of FC Barcelona since its completion in 1957. With a seating capacity of 99,354, it is the largest stadium in Spain and Europe, the third largest football stadium in the world in capacity, it has hosted two European Cup/Champions League finals in 1989 and 1999, two UEFA Cup Winners' Cup finals, four Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final games, five UEFA Super Cup final games, four Copa del Rey finals, two Copa de la Liga final games, twenty-one Supercopa de España final games, five matches including the opening game of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, two out of four matches at the 1964 European Nations' Cup and the football competition final at the 1992 Summer Olympics. The construction of Camp Nou started on 28 March 1954 as Barcelona's previous stadium, Camp de Les Corts, had no room for expansion. Although planned to be called the Estadi del FC Barcelona, the more popular name Camp Nou was used; the June 1950 signing of László Kubala, regarded as one of Barcelona's greatest players, provided further impetus to the construction of a larger stadium.
The architects were Francesc Mitjans and Josep Soteras, with the collaboration of Lorenzo García-Barbón. In May 1972, Camp Nou hosted its first European Cup Winners' Cup final between Rangers and Dynamo Moscow. Rangers won the match with a score of 3–2; the 1970s marked a turning point for Barcelona with the signing of a new player, Johan Cruyff, in 1973. Electronic scoreboards were installed in the stadium two years later; the stadium underwent an expansion in 1980, in anticipation of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, which added boxes, VIP lounges, a new press area, new markers and the construction of the third tier, smaller in height than the original design by 6 metres. The expansion of the stadium added 22,150 new seats, taking the total seating capacity to 71,731, the standing capacity was expanded by 16,500 to 49,670, taking the total stadium capacity to 121,401. FC Barcelona's record attendance was set on 5 March 1986 in the European Cup quarter-final against Juventus in front of 120,000 spectators, just 1,401 shy of the stadium's capacity.
Camp Nou was one of several stadiums used throughout the 1982 World Cup, hosting the inauguration ceremony on 13 June. It hosted more matches in that tournament than any of the 16 other stadiums used all over Spain, including the opening match, where the traditional opening ceremonies took place. In front of 95,000, Belgium upset the defending champions Argentina 1–0 in that opening match, it hosted three round-robin matches between the Soviet Union and Belgium, which Poland ended up winning and qualifying from to reach the semi-finals, where they played Italy at the Camp Nou, losing 2–0. The stadium's capacity has varied over the years, opening at 106,146, but growing to 121,401 for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. Apart from hosting Barcelona, Camp Nou is home to the Catalan team; the stadium is used for other football events. The European Cup final between Milan and Steaua București was held on 24 May 1989, with the Italian club winning 4–0. Camp Nou hosted part of the football competition, including the final, in the 1992 Summer Olympics.
In preparation for these matches, two additional tiers of seating were installed over the previous roof-line. Camp Nou underwent little change after 1982, except for the opening of the club museum in 1984; the stadium underwent a facelift in 1993–94, in which the pitch was lowered by 2.5 metres, the security gap that separated the lawn from the galleries was removed, standing room was eliminated in favor of individual seating. A new press box, renovation of the presidential grandstand and boxes, new parking under the main grandstand, new lighting and sound systems were completed in time for the 1998–99 season. In 1999, UEFA outlawed standing sections in stadiums, Camp Nou's capacity settled to its current level; the stadium hosted the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final that year where Manchester United played Bayern Munich. United won 2–1, coming back from 0–1 down in injury time. During 1998 -- 99, UEFA rated Camp Nou a five-star stadium for its functionalities. In 2000, fans were polled concerning the stadium's name.
Of the 29,102 votes the club received, a total of 19,861 preferred Camp Nou to Estadi del FC Barcelona, thus the official name was changed to the popular nickname. The facilities now include a memorabilia shop, mini-pitches for training matches, a chapel for the players; the stadium houses the second-most visited museum in Catalonia, FC Barcelona Museum, which receives more than 1.2 million visitors per year. On 1 October 2017, Barcelona's league match against Las Palmas was played in an empty Camp Nou due to political turmoil in the region; the club issued an international tender to remodel the stadium as a celebration of the stadium's fiftieth anniversary. The objective was to make the facility an integrated and visible urban environment; the club schemed to increase the seating capacity by 13,500, with at least half of the total seating to be under cover. The intention was to make it the third-largest stadium in the world, after the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in the USA, the Rungnado May Day Stadium in North Korea.
On 18 September 2007, the British architect Norman Foster and his company were selected to "restructure" Camp Nou. With an estimated cost of €250 million, the plan included the addition of 6,000 se
Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han