Marca, stylised as MARCA, is a Spanish national daily sport newspaper owned by Unidad Editorial. The newspaper focuses on football, in particular the day-to-day activities of Real Madrid, Atlético Madrid and Rayo Vallecano, it has a daily readership of over 2,500,000, the highest in Spain for a daily newspaper, more than half of sports readership. Since February 2001 there has been an associated 24-hour/day sports radio station, Radio Marca. In 2010 the TV channel MARCA TV was launched, before being closed in 2013. Marca was founded on 21 December 1938, at the height of the Spanish Civil War, in nationalist-held San Sebastián, its first editor was Manuel Fernández Cuesta. On 3 September 1987 Luis Infante became the editor of the paper. Punto Editorial SA was the owner of Marca. In 1984 Espacio Editorial, which would be called Recoletos, acquired the paper; the company merged with Unedisa in 2007 to found Unidad Editorial, the owner of Marca. The publisher of the paper is Unidad Editorial and the sister newspapers are El Mundo and Expansión.
Marca is published in tabloid format. On 25 November 1942 it ceased being published as a weekly publication and has been published as a daily since; the daily was awarded the World's Best Designed Newspaper for 2004 by the Society for News Design. On 21 December 2007 Marca hosted a gala event, featuring the leading Spanish sportsmen of the 20th century, to celebrate the newspaper's 70th anniversary; the paper was involved in a dispute with Sir Alex Ferguson from the summer of 2008 when he accused Marca of being Real Madrid's "vehicle to unsettle players". In October 2012, Marca announced launching the Spanish edition of the video games media outlet IGN replacing their own MARCA Player gaming news website. Marca planned to launch another Spanish edition of IGN for Spanish-speakers in Latin America. In 2001 Marca had a circulation of 403,000 copies, its circulation was 382,000 copies in 2003, making it the second best selling newspaper in the country. The following awards are awarded by MARCA at the end of each season: Pichichi - To the top goalscorer in La Liga as well as to the top goalscorer in Segunda División.
Zarra - To the top goalscorer among Spanish nationals in La Liga as well as to the top goalscorer among Spanish nationals in Segunda División. Zamora - To the best goalkeeper in La Liga as well as to the best goalkeeper in Segunda División. Miguel Muñoz - To the best head coach in La Liga as well as to the best head coach in Segunda División. Guruceta - To the best referee in La Liga as well as to the best referee in Segunda División. Di Stefano - To the best player in La Liga Deportiva; the below awards are awarded by MARCA at no specific time: Marca Legend Award - To the best professional athletes in history. Best Football Player of All Time - To Argentine Lionel Messi via an online poll voted by the readers of Marca.com. Manuel Fernández-Cuesta Ibrahim de Malcervelli Manuel Casanova Lucio del Álamo Nemesio Fernández-Cuesta Carmelo Martinez Valentín Martín Juan Pablo de Villanueva Jesús Ramos Luis Infante Bravo Manuel Saucedo Elías Israel Manuel Saucedo Alejandro Sopeña Eduardo Inda Óscar Campillo MARCA TV Radio Marca Marca.com Facebook Football Awards Carlos Toro.
La Historia de Marca. Madrid. P. 424. ISBN 978-84-9734-723-5. Official website Official English website Radio MARCA website MARCA TV
Edson Arantes do Nascimento, known as Pelé, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is regarded by many in the sport, including football writers and fans, as the greatest player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics, was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award; that same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful domestic league goal-scorer in football history scoring 650 goals in 694 League matches, in total 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and is a Guinness World Record. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world. Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player to do so.
Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is the record goalscorer for Santos, led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos. Averaging a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, he would use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor.
Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, legacy in the sport. Pelé was born Edson Arantes do Nascimento on 23 October 1940, in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, the son of Fluminense footballer Dondinho and Celeste Arantes, he was the elder of two siblings. He was named after the American inventor Thomas Edison, his parents decided to remove the "i" and call him "Edson", but there was a mistake on the birth certificate, leading many documents to show his name as "Edison", not "Edson", as he is called. He was nicknamed "Dico" by his family, he received the nickname "Pelé" during his school days, when it is claimed he was given it because of his pronunciation of the name of his favorite player, local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Bilé, which he misspoke but the more he complained the more it stuck. In his autobiography, Pelé stated he had no idea what the name did his old friends. Apart from the assertion that the name is derived from that of Bilé, that it is Hebrew for "miracle", the word has no known meaning in Portuguese.
Pelé grew up in poverty in Bauru in the state of São Paulo. He earned extra money by working in tea shops as a servant. Taught to play by his father, he could not afford a proper football and played with either a sock stuffed with newspaper and tied with a string or a grapefruit, he played for several amateur teams in his youth, including Sete de Setembro, Canto do Rio, São Paulinho, Amériquinha. Pelé led Bauru Athletic Club juniors to two São Paulo state youth championships. In his mid-teens, he played. Indoor football had just become popular in Bauru, he was part of the first Futebol de Salão competition in the region. Pelé and his team won several others. According to Pelé, indoor football presented difficult challenges. Pelé accredits indoor football for helping. In addition, indoor football allowed him to play with adults. In one of the tournaments he participated, he was considered too young to play, but went on to end up top scorer with fourteen or fifteen goals. "That gave me a lot of confidence", Pelé said, "I knew not to be afraid of whatever might come".
In 1956, de Brito took Pelé to Santos, an industrial and port city located near São Paulo, to try out for professional club Santos FC, telling the directors at Santos that the 15-year-old would be "the greatest football player in the world." Pelé impressed Santos coach Lula during his trial at the Estádio Vila Belmiro, he signed a professional contract with the club in June 1956. Pelé was promoted in the local media as a future superstar, he made his senior team debut on 7 September 1956 at the age of 15 against Corinthians Santo Andre and had an impressive performance in a 7–1 victory, scoring the first goal in his prolific career during the match. When the 1957 season started, Pelé was given a starting place in the first team and, at the age of 16, became the top scorer in the league. Ten months after signing professionally, the teenager was called up to the Brazil national team. After the 1958 and the 1962 World Cup, wealthy Euro
The FIFA 100 is a list of the world-renowned Brazilian striker Pelé's choice of the "greatest living footballers". Unveiled on 4 March 2004 at a gala ceremony in London, the FIFA 100 marked part of the celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the international governing body of football; the figure 100 refers to the 100th anniversary of FIFA and not the number of players listed, 125. The list contains 123 professional male and 2 female players. At the time the FIFA 100 was selected, 50 of the players were still active, with the remaining 75 retired from the game; some football observers have questioned the selection methodology of the list. David Mellor, politician turned football pundit, wrote in his column in the Evening Standard that he felt the selections were politically motivated rather than made on purely footballing grounds, he suggested that the selections looked as if they came from the pen of Sepp Blatter rather than Pelé.
As evidence for this, Mellor noted the wide geographical spread of the selected players: a true selection would be more biased to South America and Europe, he argued. Such assertions were forwarded by BBC columnist Tim Vickery. One of Pelé's old teammates, the former Brazil midfielder Gérson, reacted to his omission from the FIFA 100 by tearing up a copy of the list on a Brazilian television programme. Marco van Basten and Uwe Seeler refused to take part in the project on a point of principle. Following is the list of the "FIFA 100" greatest living footballers as nominated by Pelé. Players active at the time of announcement are marked by. Players who are still active are in italics. World Soccer's Greatest Players of the 20th Century World Team of the 20th Century The FIFA 100
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica is designated as a territorial collectivity by law; as a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions. The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud, with its regional capital in Ajaccio, the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia, the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second largest settlement in Corsica; the two departments, the region of Corsica, merged again into a single territorial collectivity in 2018. After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was an Italian-speaking independent republic from 1755, until it was ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts and conquered in 1769.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born the same year in Ajaccio, his ancestral home, Maison Bonaparte, is today a significant visitor attraction and museum. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many Italian cultural elements: the native tongue is recognized as a regional language by the French government; the origin of the name Corsica remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste, Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné. Of these Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, "Σειρηνούσσαι", the same Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. Corsica has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic era, it acquired an indigenous population, influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory. After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians, colonization by the ancient Greeks, an only longer occupation by the Etruscans, it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War and, with Sardinia, in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic.
The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria, considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey and wax, exported many slaves, not well considered because of their fierce and rebellious character. Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca. Administratively, the island was divided in pagi, which in the Middle Ages became the pievi, the basic administrative units of the island until 1768. During the diffusion of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors, Corsica was home to many martyrs and saints: among them, the most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia, both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated into Roman Italy by Emperor Diocletian. In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths. Recovered by the Byzantines, it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
This made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany. Pepin the Short, king of the Franks and Charlemagne's father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II. In the first quarter of the 11th century and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion. After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa. To this period belong the many polychrome churches which adorn the island, Corsica experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gave to the island its present toponymy and rendered the language spoken in the northern two-thirds of the island close to the Tuscan dialect. Due to that began the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of mountains going from Calvi to Porto-Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro, or Cismonte, more populated and open to the commerce with Italy, the western Banda di fuori, or Pomonte deserted and remote; the crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa had among its consequences the end of the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica: this was contested by the King of Aragon, who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica.
A popular revolution against this and the feudal lords, led by Sambucuccio d'Alando, got the aid of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled after the Italian experience; the following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was contested by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of Saint George, which brought peace. In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy. In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica, but the reaction of Spain and Genoa, led by Andrea Doria, reestablished the Genoese supremacy on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis; the unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would come to be considered a hero of t
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Spain national football team
The Spain national football team represents Spain in international men's association football since 1920, is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Spain. Spain is one of the eight national teams to have been crowned worldwide champions, having participated in a total of 15 of 21 FIFA World Cups and qualifying since 1978. Spain has won three continental titles, having appeared at 10 of 15 UEFA European Championships. Spain became the first European team to win a FIFA World Cup outside Europe, having won the 2010 tournament in South Africa, as well as having won back-to-back European titles in Euro 2008 and Euro 2012, defeating Germany and Italy in the respective finals, making them the only national team with three major titles in a row. According to this, from 2008 to 2013, the national team won the FIFA Team of the Year, the second-most of any nation, behind only Brazil. Between November 2006 and June 2009, Spain went undefeated for a record-equalling 35 consecutive matches, a record shared with Brazil.
Their achievements have led many experts and commentators to consider the 2008-2012 Spanish squads, among the best international sides in world football. Spain has been a member of FIFA since its foundation in 1904 though the Spanish Football Federation was first established in 1909; the first Spain national football team was constituted in 1920, with the main objective of finding a team that would represent Spain at the Summer Olympics held in Belgium in that same year. Spain made their debut at the tournament on 28 August 1920 against Denmark, silver medalists at the last two Olympic tournaments; the Spanish managed to win that match by a scoreline of 1–0 finishing with the silver medal. Spain qualified for their first FIFA World Cup in 1934, defeating Brazil in their first game and losing in a replay to the hosts and eventual champions Italy in the quarter-finals; the Spanish Civil War and World War II prevented Spain from playing any competitive matches between the 1934 World Cup and the 1950 edition's qualifiers.
At the 1950 finals in Brazil, they topped their group to progress to the final round finished in fourth place. Until 2010, this had been Spain's highest finish in a FIFA World Cup finals, which had given them the name of the "underachievers". Spain won its first major international title when hosting the 1964 European Championship held in Spain, defeating the Soviet Union 2–1 in the final at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium; the victory would stand as Spain's lone major title for 44 years. Spain was selected as host of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, reaching the second round, four years they reached the quarter-finals before a penalty shootout defeat to Belgium. Javier Clemente was appointed as Spain's coach in 1992, leading them to the quarter-finals of the 1994 World Cup; the match became controversial when Italian defender Mauro Tassotti struck Luis Enrique with his elbow inside Spain's penalty area, causing Luis Enrique to bleed profusely from his nose and mouth, but the foul was not noticed nor sanctioned by referee Sándor Puhl.
Had the official acknowledged the foul, Spain would have merited a penalty kick. In the 2002 World Cup, Spain won its three group play matches defeated the Republic of Ireland on penalties in the second round, they faced co-hosts South Korea in the quarter-finals, losing in a shootout after having two goals controversially called back for alleged infractions during regular and extra time. At UEFA Euro 2008, Spain won all their games in Group D. Italy were the opponents in the quarter-final match, they met Russia again in the semi-final, beating them 3–0. In the final, Spain defeated Germany 1–0, with Fernando Torres scoring the only goal of the game; this was Spain's first major title since the 1964 European Championship. Xavi was awarded the player of the tournament. In the 2010 World Cup, Spain advanced to the final for the first time by defeating Germany 1–0. In the decisive match against the Netherlands, Andrés Iniesta scored the match's only goal, coming in extra time. Spain became the third team to win a World Cup outside their own continent, the first European team to do so.
Goalkeeper Iker Casillas won the golden glove for only conceding two goals during the tournament, while David Villa won the bronze ball and silver boot, tied for top scorer of the tournament. Spain qualified top of Group I in qualification for UEFA Euro 2012 with a perfect 100% record, they became the first team to retain the European Championship, winning the final 4–0 against Italy, while Fernando Torres won the Golden Boot for top scorer of the tournament. Two years however, they were eliminated from the group stage of the 2014 World Cup. At Euro 2016 and the 2018 World Cup, the side reached the last 16. Spanish team is known by fans as "La Furia Roja", meaning The Red Fury in Spanish. However, there are another unofficial nicknames to refer to the national team of Spain; the other most common nickname, known by fans, is "Los Toros", since Spanish Fighting Bull is one of Spain's famous national treasures and used to define Spanish culture, often depicted by Spanish supporters alike. Spanish football team is sometimes referred as the Bulls due to this cultural heritage.
Spanish team received other nicknames "Toreros" or "Matador", both meanings are Bullfighters in Spanish, to describe its passionate and romantic style of football playing. During Spain's most successful period between 2008 and 2012, the team played a style of football dubbed'tiki-taka', a systems approach to football founded upon the ideal of team unity and a comprehensive understanding in the geometry of space on a football field. Tiki-taka
The Ballon d'Or is an annual football award presented by France Football. It has been awarded since 1956, although between 2010 and 2015, an agreement was made with FIFA and the award was temporarily merged with the FIFA World Player of the Year, known as the FIFA Ballon d'Or. However, the partnership ended in 2016 and the award was reversed back to Ballon d'Or, while FIFA reverted to its own separate annual award. Conceived by sports writer Gabriel Hanot, the Ballon d'Or award honours the male player deemed to have performed the best over the previous year, based on voting by football journalists, it was an award for players from Europe. In 1995 the Ballon d'Or was expanded to include all players from any origin that have been active at European clubs; the award became a global prize in 2007 with all professional footballers from around the world being eligible. Stanley Matthews of Blackpool was the inaugural winner of the Ballon d'Or. Prior to 1995, the award was known in English language media as the European Footballer of the Year award.
Milan's George Weah, the only African recipient, became the first non-European to win the award in the year that rules of eligibility were changed. Ronaldo of Internazionale became the first South American winner two years later. Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo have won the award a record five times each. Three players have won the award three times each: Johan Cruyff of Ajax and Barcelona, Michel Platini of Juventus and Marco van Basten of Milan. With seven awards each, Dutch and Portuguese players won the most Ballons d'Or. Only Germany and the Netherlands took all three top spots in one year. Two Spanish clubs Barcelona and Real Madrid share the top for employing the most winners, with eleven wins each. Between 2010 and 2015 inclusive, the award was merged with a similar one, the FIFA World Player of the Year award, to create the FIFA Ballon d'Or, awarded to the world's best male player before FIFA and France Football broke the merging agreement. After 2011, UEFA created the UEFA Best Player in Europe Award to maintain the format of the original Ballon d'Or.
Eight players have won the FIFA World Cup, the European Cup/UEFA Champions League and the Ballon d'Or during their careers. One-time winners are only included if they have finished second or third in another year. An honorary award, under the name Super Ballon d'Or, was awarded to Alfredo Di Stéfano in 1989, after he surpassed Johan Cruyff and Michel Platini in France Football's voting. A decade France Football elected Pelé the Football Player of the Century after consulting their former Ballon d'Or recipients. Among the 34 previous winners, 30 cast their votes; each voter was allotted five votes worth up to five points. Pelé was named the greatest by 17 voters, receiving double the number of points earned by the runner-up, Diego Maradona. To coincide with the 60th anniversary of the Ballon d'Or in 2016, France Football published a reevaluation of the awards presented before 1995, when only European players were eligible to win the award. 12 out of the 39 Ballons d'Or presented during this time period would have been awarded to South American players.
The original recipients, remain unchanged. Maradona and Pelé received honorary Ballons d'Ors for their services to football in 1996 and 2013, respectively. FIFA World Player of the Year FIFA Ballon d'Or The Best FIFA Football Awards FIFPro World XI Ballon d'Or Féminin "European Footballer of the Year". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. 9 October 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008. "La liste complête des lauréats du Ballon d'or, de 1956 à nos jours". France Football. Retrieved 24 March 2015