Edward Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville
Edward Charles Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville was a British music critic, novelist and, in his last years, a member of the House of Lords. Musically gifted as a boy, he was attracted as a young man to a literary life and wrote a series of semi-autobiographical novels in the 1920s and 1930s, they made little impact, his more lasting books are a biography of the poet Thomas de Quincey and The Record Guide, Britain's first comprehensive guide to classical music on record, first published in 1951. As a critic and a member of the board of the Royal Opera House, he strove to promote the works of young British composers, including Benjamin Britten and Michael Tippett. Britten worked with him on a musical drama for radio and dedicated to him one of his best known works, the Serenade for Tenor and Strings. Sackville-West was born at Cadogan Gardens, the elder child and only son of Major-General Charles John Sackville-West, who became the fourth Baron Sackville, his first wife, Maud Cecilia, née Bell.
He was educated at Oxford. While at Eton he studied the piano with Irene Scharrer, his housemaster's wife, became proficient, winning the Eton music prize in 1918, his partner Desmond Shawe-Taylor said of him, "not many boys can have played at a school concert the Second Concerto of Rachmaninov. He contemplated a pianist's career, but was deterred by poor health." At Oxford he made many literary friends, including Maurice Bowra, Roy Harrod and L. P. Hartley, literature began to rival music as his chief interest, he left Oxford without taking his degree and embarked on a career as a novelist, writing a series of autobiographical novels. His first novel, The Ruin: A Gothic Novel, was plainly autobiographical, its depiction of turbulent and calamitous relationships included characters identifiable from Sackville-West's circle, its publication was therefore delayed, his second novel, Piano Quintet, was published first. Sackville-West's biographer, Michael de-la-Noy, wrote, "The Ruin, like all the gothic literary efforts over which Sackville-West took infinite but rather pointless pains, was laced with the mannered style of the late nineteenth-century'decadent' movement … with whose work Eddy had become enamoured when he was seventeen."He published a further three novels, Mandrake over the Water-Carrier, Simpson: A Life and The Sun in Capricorn.
They were made little stir. Reviewing the third novel, The Times said, "The book is cleverly and amusingly written, but to an ordinary intelligence it seems to be inconsequent." Simpson: A Life was the best received. Its study of a children's nurse was judged "impressive and in its way original, the more so because Simpson has such a cool, aloof quality and so little resembles the conventional Nanny of fact or fiction." In this period, away from fiction, Sackville-West wrote A Flame in Sunlight: the Life and Work of Thomas De Quincey, for which he won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. In 1935 Sackville-West became music critic of the magazine New Statesman, a post he held for twenty years, contributing weekly reviews of recordings; the Times wrote that his articles "were distinguished not only for their command of the jewelled phrase but for their zealous propagation of young British composers." He was campaigner for the music of Benjamin Britten. During World War II, Sackville-West joined the BBC as "an arranger and director of programmes".
In 1943, he wrote The Rescue: a Melodrama for Broadcasting. It was revived several times; the BBC producer Val Gielgud rated it as "a genuine broadcasting classic". The theme of The Rescue was the end of The Odyssey. Maurice Bowra dubbed it "The Eddyssey." In the same year, Britten dedicated his Serenade for Tenor and Strings to Sackville-West. In addition to his column in The New Statesman, Sackville-West contributed a substantial quarterly article to The Gramophone, with Shawe-Taylor, wrote The Record Guide, first published in 1951, a large volume reviewing all significant classical music recordings available, they soon found the flow of new releases overwhelming and enlisted the aid of two younger critics, Andrew Porter and William Mann. A revised and updated edition of The Record Guide published in 1955 ran to 957 pages, Sackville-West, Shawe-Taylor and their colleagues did not publish any more editions. From 1950 to 1955, Sackville-West was a member of the board of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, where he continued to work for the cause of modern British music, including that of Michael Tippett, whose opera The Midsummer Marriage was premiered in 1955.
Sackville-West's family home was Knole in Kent. He maintained rooms there, but it was not until 1945 that he had a home of his own, having lived with friends the Kenneth Clarks at Upton near Tetbury. Together with Shawe-Taylor he set up home at Long Crichel House near Wimborne. Along with the painter Eardley Knollys and the literary critic Raymond Mortimer, he established "what in effect was a male salon, entertaining at the weekends a galaxy of friends from the worlds of books and music." In 1956 he bought Cooleville House at Clogheen in County Tipperary, Ireland. On the death of his father on 8 May 1962 he inherited the title Baron Sackville, he never made a speech. He died in 1965 at Cooleville, aged 63. Shawe-Taylor wrote, "Barely a quarter of an hour before, he had been playing to a friend, staying with him, the new record of Britten's Songs from the Chinese by Peter Pears and Julian Brea
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Eardley Knollys was a member of the Bloomsbury Group of artists - variously an art critic, art dealer and collector, active from the 1920s to 1950s. He only himself began to paint in 1949, had his first solo exhibition at the age of 58 in 1960, by which time he was a "minor legend in British art". Born in Alresford, Hampshire to Cyprian Robert Knollys, a land agent descended from a junior branch of the family of the Earl of Banbury and his wife Audrey, he was educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, he was a director of The Storran Gallery at opposite Harrods. Together with him worked Frank Coombs, the great love of his life. After Coombs's death in World War II, Knollys affected, closed the Storran Gallery. Edward Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville, Patrick Trevor-Roper, the literary critic Raymond Mortimer, the music critic Desmond Shawe-Taylor and Knollys established "what in effect was a male salon, entertaining at the weekends a galaxy of friends from the worlds of books and music" in Long Crichel, including James Lees-Milne, a close friend of Knollys, who recruited him to join him at the National Trust during World War II, over the next 15 years accompanied him on many of the trips to country houses recorded in his published volumes of diaries.
Several photos from the 1920s of Knollys and friends by Lady Ottoline Morrell are in the National Portrait Gallery, London. List of Bloomsbury Group people
Sir Harold George Nicolson, was a British diplomat, author and politician. He was the husband of writer Vita Sackville-West. Nicolson was born in Tehran, the youngest son of diplomat Arthur Nicolson, 1st Baron Carnock, he spent his boyhood in various places throughout Europe and the Near East, following his father's frequent postings, including St. Petersburg, Madrid and Tangier, he was educated at The Grange School in Folkestone, followed by Wellington College. He attended Balliol College, graduating in 1909 with a third class degree. Nicolson entered the Foreign Office that same year, after scoring on the Civil Service exams. In 1909 Nicolson joined HM Diplomatic Service, he served as attaché at Madrid from February to September 1911, Third Secretary at Constantinople from January 1912 to October 1914. In 1913, Nicolson married the novelist Vita Sackville-West. Nicolson and his wife practised what today would be called an open marriage with both having affairs with people of the same sex. A diplomatic career was an honorable and prestigious one in Edwardian Britain, but Sackville-West's parents were aristocrats who wanted their daughter to marry a fellow aristocrat from an old noble family.
During the First World War, he served at the Foreign Office in London, during which time he was promoted to Second Secretary. As the Foreign Office's most junior employee at this rank, it fell to him on 4 August 1914 to hand Britain's revised declaration of war to Prince Max von Lichnowsky, the German ambassador in London. An Anglophile, opposed to his country's foreign policy, the British declaration of war was a bitter blow to Lichnowsky. In December 1917, Nicolson had to explain to Sackville-West that he had contracted a venereal disease as a result of an anonymous homosexual encounter, he had passed it to her; as it turned out, he hadn't. He served in a junior capacity in the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, for which he was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1920 New Year Honours. Promoted First Secretary in 1920, he was appointed private secretary to Sir Eric Drummond, first Secretary-General of the League of Nations, but was recalled to the Foreign Office in June 1920.
In the same year, Sackville-West become involved in an intense relationship with Violet Trefusis that nearly wrecked her marriage. Damn! Damn! Violet. How I loathe her". On one occasion, Nicolson had to follow Vita to France, where she had "eloped" with Violet Trefusis, to try to win her back. Nicolson himself was no stranger to homosexual affairs. Among others, he was involved in a long-term relationship with Raymond Mortimer, whom both he and Vita affectionately referred to as "Tray". Nicolson and Vita discussed their shared homosexual tendencies frankly with each other, remained happy together, they were famously devoted to each other, writing every day when separated due to Nicolson's long diplomatic postings abroad, or Vita's insatiable wanderlust. He gave up diplomacy so they could live together in England. In 1925, he posted to Tehran as Chargé d'affaires; that same year, General Reza Khan deposed the last Qajar Shah, Ahmad Shah Qajar, to take the Peacock Throne for himself, though this was not proper for a diplomat's wife, Sackville-West became involved in the coronation of Reza Khan as the new Shah.
Nicolson disliked Reza Khan, calling him "a bullet-headed man with the voice of an asthmatic child". Reza Khan disliked British influence in Iran, after being crowned Shah, had submitted a "categorical note" that demanded the "removal of Indian Savars from Persia"; the Savars had been used to guard the British Legation in Tehran and various consulates across Persia, Reza Khan felt having the troops of a foreign power marching down the streets of his capital was an infringement of Persian sovereignty. As the chargé d'affairs, Nicolson was in charge of the British Legation in the summer of 1926 and upon receiving the Iranian note, he rushed down to the Iranian Foreign Ministry to object. Nicolson writing in the third person stated he had a "Kipling inside him and something of an'empire builder'" told the Persian officials that the note was "so categorical to be offensive" and wanted it withdrawn; the Persians stated that the note had been written by Reza Khan himself and could not be withdrawn, though an annex was added to the note, which softened its threatening tone, but much to the satisfaction of Reza Khan, the British had to abide by what Nicolson called a "frank and honest" note, withdrawing the Savars.
In the summer of 1927 he was recalled to London and demoted to First Secretary for criticising his Minister, Sir Percy Loraine, in a dispatch. However he was posted to Berlin as Chargé d'affaires in 1928 and promoted Counsellor again, but resigned from the Diplomatic Service in September 1929. From 1930 to 1931, Nicolson edited the Londoner's Diary for the Evening Standard, but disliked writing about high-society gossip and quit within a year. In 1931, he joined Sir Oswald Mosley and his formed New Party, he stood unsuccessfully for Parliament for the Combined English Universities in the general election that year and edited the party newspaper, Action. He ceased to support Mosley. Nicolson entered the House of Commons as National Labour Member of Parliament for Leicester West in the 1935 election. In the latter half of the 1930s he was among a small number of MPs who alerted the country to the threat of fascism. More a follow
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Redhill is a town in the borough of Reigate and Banstead within the county of Surrey, England. The town, which adjoins the town of Reigate to the west, is due south of Croydon in Greater London, is part of the London commuter belt; the town is the post town and commercial area of three adjoining communities: Merstham and Whitebushes, as well as of two small rural villages to the east in the Tandridge District and Nutfield. Redhill is sited about 3 miles south of a minor pass at Merstham in the North Downs, through which passes the London-Brighton road. Beneath this pass, two rival railway companies excavated the Merstham tunnels, which are still used by regular commuter trains and goods transport, with the two railway lines intersecting to the south of Redhill station. A major factor in the development of the town was the coming of the railways. Redhill railway station continues to be an important junction. A town formed here in part of the rural parishes of Reigate Foreign and Merstham when a turnpike road was built in 1818.
The settlement was known as "Warwick Town" after Warwick Road, became known as Redhill when the post office moved from Red Hill Common in the south-west of the town in 1856. Redhill is one of the few places in the UK where fuller's earth can be extracted, though production ceased in 2000. Alfred Nobel demonstrated dynamite for the first time at a Merstham quarry, 2 miles north of Redhill in 1868. A large, Victorian psychiatric hospital with well-trimmed grounds, the Royal Earlswood Hospital the Philanthropic Society's farm school for convicts' children, first established in 1788 at St. George's Fields, relocated to Earlswood in what was the south of Redhill in 1855. Prince Albert laid the first stone in 1853. Another inmate James Henry Pullen was an autistic savant, he was a brilliant artist whose work was accepted by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Some of Pullen's ship models and art work used to be on display at the town's Belfry Shopping Centre but have now been moved to the Langdon Down Museum in Teddington.
The principal building has been converted to apartments and the renovated grounds provide green open space to balance the large common south-west of Earlswood railway station. Richard Carrington, an amateur astronomer, moved to Redhill in 1852, built a house and observatory. Dome Way, where Redhill's only tower block stands, is named after it; the site suited an isolated observatory, being on a spur of high ground surrounded by lower fields and marsh. Here in 1859 he made astronomical observations that first corroborated the existence of solar flares as well as their electrical influence upon the Earth and its aurorae. In 1863 he published records of sunspot observations that first demonstrated differential rotation in the Sun. In 1865 ill health prompted him to sell his move to Churt, Surrey. St John the Evangelist, built in 1843, was the first of Redhill's three Anglican parish churches; the parish stretched from Gatton in the north to Sidlow in the south. The construction, to the east of Redhill, of the M23 motorway between 1972 and 1975 reduced north-south traffic through the town.
The natural gap in the North Downs north of Merstham is at an elevation of 120 metres above sea level. From this point run undulating slopes of significant chalk and some fuller's earth deposits, underlying regular humus topsoil in the distance to Redhill's town centre. Reigate High Street, further along the Holmesdale gap, is at an elevation of around 85 metres or 280 feet with a small hill to the north where Reigate Castle is sited. Redhill Common, now built on at St John's, is on the Greensand Ridge; the Redhill Brook runs through the town culverted, upstream to the immediate north-east of the town are The Moors nature reserve and the large 2010–2012 Watercolour housing development, comprising 25 acres of lakes and wildlife habitat managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust. The brook enters a culvert behind Redhill station and reappears at Halford's car park; the flat area of Redhill's town centre was a marshy flood plain caused by its silted waters. The railway and A23 pass through or near the gap cut by the brook through the Greensand Ridge at Earlswood, just south of the town.
The meandering stream joins the River Mole south west of Woodhatch, Reigate at an elevation of 50m metres, after flowing southwards westwards. Holmethorpe can refer to two neighbouring developments, one residential, the other commercial/industrial and separated by the west track of the Brighton Main Line directly north of Redhill. A Holmethorpe Industrial Estate member's organisation exists to provide security to and advertise recruitment among its 66 businesses and to work on traffic and local authority planning matters. Holmethorpe had at the 2001 census a population of 1,128. Watercolour is a 2008–2012 built settlement and neighbourhood in Redhill towards the village of Merstham across lakes from the Greensand Ridge of the wooded village of Bletchingley and on the site of the former Holmethorpe Gravel Quarry. Redstone Hill is above the Royal Mail sorting office and depot, centred around one of three Redhill conservation areas, across the station using the A25 or subway from most of the town.
This neighbourhood includes a hotel-restaurant and unusually for a conservation area, no nat
Victoria Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson, CH known as Vita Sackville-West, was an English poet and garden designer. She was a successful novelist and journalist, as well as a prolific letter writer and diarist, she published more than a dozen collections of poetry during 13 novels. She was twice awarded the Hawthornden Prize for Imaginative Literature: in 1927 for her pastoral epic, The Land, in 1933 for her Collected Poems, she was the inspiration for the androgynous protagonist of Orlando: A Biography, by her famous friend and lover, Virginia Woolf. She had a longstanding column in The Observer and is remembered for the celebrated garden at Sissinghurst created with her husband, Sir Harold Nicolson. Knole, the home of Vita's aristocratic ancestors in Kent, was given to Thomas Sackville by Queen Elizabeth I in the sixteenth century. Vita was born there, the only child of cousins Victoria Sackville-West and Lionel Edward Sackville-West, 3rd Baron Sackville. Vita's mother, raised in a Parisian convent, was the illegitimate daughter of Lionel Sackville-West, 2nd Baron Sackville and a Spanish dancer, Josefa de Oliva, known as Pepita.
Pepita's mother was an acrobat. Although the marriage of Vita's parents was happy, shortly after the child's birth, the couple drifted and Lionel took an opera singer for a mistress and she came to live with them at Knole. Christened Victoria Mary Sackville-West, the girl was known as "Vita" throughout her life to distinguish her from her mother called Victoria; the usual English aristocratic inheritance customs were followed by the Sackville-West family, preventing Vita from inheriting Knole on the death of her father, a source of life-long bitterness to Vita. The house followed the title, was bequeathed instead by her father to his nephew Charles, who became the 4th Baron. Vita was home-schooled by governesses and attended Helen Wolff's school for girls, an exclusive day school in Mayfair, where she met first loves Violet Keppel and Rosamund Grosvenor, she found it hard to make friends at school. Her biographers characterise her childhood as one filled by loneliness and isolation, she wrote prolifically at Knole, penning eight full-length novels between 1906-1910, many plays, some in French.
Her lack of formal education led to shyness with her peers, such as those in the Bloomsbury Group. She felt herself to be sluggish of mind and she was never at the intellectual heart of her social group. Vita's Roma lineage introduced a passion for'gypsy' ways, a culture she perceived to be hot-blooded, heart-led and romantic, it informed the stormy nature of many of Vita's love affairs and was a strong theme in her writing. She felt herself to be at one with them. Vita's mother had a wide array of famous lovers, including financier J P Morgan and Sir John Murray Scott. Scott, secretary to the couple who inherited and developed the Wallace Collection, was a devoted companion and Lady Sackville and he were apart during their years together. During her childhood, Vita spent a great deal of time in Scott's apartments in Paris, perfecting her fluent French. Vita debuted in 1910, shortly after the death of King Edward VII, she was wooed by son of a distinguished Florentine family. In 1914, she had a passionate affair with historian Geoffrey Scott.
Scott's marriage collapsed shortly thereafter, as was the fallout with Vita's affairs, all with women after this point. Vita fell in love with Rosamund Grosvenor, four years her senior. In her journal, Vita wrote "Oh, I dare say I realized vaguely that I had no business to sleep with Rosamund, I should never have allowed anyone to find it out," but she saw no real conflict. Lady Sackville, Vita's mother, invited Rosamund to visit the family at their villa in Monte Carlo. Rosamund stayed with Vita at Knole House, at Murray Scott's pied-à-terre on the Rue Laffitte in Paris, at Sluie, Scott's shooting lodge in the Scottish Highlands, near Banchory, their secret relationship ended in 1913. Vita was more involved with Violet Keppel, daughter of the Hon. George Keppel and his wife, Alice Keppel; the sexual relationship began when they were both in their teens and influenced them for years. Both married and became writers. Sackville-West was courted for 18 months by young diplomat Harold Nicolson, whom she found to be a secretive character.
She writes that the wooing was chaste and throughout they did not so much as kiss. In 1913, at age 21, Vita married him in the private chapel at Knole. Vita's parents were opposed to the marriage on the grounds that "penniless" Nicolson had an annual income of only £250, he was the third secretary at the British Embassy in Constantinople and his father had been made a peer only under Queen Victoria. Another of Sackville-West's suitors, Lord Granby, had an annual income of £100,000, owned vast acres of land and was heir to an old title, the Duchy of Rutland; the couple had an open marriage. Both Sackville-West and her husband had same-sex relationships before and during their marriage, as did some of the Bloomsbury Group of writers and artists, with whom they had connections. Sackville-West saw herself as psychologically divided into two: one side of her personality was more feminine, soft and attracted to men while the other side was more masculine, hard and attracted to women. Harold had a series of relationships with men who