A cartulary or chartulary called pancarta or codex diplomaticus, is a medieval manuscript volume or roll containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, or families. The term is sometimes applied to collections of original documents bound in one volume or attached to one another so as to form a roll, as well as to custodians of such collections. Michael Clanchy defines a cartulary as "a collection of title deeds copied into a register for greater security". A cartulary may take the form of a codex. Documents, chronicles or other kinds of handwritten texts were compiled, transcribed or copied into the cartulary. In the introduction to the book Les Cartulaires, it is argued that in the contemporary diplomatic world it was common to provide a strict definition as the organized, selective, or exhaustive transcription of diplomatic records, made by the owner of them or by the producer of the archive where the documents are preserved.
In the Dictionary of Archival Terminology a cartulary is defined as "a register in volume form, of copies of charters, title deeds, grants of privileges and other documents of significance belonging to a person, family or institution". In 1938, the French historian, Emile Lesne, wrote: "Every Cartulary is the testimony of the statement of the Archives in a Church at the time when it was compiled". Related terms in other languages are: cartularium. In medieval Normandy, a type of cartulary was common from the early 11th century that combined a record of gifts to the monastery with a short narrative; these works are known as pancartes. The allusion of Gregory of Tours to chartarum tomi in the 6th century is taken to refer to cartularies; the oldest surviving cartularies, originated in the 10th century. Those from the 10th to the 13th centuries are numerous. Cartularies contain historical texts, known as cartulary chronicles, which may focus on the history of the monastery whose legal documents it accompanies, or may be a more general history of the world.
This link between legal and historical writings has to be understood in the context of the importance of past events for establishing legal precedence. Sometimes the copyist of the cartulary reproduced the original documents with literal exactness. On the other hand, some copyists took liberties with the text, including modifying the phraseology, modernizing proper names of persons and places, changing the substance, so as to extend the scope of the privileges or immunities granted in the document; the value of a cartulary as a historical document depends not only on how faithfully it reproduces the substance of the original, but if edited, on the clues it contains to the motivation for those changes. These questions are the subject of scrutiny under well-known canons of historical criticism. Many cartularies of medieval monasteries and churches have been published, less completely. A listing of all known medieval cartularies of the British Isles, edited by Godfrey Davis, was published in 1958, republished in a revised and extended edition in 2010: the revised edition contains entries for about 2,000 cartularies, including those of both ecclesiastical establishments and secular corporations, dating from the 11th to 16th centuries, with details of dates, current location, publication.
The Catalogue général des cartulaires des archives départementales and the Inventaire des cartulaires etc. were the chief sources of information regarding the cartularies of medieval France. There may be more recent developments in cataloguing. Cartularios de Valpuesta, two medieval cartularies from the north of Spain. Hemming's Cartulary, two cartularies bound together, the Liber Wigorniensis, made in England around the year 1000, a second compiled by Hemming about a hundred years later. Cartulary of Windsheim, O. E. S. A. Made in Germany between 1421 and 1462. Supetar cartulary, a twelfth-century cartulary of the monastery of St. Peter in Poljice, Croatia Cartulario de Óvila, of the monastery Santa María de Óvila Liber feudorum maior, a twelfth-century cartulary of the Crown of Aragon Liber feudorum formae minoris, an early thirteenth-century continuation of the Liber feudorum maior Liber instrumentorum memorialium, an early thirteenth-century cartulary of the Lords of Montpellier Liber instrumentorum vicecomitalium called the Trencavel Cartulary and the Foix Cartulary, a thirteenth-century French collection Liber feudorum Ceritaniae, a thirteenth-century cartulary of the County of Cerdanya The Tropenell Cartulary, from the west of England estates of Thomas Tropenell, 15th century Chartularium Sithiense or Abbey of Saint Bertin's cartulary, written in Latin and whose first part is attributed to Folquin The Register of St Osmund, a 13th-century cartulary belonging to Salisbury Cathedral.
Textus Roffensis, the first part is a collection of secular documents written in Old English, whilst the second part is the cartulary of Rochester Cathedral written in Latin. The late Roman/Byzantine chartoularios was an fiscal official. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the corresponding position was called chartophylax; this title was given to an ancient officer in the Roman Church, who had the care of charters and papers relating to public affairs. The chartulary presided in lieu of the Pope; this article i
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 127,817 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population. Including the metropolitan area, the population is estimated at 202,793. Founded as the military encampment of the Legio VI Victrix around 29 BC, its standing as an encampment city was consolidated with the definitive settlement of the Legio VII Gemina from 74 AD. Following its partial depopulation due to the Umayyad conquest of the peninsula, León was revived by its incorporation into the Kingdom of Asturias. 910 saw the beginning of one its most prominent historical periods, when it became the capital of the Kingdom of León, which took active part in the Reconquista against the Moors, came to be one of the fundamental kingdoms of medieval Spain. In 1188, the city hosted the first Parliament in European history under the reign of Alfonso IX, due to which it was named in 2010, by the professor John Keane, the King of Spain and the Junta of Castile and León, as the cradle of Parliamentarism, the Decreta of León were included in the Memory of the World register by UNESCO in 2013.
The city's prominence began to decline in the early Middle Ages due to the loss of independence after the union of the Leonese kingdom with the Crown of Castile, consolidated in 1301. After a period of stagnation during the early modern age, it was one of the first cities to hold an uprising in the Spanish War of Independence, some years in 1833 acquired the status of provincial capital; the end of the 19th and the 20th century saw a significant acceleration in the rate of urban expansion, when the city became an important communications hub of the northwest due to the rise of the coal mining industry and the arrival of the railroad. León's historical and architectural heritage, as well as the numerous festivals hosted throughout the year and its location on the French Way of the Camino de Santiago, ranked as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, make it a destination of both domestic and international tourism; some of the city's most prominent historical buildings are the Cathedral, one of the finest examples of French-style classic Gothic architecture in Spain, the Basilica of San Isidoro, one of the most important Romanesque churches in Spain and resting place of León's medieval monarchs, the Monastery of San Marcos, an example of plateresque and Renaissance Spanish architecture, the Casa Botines, a Modernist creation of the architect Antoni Gaudí.
An example of modern architecture is the city's Museum of Contemporary Art or MUSAC. León was founded in the 1st century BC by the Roman legion Legio VI Victrix, which served under Caesar Augustus during the Cantabrian Wars, the final stage of the Roman conquest of Hispania. In the year 74 AD, the Legio VII Gemina —recruited from the Hispanics by Galba in 69 AD— settled in a permanent military camp, the origin of the city, its modern name, León, is derived from the city's Latin name Legio. The Romans established the site of the city to protect the conquered territories of northwestern Hispania from the Astures and Cantabri, to secure the transport of gold extracted in the province —especially in the huge nearby mines of Las Médulas—, taken to Rome through Asturica Augusta. Tacitus calls the legion Galbiana, to distinguish it from the old Legio VII Claudia, but this appellation is not found on any inscriptions, it appears to have received the appellation of Gemina on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions the Legio I Germanica.
Its full name was Legio VII Gemina Felix. After serving in Pannonia, in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespasian in Hispania Tarraconensis, to supply the place of the Legio VI Victrix and Legio X Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but, withdrawn to Germany; that its regular winter quarters, under emperors, were at León, we learn from the Itinerary and the Notitiae Imperii, as well as from a few inscriptions. The post-Roman history of the city is the history of the Kingdom of León; the station of the legion in the territory of the Astures grew into an important city, which resisted the attacks of the Visigoths until AD 586, when it was taken by Leovigild. During the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, in 715 Tariq advanced from the area of La Rioja towards Astorga and León; the same fortress, which the Romans had built to protect the plain from the incursions of the mountaineers, became the advanced post which covered the mountain, as the last refuge of Cisastur Tribes.
However, there is no notice of resistance whatsoever. An attempt was made by the invaders to settle the strongholds with Berbers came in a military capacity, but the scheme was abandoned when the Berbers of northern Iberia rebelled against the Arabs and gave up their positions to join the revolt around 740. Towards the year 846, a group of Mozarabs tried to repopulate the city, but a Muslim attack prevented that initiative. In the year 856, under the Christian king Ordoño I, another attempt at repopulation was made and was successful. Alfonso III of León and García I of León made León city the capital of the Kingdom of León and the most important of the Christian cities in Iberia; the Kingdom of León started a
Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I, nicknamed the Conqueror, the Founder or the Great by the Portuguese, El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrink by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia, the County of Portugal, from Galicia's overlord, the King of León, in 1139, establishing a new kingdom and doubling its area with the Reconquista, an objective that he pursued until his death in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors. Afonso was the son of Henry of Burgundy and Teresa, the natural daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile. According to Fernão Lopes' Crónica de Portugal de 1419, the future Portuguese king was born in Guimarães, at the time the most important political center of his parents; this was accepted by most Portuguese scholarship until in 1990 Torquato de Sousa Soares proposed Coimbra, the center of the county of Coimbra and another political center of Afonso's progenitors, as his birthplace, which caused outrage in Guimarães and a polemic between this historian and José Hermano Saraiva.
Almeida Fernandes proposed Viseu as the birthplace of Afonso basing himself on the Chronica Gothorum, which states Afonso was born in 1109, a position followed by José Mattoso in his biography of the king. Abel Estefânio has suggested a different date and thesis, proposing 1106 as the birth date and the region of Tierra de Campos or Sahagún as birth places based on the known itineraries of counts Henry and Teresa. Henry and Teresa reigned jointly as count and countess of Portugal until his death on 22 May 1112 during the siege of Astorga, after which Teresa ruled Portugal alone, she would proclaim herself queen but was captured and forced to reaffirm her vassalage to her half-sister, Urraca of Léon. It is not known, the tutor of Afonso. Traditions started with João Soares Coelho in the mid-13th century and ampliated by chronicles such as the Crónica de Portugal de 1419, asserted he had been Egas Moniz de Ribadouro with the help of oral memories that associated the tutor to the house of Ribadouro.
Yet, contemporary documents, namely from the chancery of Afonso in his early years as count of Portucale, indicate according to José Mattoso that the most tutor of Afonso Henriques was Egas Moniz's oldest brother, Ermígio Moniz, besides being the senior brother within the family of Ribadouro, became the "dapifer" and "majordomus" of Afonso I from 1128 until his death in 1135, which indicates his closer proximity to the prince. In an effort to pursue a larger share in the Leonese inheritance, his mother Teresa joined forces with Fernando Pérez de Trava, the most powerful count in Galicia; the Portuguese nobility disliked the alliance between Galicia and Portugal and rallied around Afonso. The Archbishop of Braga was concerned with the dominance of Galicia, apprehensive of the ecclesiastical pretensions of his new rival the Galician Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Diego Gelmírez, who had claimed an alleged discovery of relics of Saint James in his town, as a way to gain power and riches over the other cathedrals in the Iberian Peninsula.
In 1122, Afonso turned the adult age in the 12th century. In symmetry with his cousin he made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora in 1125, with the permission of his mother. After the military campaign of Alfonso VII against his mother in 1127, Afonso revolted against her and proceeded to take control of the county from its queen. In 1128, near Guimarães at the Battle of São Mamede and his supporters overcame troops under both his mother and her lover, Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia. Afonso exiled his mother to Galicia, took over rule of the County of Portucale, thus the possibility of re-incorporating Portucale into a Kingdom of Portugal and Galicia as before was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler following demands for greater independence from the county's church and nobles. The battle was ignored by the Leonese suzerain, occupied at the time with a revolt in Castille, he was most waiting for the reaction of the Galician families. After Teresa's death in 1131, Afonso VII of León and Castille proceeded to demand vassalage from his cousin.
On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal or Prince of the Portuguese, an act informally allowed by Afonso VII, as it was thought to be Afonso Henriques's right by blood, as one of two grandsons of the Emperor of Hispania. Afonso turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south, his campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, straight after was proclaimed King of the Portuguese by his soldiers, establishing his equality in rank to the other realms of the Peninsula, although the first reference to his royal title dates from 1140. The first assembly of the Portuguese Cortes convened at Lamego is a 17th-century embellishment of Portuguese history. Complete independence from Alfonso VII of León's suzerainty, was not a thing he just could achieve militarily; the County of Portugal still had to be acknowledged diplomatically by the neighboring lands as a kingdom and, most by the Catholic Church and the Pope.
Afonso wed Mafal
Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal, its area is 183.40 km². Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River, it is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal The city was the European Youth Capital in 2012. It is host to the oldest Portuguese archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church and it is the seat of the Primate Archbishop of Portugal and of the Hispanias. Under the Roman Empire known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was the capital of the province of Gallaecia. Inside of the city there is a castle tower that can be visited. Nowadays, Braga is a major hub for inland Northern Portugal. Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in the Megalithic era. During the Iron Age, the Castro culture extended into the northwest, characterized by Bracari peoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements.
The region became the domain of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a Celtic tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal and Asturias in the northwest of Iberia. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, finished it, by pacifying the northern regions, during the reign of Emperor Augustus; the civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 20 BC. The city of Bracara Augusta developed during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the southwestern area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia. During the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, had Bracara as their capital.
This kingdom was lasted for over 150 years. By about 584, the Visigoths took over control of Gallaecia from the Suebi, they renounced the Priscillianist heresies during two synods held here in the 6th century. As a consequence, the archbishops of Braga claimed the title of Primate of Portugal a county, for a long period, claimed supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania. Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula; the first known bishop of Braga, lived at the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith, while in the 6th century Bishop Martin of Braga converted the pagan Suebi and Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism. At the time, Martin founded an important monastery in Dumio, it was in Braga that Archbishopric of Braga held their councils.
The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was obscure, representing a period of decline for the city. The Moors captured Braga early in the 8th century, but were repelled by Christian forces under Alfonso III of Asturias in 868 with intermittent attacks until 1040 when they were ousted by Ferdinand I of León and Castile; as a consequence, the bishopric was restored in 1070: the first new bishop, started rebuilding the Cathedral. Between 1093 and 1147, Braga became the residential seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Geraldo de Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia; the medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop. Braga as the main center of Christianity in Iberia, during the Reconquista, held a prominent stage in medieval politics, being a major factor/contributor to the Independence of Portugal with the intervenience of the Archbishop D. Paio Mendes in the Vatican and the Pope Alexander III, which lead to the promulgation of the Bula Manifestis Probatum in 1179 recognizing Portugal as an independent Kingdom under D. Afonso I Henriques.
The following centuries marked a slow decline in its prestige and influence marked by the infamous theft of Holy Relics by the Archbishop of Santiago of Compostela Gelmirez. The relics only returned to Braga in the 1960s. In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries. Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals
Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in the border with Switzerland. Capital of the historic and cultural region of Franche-Comté, Besançon is home to the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté regional council headquarters, is an important administrative centre in the region, it is the seat of one of the fifteen French ecclesiastical provinces and one of the two divisions of the French Army. In 2016 the city had a population of 116,466, in a metropolitan area of 251,293, the second in the region in terms of population. Established in a meander of the Doubs river, the city was important during the Gallo-Roman era under the name of Vesontio, capital of the Sequani, its geography and specific history turned it into a military stronghold, a garrison city, a political center, a religious capital. Besançon is the historical capital of watchmaking in France; this has led it to become a center for innovative companies in the fields of microtechnology and biomedical engineering.
The University of Franche-Comté, founded in 1423, every year enrolls more than 20,000 students. The greenest city in France, it enjoys a quality of life recognized in Europe. Thanks to its rich historical and cultural heritage and its unique architecture, Besançon has been labeled a "Town of Art and History" since 1986 and its fortifications due to Vauban has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2008; the city is first recorded in 58 BC as Vesontio in the Book I of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The etymology of Vesontio is uncertain; the most common explanation is that the name is of Celtic origin, derived from wes, meaning'mountain'. During the 4th century, the letter B took the place of the V, the city name changed to Besontio or Bisontion and underwent several transformations to become Besançon in 1243; the city sits within an oxbow of the Doubs River. During the Bronze Age, c.1500 BCE, tribes of Gauls settled the oxbow. From the 1st century BC through the modern era, the town had a significant military importance because the Alps rise abruptly to its immediate south, presenting a significant natural barrier.
The Arar River formed part of the border between the Haedui and their hereditary rivals, the Sequani. According to Strabo, the cause of the conflict was commercial; each tribe claimed the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests; the Sequani defeated and massacred the Haedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, with the help of the Arverni tribe and the Germanic Suebi tribe under the Germanic king Ariovistus. Julius Caesar, in his commentaries detailing his conquest of Gaul, describes Vesontio, as the largest town of the Sequani, a smaller Gaulic tribe, mentions that a wooden palisade surrounded it. Over the centuries, the name permutated to become Besantio, Bisanz in Middle High German, arrived at the modern French Besançon; the locals retain their ancient heritage referring to themselves as Bisontins. It has been an archbishopric since the 4th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun divided up Charlemagne's empire.
Besançon became part of Lotharingia, under the Duke of Burgundy. As part of the Holy Roman Empire since 1034, the city became an archbishopric, was designated the Free Imperial City of Besançon in 1184. In 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa held the Diet of Besançon. There, Cardinal Orlando Bandinelli asserted before the Emperor that the imperial dignity was a papal beneficium, which incurred the wrath of the German princes, he would have fallen on the spot under the battle-axe of his lifelong foe, Otto of Wittelsbach, had Frederick not intervened. The Imperial Chancellor Rainald of Dassel inaugurated a German policy that insisted upon the rights and the power of the German kings, the strengthening of the Church in the German Empire, the lordship of Italy and the humiliation of the Papacy; the Archbishops were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1288. The close connection to the Empire is reflected in the city's coat of arms. In 1290, after a century of fighting against the power of the archbishops, the Emperor granted Besançon its independence.
In the 15th century, Besançon came under the influence of the dukes of Burgundy. After the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, the city was in effect a Habsburg fief. In 1519 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, became the Holy Roman Emperor; this made him a francophone imperial city. In 1526 the city obtained the right to mint coins, which it continued to strike until 1673. All coins bore the name of Charles V; when Charles V abdicated in 1555, he gave the Franche-Comté to Philip II, King of Spain. Besançon remained a free imperial city under the protection of the King of Spain. In 1598, Philip II gave the province to his daughter on her marriage to an Austrian archduke, it remained formally a portion of the Empire until its cession at the peace of Westphalia in 1648. Spain regained control of Franche-Comté and the city lost its status as a free city. In 1667, Louis XIV claimed the pr
Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela and is an integral component of the Santiago de Compostela World Heritage Site in Galicia, Spain. The cathedral is the apostle of Jesus Christ, it is one of the only three known churches in the world built over the tomb of an apostle of Jesus, the other two being St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City and St. Thomas Cathedral Basilica, Chennai in India; the cathedral has been a place of pilgrimage on the Way of St. James since the Early Middle Ages and marks the traditional end of the pilgrimage route; the building is a Romanesque structure, with Gothic and Baroque additions. According to legend, the apostle Saint James the Great brought Christianity to the Iberian Peninsula. In 44 AD, he was beheaded in Jerusalem, his remains were brought back to Galicia, Spain. Following Roman persecutions of Spanish Christians, his tomb was abandoned in the 3rd century. According to legend, this tomb was rediscovered in 814 AD by the hermit Pelagius, after he witnessed strange lights in the night sky.
Bishop Theodomirus of Iria recognized this as a miracle and informed king Alfonso II of Asturias and Galicia. The king ordered the construction of a chapel on the site. Legend has it; this was followed by the first church in 829 AD and in 899 AD by a pre-Romanesque church, ordered by king Alfonso III of León, which caused the gradual development of this major place of pilgrimage. In 997 the early church was reduced to ashes by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, army commander of the caliph of Córdoba; the Al-Andalus commander was accompanied on his raid by his vassal Christian lords, who received a share of the loot, while St James' tomb and relics were left undisturbed. The gates and the bells, carried by local Christian captives to Córdoba, were added to the Aljama Mosque; when Córdoba was taken by king Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236, these same gates and bells were transported by Muslim captives to Toledo, to be inserted in the Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo. Construction of the present cathedral began in 1075 under the reign of Alfonso VI of Castile and the patronage of bishop Diego Peláez.
It was built according to the same plan as the monastic brick church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse the greatest Romanesque edifice in France. It was built in granite. Construction was halted several times and, according to the Liber Sancti Iacobi, the last stone was laid in 1122, but by the construction of the cathedral was not finished. The cathedral was consecrated in 1211 in the presence of king Alfonso IX of Leon. According to the Codex Calixtinus the architects were "Bernard the elder, a wonderful master", his assistant Robertus Galperinus, possibly, "Esteban, master of the cathedral works". In the last stage "Bernard, the younger" was finishing the building, while Galperinus was in charge of the coordination, he constructed a monumental fountain in front of the north portal in 1122. The city became an episcopal see in the church its cathedral. Due to its growing importance as a place of pilgrimage, it was raised to an archiepiscopal see by pope Urban II in 1100. A university was added in 1495.
The cathedral was embellished with additions in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Each of the façades along with their adjoining squares constitute a magnificent urban square; the Baroque façade of the Praza do Obradoiro square was completed by Fernando de Casas Novoa in 1740. In baroque style is the Acibecharía façade by Ferro Caaveiro and Fernández Sarela modified by Ventura Rodríguez; the Pratarías façade, built by the Master Esteban in 1103, most the Pórtico da Gloria, an early work of Romanesque sculpture, were completed by Master Mateo in 1188. The Pórtico da Gloria of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is a Romanesque portico by Master Mateo and his workshop commissioned by King Ferdinand II of León. To commemorate its completion in 1188, the date was carved on a stone and set in the cathedral, the lintels were placed on the portico. Finalising the complete three-piece set took until 1211, when the temple was consecrated in the presence of King Alfonso IX of León; the portico has three round arches that correspond to the three naves of the church, supported by thick piers with pilasters.
The central arch, twice as wide as the other two, has a tympanum and is divided by a central column—a mullion—containing a depiction of Saint James. Vertically, the lower part is formed by the bases of the columns, decorated with fantastic animals, the middle portion consists of columns adorned with statues of the Apostles, the upper part supports the base of the arches crowning the three doors; the sculpture is intended to serve as an iconographic representation of various symbols derived from the Book of Revelation and books of the Old Testament. The arrangement of the tympanum is based on the description of Christ that John the Evangelist makes in Revelation. In the centre, the Pantocrator is shown, with the image of Christ in Majesty, displaying in his hands and feet the wounds of crucifixion. Surrounding Christ is the tetramorph with the figures of the four Evangelists with their attributes: left, top St. John and the eagle and below St. Luke with the ox. On both sides of the evangelists, behind Mark and Luke, are four angels on each side with the instruments of the Passion of Christ.
Some are, without touching them directly, the
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau, it has another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of León. Burgos was once the capital of the Crown of Castile, the Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512, it has many historic landmarks, of particular importance. A large number of churches and other buildings from the medieval age remain; the city is surrounded by the Fuentes Blancas and the Paseo de la Isla parks. Castilian nobleman, military leader and diplomat El Cid Campeador is a significant historical figure in the city, as he was born a couple of kilometres north of Burgos and was raised and educated here; the city forms the principal crossroad of northern Spain along the Camino de Santiago, which runs parallel to the River Arlanzón.
It has a well-developed transportation system, forming the main communication node in northern Spain. In 2008, the international Burgos Airport started to offer commercial flights. Furthermore, AVE high speed trains are planned to start service in the near future, stopping at the newly-built Rosa de Lima train station; the Museum of Human Evolution was opened in 2010, unique in its kind across the world and projected to become one of the top 10 most-visited museums in Spain. The museum features the first Europeans. Burgos was selected as the "Spanish Gastronomy Capital" of 2013. In 2015 it was named "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. There are several possible origins for the toponymy; when the city was founded, the inhabitants of the surrounding country moved into the fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages. The city began to be called Caput Castellae. Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago.
When the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos, the site had been a Celtic city. In Roman times, it belonged to Hispania Citerior and to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the 5th century, the Visigoths drove back the Suebi the Berbers occupied all of Castile in the 8th century, though only for a brief period, left little if any trace of their occupation. King Alfonso III the Great of León reconquered it about the middle of the 9th century, built several castles for the defence of Christendom, extended through the reconquest of lost territory; the region came to be known as Castile, i.e. "land of castles". Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos", count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; the city began to be called Caput Castellae. The county of Castile, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was extended. In the 11th century, the city became the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burgos and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile.
Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on the French Way the most popular path to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners. Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site; the consejo or urban commune of Burgos was in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the "peasant knights" of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted relief from taxes to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves, provided that they continue to live within the city walls. The merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor.
By the reign of Alfonso X, the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm. In the century following the conquest of Seville on the Moors, Burgos became a testing ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king. In 1285, Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works; the city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rath